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/^'/ INDUSTRIES OF PITTSBURGH. 



Trade, Commerce and Manufactures. 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW. 



For 

1879. 




For 

1880. 



Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce — Germaula £aiih Building, corner Wood and D iamond Strtets, 



Officers of the Chamber of Commerce for i8yg-8o. 



WILLIAM E. SCHMEKTZ, 
JOHN H. RICKETSON, 



Secretary, 

s. L. Mchenry. 



WILLIAM FREW, 
R. C. CiRAY, 
BIMON BEYMER, 
JOHN B. JACKSON, 
GEORGE A. KELLY, 
CHARLES ME Y RAN, 



President, 
J. K. MOORUEAD. 

Vice Presidents, 
HENRY IIOLDSniP, 
REUBEN JNIILLER, 
H. W. OLIVER, Jk. 

Treasurer, 
CHARLES MEYRAN. 

Directors, 
JOSEPH G. SIEBENECK, 
JOHN S. SLAGLE, 
C. A. CARPENTER, 
GEORGE H. ANDERSON, 
RALPH BAGALEY, 
T. BRENT SWEARINGEN, 



JOHN F. DRAVO, 
JOHN R. McCUNE, 

Superintendent, 
N. G RATTAN MURPHY. 



JAMES n. HOPKINS, 
JAMES LAUGHLIN, Jr:., 
A. D. SMITH, 
WILLIAM A. McINTOSH, 
FRANK S. BISSEL. 



PITTSBURGH: 
RICHARD EDWARDS, EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in 1879, by R. Edwards, in the Office of the Librarian of Comf^Kt.i, at Wnshington: 




'0VVHSO^T^. 



PREFATORY. 

In placing this work in the hands of the public, the publisher feels no hesitancy in expressing 
the assured conviction that no volume heretofore issued, relating to Pittsburgh and its industries, 
contains so great an amount of useful, if not indispensable information. 

For nearly six months a staff of reporters and writers^ numbering at times more than a score, 
representing, in their separate departments, unusual abilit}', have been engaged in obtaininir all 
possible facts within the compass of our design, and giving them a readable and orderly con- 
struction. 

Embracing both cities and their environs within a radius of many miles, ever}- trade, manu- 
facture or mercantile enterprise has been sedulousl}- and fully depicted — no firm or establishment 
of any prominence being willingly excluded from these pages. 

No small expense has been entailed upon the publisher in providing the illustrations with 
which the work is embellished, and no efforts have been spared to secure such excellence, so far as 
its mechanical production is concerned, as shall give it an attractive appearance to ever}- reader. 
A careful perusal of this volume, on the part of those residing at a distance or unfamiliar with the 
marvelous diversitj- of the resou^-ces of Pittsburgh, is earnestly commended as certain to excite 
interest and likely to suggest experimental relations, at least, that must conduce to the future 
profit of all parties. 

The acknowledgments of the publisher are due to the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce for 
the aid and co-operation extended in the task undertaken, without which the enterprise would 
have been shorn of no small part of the brilliant success that has attended it. To Hon. J. K. 
Moorhead, President Chamber of Commerce; Wm. E. Schmertz, Esq., President Third National 
Bank; J. D. Weeks, Esq., Associate Editor Iron Age; Frederick K. Saward, Esq., Editor Coal 
Trade Journal; Hon. Thomas W. Davis, Collector Internal Revenue; American Almanac for 
1879, by Ainsworth R. Spafford, Librarian of Congress; Wm. G. Johnston & Co., Stationers; and 
Geo. A. Kelly, of Geo. A. Kelly & Co., for substantial encouragement and highly-valued assist- 
ance, the publisher also returns the most cordial assurances of appreciation, and, with the belief 
that his labors will prove not altogether ineffectual in conducingto the general welfare of the busi- 
ness community, he subscribes himself 

RICHARD EDWARDS. 



Industries of Pennsylvania, Statistical and Historical Review. 

BSS" THIS PAMPHLET IS COMPLETE, and is a poriion of a large Illustrated Volume of about 2,000 pages, of 
great value and importance to Farmers, Merchants, Travelers, Emigrants, and all residing in or interested in, the growth 
and prosperity of Pennsylvania and its various Lidustrial and Professional pursuits. 



Communication from Gov. Henry M. Hoyt, 

, EXE( 

Harrisbukq, June 3, 18 



Commonwealth op Pennsylvania, Executivb Chamber, ) 

- -79. I 



Mr. Richard Edwards: 

<■**<'*=!'* Knowing vonr great experience and ttie success and value of your former publications, 
I can most cordially commend the undertaking to the public, and respectfully request all those in charge of the various 
public and private institutions and enterprises of the State, to extend to you the facilities necessary to enable you to 
prosecute the work, and give you such encour- 
agement as will guarantee its speedy publica- 
tion. 

Yours Very Truly, 




Resolution of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce. 
Resolved, That, appreciating the laudable character and magnitude of this undertaking, the Pittsburgh Chamber of 
Commerce cordially recommend this enterprise as conducive to the public good, and suggest such co-operation and 
encouragement by our business community as shall ensure its early publication and its success. 

J. K. Moorhead, President. 
Geo. a. Kelly, Secretary. 




PROMINENT SCENERY OP PITTSBURGH. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

Atwood Paxon, FinoSliivts 2n4 

ArinsiroDR Frank, Coal Dealer.. JOl 

Aiken & Wallace, Produce Commission Merchants 102 

Albree & Co., Boots and Shoes 112 

Allegheny Insurance Co 113 

AhlersC."F., Merchant Tailor 113 

Anderson Walter, Merchant Tailor 115 

Ayers D. & Co., Live Stock Central Yards, etc 122 

Arrott Jas. W., Fire, Marine and Life Insuranco Ag't.. 131 

AvermannA Co., Dry Goods, Carpets, etc 137 

Allegheny Collegiate Institute 140 

Agnew & Co., Fiint-Glass Vials, etc 144 

Artisans' Insurance Co 149 

Armstrong Chas H. & Son 150 

Armstrong S. P. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Grocers 153 

Acker & Carr, Stoves, Ranges, etc 157 

Atchison Thos., Teamster 1U3 

Allegheny Gun Works 3G4 

Appel Henry, Boots, Slioes and Gaiters 177 

Andriessen Fred., Wines and Liquors 178 

Alter 0. T., Tinware. Stoves, etc 173 

Allinder D. G., M. D 179 

Anderson W. B., Oyster, Produce and Commission.... 200 

Artisans' Deposit B:ink 87 

Armstrong Bro. & Co., M'f 'rs Corks and Bungs 88 

Adams & Co., Table Glassware 89 

Andriessen A., Wines and Liquors ill 

Armor A., Druggist 92 

Arnold J. Mrs., Books, Stationery, etc 95 

Alhanibra House 193 

Allegheny Steam Laundrv 210 

Abel Kim & Co., Window'Glass 211 

Axthelm Ernst, yEtna Sewing Machine 217 

Armstrong it McKelvy, M'f 'rs White Lead, etc 220 

Allegheny Brewer 223 

Allegheny Citv Flour Mills 22t 

Abel it Voellger, Bottlers Best's Lager Beer 227 

Aland .Tns. J., Merchant Tailor 228 

Anderson A. A. & Son, Book and Job Printers 241 

Anderson & Co., Pittsburgh Steel Works 242 

Albee S. V., Practical Business Photographer 252 

American Bank 261 

Arsenal Bank 262 

Brown Brothers, Family Groceries 255 

Bown James & Son, Enterprise Gun Works ICO 

Berkshire Life Insurance Co lOj 

Beymer, Bauman & Co., White Lead lOG 

Bernd J. D. & Co., Importers and Milliners Ill 

Barrett (t. B. & Co., Wholesale Jewelers 114 

Bennett Wm. P., Blank Books, Binding, etc 113 

Boyd S. & Co., Looking Glasses, Pictures, et* 116 

Brown, Murphy & Fertig, Sewer Pipe, etc 113 

Bunting W. A., Stencil Work.s 123 

Boas D. K., Druggist and Chemist 126 

Bricker A. & Sons, Commission Merchants 126 

Bridge & Bowman, Practical Plumbers 136 

Bakewell, Pears & Co., Glass Works 136 

Birmingham Foundry and Machine Shop 138 

Beatty R., Son & Co., Wholesale Commission, etc 141 

Burn Wm 264 

Bakewell VV. H., Awnings and Awning Frames 141 

Boyd Brjs., Fine Confections 143 

BecfcertitBros., Florists and Seedsmen 152 

Brown Thomas, Plumber, etc ir^i 

Barker G. B., Grocer 101 

Beattie H., Groceries and Provisions 16i 

Bepler Hotel , Kit 

Bauer Wm., Hats, Caps and Furnishing Goods ]6'i 

Berger Titus, House and Sign Painter... 16^ 

Bostwick Wiu. S., Magnese Bronze Factory 1*9 

Beiter R. Jk Co., Brush Block Manufacturers 170 

Brown Wm. C, Marble and Granite Works 171 

Beringer W. C. A Co.. Claim and Patent Agents 172 

Easier Horace R., Music Publisher, etc. 172 

Bvme & McCabe, Liverv and Sale Stable 17t 

Barker Wm., Jr., WoolDealer 174 

BuvingerC. W., M. D.. Phvsician and Surgeon 175 

Bidwell D. W. C. <t Co., Powder Co 175 

Bates G. S., Fire Insurance 175 

Boehme Mrs. E. J. A Son, Watchmaker.s and Jewelers 175 

Bleil H. F., Dry Goods. Groceries, etc 175 

Byrne P., Groceries and Provisions 175 

Bartels August, Florist ]7') 

Breitweiser M., Groceries, Flour, Spices, etc 191 

Bell, Thompson A Co 216 



Baxmyer&Co 210 

Be.-'t Jame«. (-Groceries. Selected Teas, etc 196 

Beeson & McMorris, Designers and Engravers 200 

Bown W. T. & Bro., Cofiee Roasters 201 

Blaney Gibson, Flour and Feed 206 

Benz L. & Bros., Contractors and Builders 207 

Bruggemau H. F., Grocer, Whole&ile and Retail 207 

Barr John U., Architect 208 

Bauer G. F., Ixioking-Glass Frames, etc 92 

Balsley & Lutton, Notions, Druggi ts, etc 93 

Boyle A Co., Granite and Marble Works 94 

Beck Washington, M'f'erof Glass Molds 95 

Buflfum J. C. & Co., Manufacturers and Bottlers 95 

Beinhauer L. & Son, Livery and Sale Stable 210 

Ballard John J., Manufacturer Cigars and Tobacco..... 210 

Bragdon John C, Wood Carver 212 

Bedilion T. P., Jeweler 219 

Bates Jolin, Stoves and Furnishing Goods 219 

Billing's Patent Horse Shoe 221 

Birmingham Fire Insurance Co 223 

Barckley Sam'l, Grocers' Produce, etc 225 

Boyle & McGlinchey, Undertiiking and Liverv 225 

Best & Co., Printers '. 227 

Butz Edward M., Architect 228 

Brant John G., Leather, Hides, etc 233 

Beach C. H., Practical Druggist 243 

Byers A. M. & Co., Wrought Iron and Lap-Welded 

Galvanized Iron Pipe 246 

Borger Jno. Jr., Cigar Manufacturer 252 

Bussman F. H., Groceries and Produce.. 252 

Briggs& Drum, Com. Merchants of Cattle, Hogs & Sheep 262 

Baxmyer F. & Co., Flour, Feed, Groceries, etc 262 

Bissell & Co., Stoves, Ranges, Grates, Fenders, etc.... 262 

Campbell C. P., Insurance Agent 97 

Caskey W. .T., Groceries and Provisions 98 

Cunningham & Co., Glass Works 99 

Cain Thos. A., Fine Boots and Shoes 101 

Cadman A Co., Brass Works 102 

Crawford John, Stencils, Steel Stamps, etc 104 

Central Refining Co 113 

Collins H. E. & Co., Brokers in Pig Iron, etc... 114 

Campbell, Williamson & Dick, Drv Goods 117 

Carroll D. W. C. & Co., Fort Pitt Boiler, etc 118 

Cassidv, M. F., Alderman 128 

t;hilds"H. & Co., Wholesale Boots and Shoes 128 

Clay Epliraim, Hosiery, Gloves, etc 130 

Cirter Bros. &Co., Wholesale Grocers 135 

Carter H., .Sewing Machine Bazar 142 

Cooper Wm. A Co., Wholesale Grocers 142 

Crea Graham & Co., Stoves, Ranges, etc 148 

Culmer Spring Co., Spiral Springs 151 

Colebaugh, W. H , Photographer 153 

Curry George, Flour, Grain, Hay, etc 156 

Clark H. H., M. D., Physician and Surgeon IGO 

Crawford Harris, Groceries 106 

Connelly.). H. A Son, Agents Fire Extinguishers 170 

Gushing A Fox, Real Estate Brokers 170 

Campbell & Lauffer, Jlarble, Granite, etc 170 

Clulev J. F., House and Sign Painter 171 

Cain M. B., Shoe Store 184 

Casey & Fogarty, Wines and Liquors 184 

Cruikshank Z., Groceries 195 

Cowley D.. M.D., Homeopathic Physician and Surgeon 195 

Cosgrove ,Tno. S., Undertaker and Embalmer 199 

Cruikslv.mk Bros., Grocers, Wholesale and Retail 2110 

Charles & McMurtry, Patent Hot-Pressed Nuts 203 

Clark A. li.. Carpenter and Builder 205 

Connelly Peter, Blacksmith 205 

Cruikshank Z., Flour and Produce 201 

Coyne & Hatry, Patent Automatic Nail Selectors 125 

Croner A. G., Tin, Copper and Sheet-Iron Ware 87 

Central Bank 94 

Cruikshank Bros., Grocers 95 

City Insurance Co ; 95 

Collins John K., Cigar Factory 219 

Chautauqua Lake Ico Co 220 

Chestnut 1). A Co., Leather, Hides, etc 221 

Chessman Rob't, Livery -nd Sale St.ables 221 

Cook F., Minufactiirer of Cigars 227 

Cochran A Bro., Contractors and Builders 213 

Consolidated Gas Co 211 

Cillery James & Co.. I>eather, Hides, Pelts, rtc 252 

C.isay W.F., Carpenter, Contractor and Builder 252 



INDEX. 



rAHK 

Craig AAVilson, Grocaries and Feed 260 

Central Hotel, Goo. J. Bridge, Proprietor 2G1 

Dilworth J. 8. &Co., Wholesale Grocers 100 

Dun R. G. & Co., The Mercantile Aj^ency 108 

Duncan A Thompson's Brush Manufactory 109 

DiehlJ. P. &Son, Wall Paper llo 

Druvo Win..McC., Oib 117 

Dawes Jolin Jj. Sons & Co., Druggist's Glassware 119 

D;tbbsB. L. H., Photographer 120 

Denison Lewi.s A., Grocer 123 

Duncan Geo. & Sons, Glass Manufacturers ir>3 

Dobba & Risinger, B.^nt Wood Work 142 

Davis A. P., General Insurance Agent 157 

Durlcin M., Dealer in Coal 159 

Davis Thos. D., M. D 1G6 

Darragh Mrs. S. L., Artist 1C8 

Dunlevy J. B., Dental Depot 171 

Dithridge Chimney Company 172 

Douglass W. & Sons, Steam Boiler.s, etc 178 

Donaldson John L., Wines and Liquors 181 

Dickson, Stewart & Co., Coal Office 184 

Dietrich Frank, Butcher and Dealer in all Meats 195 

Duquesne Boiler Works 87 

Drape Jas.W., Auctioneer, Real Estate, etc 90 

Deebold Joseph, Groceries and Provisions 91 

Dietz R. & Bro., Boot and Shoe Man'frs 92 

Delaware Mutual Safety Ins. Co 95 

Diamond National Bank 96 

Daub Henry, Fashionable Mtrchant Tailor 96 

Dean John H., Groceries and Flour 96 

Dormer M. J., Marble Works 210 

Dunran James, Family Groceries 215 

Doerfiinser Theo., Druggist 226 

Davis, Chambers & Co., Lead Works 231 

Dougherty M. J., Ci^ar Maker 232 

Diehl Albert, Photographer 214 

Dutf, McKeaa & Co., Implements and Seeds 245 

East End Hotel 141 

East End Marble Works 162 

Eilenberg(>r O., Log Cabin Cigar Store 1G3 

East End Carriage Manufactory 1C> 

East End I'laning Mill 170 

Ede George, Carpets. Oil Clotiis, etc 172 

Evans T. R , M. D , Physician and Surgeon 177 

Eichenlaub W. F., Furniture Warerooms 177 

Ehlers A Herman, Undertakers 185 

ICxcelsior Planing Mills 190 

Eberliart & Ober, Lager Beer Brewers, etc 203 

Eberhart A Ober, Brewers and Maltsters 81 

Elwood it McCracken, Grain Merchants 96 

Enterprise Planing Mill 216 

Edgar Thompson Steel Co 213 

I'Jmpire Oil Works 232 

Evans J. T., Marl)l0 and Stone-Cutter 250 

Ehrstein Joseph, Drugccist 253 

Eagle Cornice Works, Thomas W. Irwin 259 

Eagle Cotton Mills Co 264 

Fullerton & .Son, Tobacco and Cigars 99 

Fleming A Oglevee, Wholesale Hats, Caps, etc 108 

Fairbanks Standard Scales 110 

Fleishman Bros., Trimmings, Millinery, etc 1'4 

l'"undis L. A Son, Clothing, otc. 122 

Farrell M. J , Plumbing, Gas Fitting, etc 122 

Freehold Bank, Discount and Deposit 129 

Favvcett Thos. A Sons, Bituminous Coal 130 

Freil Chas., Soda, Mineral Waters, etc 133 

Fairman Wm., Undertaker, etc _ 133 

Fire M. A Bro., Dry Goods, etc 143 

Froehlich John, Wines and Liquors 147 

)'"inch Jos. S. A Co . Distillers 150 

Fickeisen H., Hats and Furnishing Goods IGl 

Fetzer J. J. & B'O., Groceries, Teas, etc 1G5 

Frauenheim A Vilsack, Brewery 1G7 

Faust Thos , Baker and Confectioner 167 

l''oerster B hvard. Wall Paper IGO 

Fetzer A. M., House Furnishing Goods, etc 176 

Ferguson A ("o.. Book and Job Printers 177 

First National Bank 77. 179 

Farmers and .Mechanics Bank 179 

FuhrerJos., Foreign and Domestic Wines 179 

Fifth Avenue Hotel ISI 

French A. A Co., Cast Steel Spring Works ISG 



PAGE 

French Gale, Surgeon Dentist 188 

Flower J. O., M. D., Dentist 190 

Fort Pitt Coal Co., Miners and Shippers of Gas Coal.... 191 
Forster J. .1., Groceries, Dry Goods, Wall Paper, etc... 195 

Flanagan A Kling, Horse Slioers 199 

Fleming, Agnew A Co., Stamped and Japanned Ware. 82 

Fichtel F , Grocer 91 

Flaccus Wm. A Son, Tauners 225 

Fleck F R., Druggist 216 

Fitz Jolin H., Tobacco and Cigars 222 

Fleming Thos., Grocer and Baker 223 

Fiedler .-V-lbert, Manufacturer Swiss Bitters 224 

Franz A Deutenberg, Carriage Builders 225 

First National Bank of Allegheny 231 

Fulton's S )n & Co., Bell and Brass Founders 253 

Frick H. G. & Co., Manufacturers of Connellsville Coke 257 



Grabowsky Wm., Silk Hat Manufacturer 103 

Grogan A Merz, Jewelers 105 

Gray David, Practical Watchmaker and Jeweler 108 

(Tilliam Manufacturing Co 109 

Getty A Co., Distillers A Wholesale Liquor Dealers Ill 

Guckort Wni. A Co., Desks, Tables, etc 112 

Griffith W. L. A Co., Millinery and Trimmings 130 

Gray's Iron Line, Freight Transportation 134 

Gangwisch .John, Allegheny Valley Biewery 137 

Graham A Courtney, Salt Manufacturers 144 

Gleim Perry M., Druggist, etc.; 146 

Greer W. P., Glass, China, etc 151 

Gross E. W. Fire Insurance Agency 1.55 

Gregg .Fas. P. Jr., Fashionable Halter 162 

Girard Hotel 164 

Gwynne Wm. A , Baled Ilay and Feed 168 

Guckeulieiiner A. A Bros., Whi..kie3 176 

German Savings and Deposit Bank 178 

Goettnian Jacob, Baker and Confectioner 178 

German Fire Insurance Co 184 

(ielloland J. A., Dry Goods, Clothing, etc 185 

Gardner Bros., Fire Brick, 'Tile and i- uriiace Blocks... 192 

Glesenkamp L, A Co., Carriage Manufacturers 199 

Greineisen F. C, Druggist 208 

Gray John A Co., Dry Goods, Notions, etc 214 

Gray Wm. E., Dry Goods and Millinery 214 

Gallagher A House, Boots and Shoes 215 

Gardner Chas., Merchant Tailor 232 

Grim David, Carriage Manufacturer 234 

Gardner M. F., Groceries 235 

Garrow H. S., Florist. 241 

Great Western Hay, Grain and Feed House, Jas. Gra- 
ham A Son '. 250 

Greene G. W. A B. F. & Co., M'f 'rs of Ingot Brass 258 

Godfrey A Clark, Paper Flour-Sack Manufacturers 263 



Holtzman H., Practical Decorative Upholsterer 97 

Hutcliinson A. A. A Bro., Coal and Coke 97 

Hoting C. A Sons, (frain. Hay, Straw, etc 99 

Hughes J. P., Cigar Manufacturer 100 

Hublev Jacob B. A Co 101 

H igue'Walter E., Gold and Silver Plater 101 

Hottnian J. M. A Co , Pianos and Organs 104 

Hamilton A., Fish, Oysters and (Jame 104 

Hunter Joseph R., Merchandise Broker lOG 

Hughes Jas. R., Wall Paper, etc 107 

Hartford J. M., Wholesale Auctioneer 103 

Hamilton S., Pianos and Organs 112 

Hare Thomas, S.iddlorv, Hardware, etc 114 

Head A McElroy, Produce Commission Merchants.... 118 

Hod.go, Goddard A Co., Wholesale Jewelers 121 

Hatry A. G., Iron Commission 125 

Hostetter A Smith, Stomach Bitters 127 

HeckelC. C, Merchant Tailor 1.38 

HareS. W. A Co., Plumbers and Gas Fitters 141 

HorneJos. A Co., Dry (ioods. Notions, etc 145 

Hamilton W. H. ACo., Glass Manufacturers 145 

Henderson A Bro., Wholesale Druggists 148 

Hiller A., Tin, Copper, Sheet Iron, etc 148 

Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold A Co 149 

Hay .Tames, Plumber, .Sffam and 0;is Fitter 151 

Halpin A Humbert, Plumt)ers, etc 154 

Huesncr Mrs. C, Groceries and I'roduce 156 

Hunter David, Cigars, Tob:icco, etc 153 

Harvey L., Books and Stationery 159 

Hubuck Peter, Butter and Eggs 162 

HannaE. S., M. D 163 

Harbaugh A. J., Granite and Marble Works 165 

Hager M. H., Wall Paper, Notions, etc 166 

Ilaslett F. M. A Co., Nut and Bolt Works 163 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

nauch C. Mrs., Watches, Clocks, etc 171 

Hitchcock, McCreary & Co., Grain, etc 182 

Hippelyl., Flour, Grain and Mill Fcntl 185 

Hirsch Bros., Cigars and Tobacco, Wholesale 188 

Holmes W. H., Kye Whiskies, Wines, etc 195 

Hines M. J., Dry Goods, Millinery, Notions, etc 195 

Hughes Geo. W., Cigar Manufacturer 197 

Hartdnng Theodore, Merchant Tailor 198 

Hcckiuan Adam, Wine and Liquor Saloon 199 

Haines J. B., Wholesale Dry Goods 202 

Home Hotel .204 

Heintz Mrs. J. C, Dry Goods and Notions 205 

Hussey, Howe & Co , Manfr's. of Steel 85 

Haslage Win., Jobber and Betailer in Groceries, etc... 86 
Hedges S. B. & Co., Com. Merchants for Cattle, etc.... 86 

Holdship & Irwin, American Oil Works 86 

Hechelman W.W., M. D 90 

Hollinger J. S., Merchant's Dining Rooms 91 

Hamburger Ph., Kye and Bourbon Whiskies 92 

Haldemaa & Johnston, Coach and Wagon Makers 211 

Hussey C. G. & Co., Rolling Mills 212 

Helbling W., Butcher 216 

Holzheiraer J., Furniture and Chairs 223 

UosackWm., Flour, Oats, etc 232 

Howley M. 1)., Real Estate Securities, etc 234 

Hampe F , Bottling House 235 

Herron Wm. A. & Son, Real Estate Agents 245 

Hussey C. G. & Co., Pittsburgh Copper and Bi-ass Works 246 

Heineman Otto E., Watchmaker and Jeweler 250 

Humboldt Fire Ins. Co 253 

Hermes Peter & Bro., Milk and Butter Dealers 259 

Huntington Dr. J. E., Dentist 259 

Hains Geo. S 239 

Irwin Geo. M., Grain and Provision Broker 131 

Iron City Bridge Wprks 139 

Irwin John M. & Son, Furniture Manufacturers 144 

Iron City Flour Mills 162 

Ihmsen Glass Company, Colored Glassware 176 

Iron and Glass Dollar Savings Bank 210 

Irwin W. H., Rosedale Foundry 231 

Iron City Marble Works 234 

Isabella Furnace Co., Manufacturers of Pig Iron 245 

Iron City College, J. C. Smith, A. M.. Principal 248 

Improved Mercantile Agency, Bradstreet Company... 251 
Irwin James, Globe Street Lamps, Vapor Burners, etc. 259 



Jackson I., Star Clothier 123 

Jones J. B. & Bro., Wholesale Iron Metal, etc 147 

•Tones H. A., Carpet Weaver 148 

Jones, Robert M., Pattern and Model Works 161 

Jenkins M. L., Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, etc 105 

Jacoby G. T., M. D 163 

Jacobus & Nimick Manufacturing Co 180 

Jeffries R. B., M'f 'r Cigars, Wholesale and Retail 187 

JarvisA Adams, Manufacturers Domestic Hardware... 190 

Johnson, Egve A Earl, Wliolesale Grocers 238 

Juniata Bolt Works, Gillespie Bros. & Co 241 

Jaekman A. & Sons, Exchange Livery Stables 250 



Kaufman, Oppenheimer & Co., Wholesale Clothiers.... 99 

Kramer & Seil'ert, Oysters, Yeast, etc 102 

Keyser Geo. M., M. D., Physician 112 

Kelley George A. & Co., Wholesale Druggists 116 

Kornbl urn, Optician 118 

Kaercher.T. B., Hardware and Cutlery 118 

Kirk Arthur, Powder and Miners' Supplies 119 

Keystone Paper Co 124 

Kleber & Brother, Pianos and Organs 124 

Kincaid .Tames T. Jr 129 

Kay, McKiiight & Co., Machinery and Supplies 139 

Klemm Wm., Plumber, Gas-Fitter, etc 140 

Kirkpalrick, Beale & Co., Sheet Iron, etc., 145 

Kelley A Jones, Steam-Warming, etc 146 

Klinzing & Co., Boots, Shoes and G.aiters 148 

Keil P. & Son, Commission Merchants 152 

Kratzer W. N. Jr., Mattresses, Bedding, etc 153 

Kann W. L. & Co., Leather, Oils, etc 155 

Koenig J. & Bro., Watchmakers and Jewelers 156 

Kenngott Geo., Tin, Copper, Brass, etc 161 

King Wm., Alderman and Police Magistrate 162 

Kelley Clias. H. & Co., Sewing-Machine Attachments 177 

Konstanzer Otto, Baker and Confectionery 188 

Keller Jacob, Wines and Liquors 189 

Kane C, Scrap Iron, Steel and Metal 189 

Keystone Boiler, Forge and Anvil Works 191 



PAGE 

Kior Bros., Manufacturers of Fire Brick 196 

Kossler Martin, Baker and Confectioner 197 

Keil Jno. Sr., Flour, Grain, etc.. Wholesale and lietail 198 

Keil Jno. Jr , Groceries, Dry Goods, Notions, etc 198 

Kaiser F., Wines and Liquors 202 

Kennedy C. S., Wines and Liquors 203 

Keystone Tannery 205 

Koch Arnold, Pharmaceutist 208 

Keystone Gas-Light Co 84 

Krehan Ernest G., Interpreter of Courts, etc 86 

Keystone Axle Works 93 

Kemler John W., Watches, Clocks, etc 94 

Keystone Chain Works 209 

King Son & Co., Crystal Glassware 212 

Kerr Wm., Carpenter and Builder 215 

Krebs Otto, Lithographer 218 

Kober Frederick, 'Tanks, Oil Barrels, etc 224 

Keil J. J., Druggist and Pharmacist 226 

Krut A., Wagon-Maker 229 

Keystone Bridge Co 242 

Kreps & Bowers, Hardware and Cutlery 243 

Kemper John, Boots and Shoes 244 

Kuhn Bros., Wholesale and Retail Grocers 247 

Kimmel Joseph & Co., Druggists and Pharmaceutists 250 
Kuhlman C. F., Wholesale and Retail Grocer 253 

Langenheim & Shepard, Flour and Groceries 98 

Lyons & Co., Citizens Oil Works 103 

Loughridge Jas., Brush Manufacturer 107 

Lanz H., Boots and Shoes 113 

Lea Robert, Engine Builder and Machinist 115 

Lashel & Walter, Commission Merchants 120 

Laughlain it Dean, Ship Chandlers, etc 123 

Lageman A Bro., Groceries, Tea, Flour, etc 124 

Limegrover Samuel R., Baker and Confectioner 125 

Luelibe & Bro., Wholesale and Retail Grocers 126 

London Tea House 127 

Lange Kennedy F., Eagle Pliarmacv 123 

Lee <t Marshall, Wool Dealers ." 129 

Littell .Tames, Wholesale Wines and Liquors 139 

Levis & Bickel, Solicitors of Patents 146 

Logan, Gregg A Co., Wholesale Hardware 153 

Legge J. H., M. D., Physician and Surgeon 166 

Lohmeyer F. A., Fancy Confectioner. 172 

Land G. W., Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Ware 172 

Lawrence Bank 177 

Lance H. J., Wooden Pumps 180 

Levy Henry, Hosiery, Notions, etc 183 

Lindsay S. Jr., & Co., Flour and Groceries 185 

Leslie A. H., Ins. and Real Estate Agent 189 

Lloyd H., Son & Co., Kensington Iron Works 194 

Lusk John, Tin, Copper, Sheet Iron Ware, etc 197 

Levy J., Philada. Branch Clothing House 203 

Lanz, M.atthew & Son, Bolts, Nuts and Washers 207 

Livingston & Co., Novelty Works, Iron Founders, etc 208 

Lion Brewery 82 

Lutz D. & Son, Lager Beer Brewers 82 

LibbyJ. E., M. D., Dentist 85 

Livingston Novelty Works 211 

Lutz D. tt Son, Brewers 220 

Lydick John A., Groceries 223 

Le Moyne Dr. F., Surgeon and Physician 258 

Leatheroid Manufacturing Co 264 

Lubbers B. H., Wines and Liquors 260 

LudewigG., Bottled Beer, Foreign and DomesticWines 258 

Lindsay & McCutcheon, Iron Manufacturers 260 

Lupton W. B. & Co., Slate Roofers 241 

Louder Chas 264 

McKain Bros., Dry Goods and Carpets 263 

McKenna A. & T., Brass Founders 97 

Milliken J;imes & Co., Furniture 98 

Mellof & Hendricks, Pianos and Organs 98 

McAndrew Tliolnas, Livery and Sale Stables 99 

Midglev W. H., Groceries and Confectionerv 102 

Myers & Co., Pork and Beef Packers .'. 102 

Mceser Louis, Notary Pulilic, Ship Agent, etc 104 

McKee James, Watchmaker and Jeweler, 107 

McNish A. M., Sash, Blind and Door Machinery 108 

Monongahela Insurance Co 109 

McKni'ght H. D. & Co., Eclipse Steam Pump Works.. 110 

McCanillcss, Jamison & Co., Dry Goods, etc 112 

McCormick John J., European Steamship Agent 114 

Miller, Forse <fe Co., Wholesale Liquors 119 

McElroy & Co., Brooms, Brushes, etc 120 

McNally James A., Importer and Jobber 125 

Maclean Jos. Bookseller and Bookbinder 130 

Metcalf, Paul & Co., Verona Tool Works 133 

Maginn Chas. & Co., Wholesale Confectioner 134 



INDEX. 



PAOE 

McQuiston Jas. & Co., Pitts. Galvanizing Works 135 

Moriow i Co., ManlVs. Street Lauijis 136 

McCanceT. <t J. T., Mercliant Tailois..-. 137 

Mercer E.B., Teas and Groceries 144 

McGrathL. T., Grocer 146 

Mitchell & Co., Stove Manufacturer.=! 147 

Milligun VV. J., Groceries and Pro vision;; 150 

Malscli F., Meat Market 152 

Manufacturers and Merchants Ins. Co 154 

McHenry & Hood, Com. and Wholesale Grain Dealers 155 

McFerron James, Groceries and Provisions 150 

Moore J. W. & Co., Coach and Wagon Builders 158 

Murdoch John R. &. A., Florists, etc 159 

McNary Wm. H., Hats, Caps, etc 160 

Marsland R. S., Mercliant Tailor 160 

McClaran R. M., Apothecary 161 

Metz it Reil, Drugs, Paints, Oils, etc 161 

McClelland S. T., Fashionable Hatter 164 

Metzgur D. H., Surgeon Dentist 166 

Martin S. & W. H., Lumber, Sash, Doors, etc 169 

McDonough A., Groceries and Liquors 169 

Mohrhoff Mrs. M. L.,Milliner and Dressmaker 171 

Myrick E., Hardware, Farm Implements 176 

Mclntire& Brand, Grocers 181 

Mueller Louis, Fancy Furs, Hats, etc 181 

Mahatt'ey W. G., Boot and Shoe Maker 182 

Mills <fcCo., Chemical Works 183 

Manley AHill, Dining Rooms 183 

Manning House 188 

McKee J. A. & Sons, Oil Refiners and Coopers 188 

Miller Wm., Duquesue Forge 189 

Maxwell W. H., Glass Labels, Glassware, etc 190 

Mitchell Geo. B. & Co., Iron Com. Merchants 194 

McCrickart W. J., Wines and Liquor.s, Wholesale 197 

Mclntyre John, Miner and Shipper of Gas Coal 197 

McKelvey J. A., Carriage and Harness Bazaar 197 

McQuigg"<Si Grove, Groceries and Teas 198 

Means B. W., Druggist 198 

Miller J. F., Pattern and Model Maker 199 

McCracken Wm., Dry Goods 200 

Mav M., Steam Dyer and Scourer 200 

McCready J. A., M. D 201 

Manchester Ale Brewerv 201 

Mundorf A. S., Planing" Mill, Lumber Yard, etc 204 

Monongaliela House 204 

Moore J. F., Carpenter and Builder 207 

McConway, Torley & Co., Eagle Malleable Iron Works SI 

McKeesport Iron Works 81 

Mackeown, Thompson & Co., Drug House 87 

McFarland J. W. &Co., Carpets 88 

Mussler John, Meat Market 90 

Mahood Samuel, Teas and Groceries 93 

McCord v% Co., Hats, Caps, Furs, etc 96 

Marshall, Kennedys & Co., Flour Mills aud Elevator.. 193 

Marine National Bank 216 

Merchants' and Manufacturers' National Bank 2 8 

McKibben James, General Teaming 224 

MacCordGeo. T., M.D., Phvsician and Surgeon 226 

Miller Wm. H., Builder and Contractor 228 

\ Meyer A. F., Drv Goods, Millinery, etc 228 

McKee S. Penn. Glass Works 229 

Miller & Houston, Groceries and Provisions 233 

MeClurg Jas. & Co., Cracker Bakers and Confectioners 234 

McSteen M., Plumber, Brass Founder, etc 235 

Mitchell Wm. & Co., Hosiery, Notions, etc 258 

Milholland Joseph, Groceries and Produce 242 

Mills & Bro., Printers, Stationers and Engraveis 243 

Moreland Thomas B., Agent, Undertaking and Livery 244 

Manchester Coal Yard 244 

Metropolitan National Bank 245 

Malile" Wm., Watches, Clocks, Jewclrv and Silverware 2.50 
McMichael Thos., Grain, Flour aud Produce 256 

Nieman & Ahlers, Merchant Tailors 110 

Natcher John T., Carpenter and Builder 122 

Northrop A. & Co., Sheet-Iron Roofing, etc 132 

N. Y. and Cleveland Gas Coal Co 149 

Nellis, Shriver & Co., Agricultural .Steels, etc l.'iS 

National Planing Mill..." 164 

Nimick W. A., Transfer Co 183 

Naser M. V., Clothing, Furnishing Goods, etc 187 

Nobbs .T B., Stoves and House-Furnishing Goods 194 

Nisbet Wm. W., Druggist 246 

G'Byrne Bros., Publishers and Book-Binders 104 

O'Donnell J. C, Groceries and Provisions 163 

O'Leary A., China, Glass and Queensware Ill 

OohmlerR. C, Paints, etc ^ 113 

Orr James, M. D., Dentist 145 

O'Mally John F.. Attorney-at-Law 158 

Oohse Henry W., Oil Cloths, Dry Goods 163 

OiTord E., Hardware. Tinware, etc 175 

Orr James L., Real Estate Agent and Broker 193 



Owens James, Plastering, Cement, etc 207 

Odd Fellows' Savings Bank 211 

Oiiihausen H. F., Plumber, Gas-Fitter, etc 221 

O'Doherty John, Wines and Liquors 235 

Oi luiau J. H. A Co., Wholesale Grocers and Flour 236 

Paxson Alwood, Custom Fine Shirts 254 

Potzer Alph J., Hats, Caps and Furnishing Goods... 99 

Prentice & Hackett, Cement, Lime, ei'; '. 100 

Pittsburgh Show Case Co 103 

Paulson F. G., Fashionable Haitci 105 

Pittsburgh and Connellsville Coke Co 107 

Porter & Donaldson, Wholesale Millinery 110 

Pickersgill Wm. Jr., Manf'r. Boots and Shoes ill 

Pittsburgh Tar Chemical Works 121 

Phelan James, Hosiery and Gents' Goods, etc 123 

Pennsylvania Lead Co., Smelters, etc 124 

Pittsburgh Wire Works 126 

Porter W. H., Aldei-man and Deputy Mayor 127 

Pennsylvania Insurance Co 151 

Patterson Brothers, Livery St.able 157 

Pretshold E., Tin and Hollow Ware 367 

Pittsburgh Car Wheel Works 174 

Pieper August, Boots and Shoes 188 

Pinkerton Mrs. M. M., Fine Millinery 198 

Porter H. K. & Co., Light Locomotives 200 

Pittstmrgh Planing Mills, Penn Av., bet. 31st and 32d 201 

Pittsburgh Planing Mills, Penn Av. and 26th St 205 

Peoples Savings Bank of Pittsburgh 84 

Park, Scott & Co., Copper 85 

Pittsburgh Bank for Savings 90 

Pfiel Jacob, Groceries and Provisions 92 

Peeples Jolin, Tobacco and Cigars 193 

Price Wm. G. .t Co., Iron Founders, etc 209 

Presbvterian Book .Store 210 

Patrick R &Co., Bankers 212 

Penn Planing Mill 213 

Palmer R. H. A Co., Hats, Caps, Furs, etc 215 

Peoples National Bank 219 

Pennsylvania Female College 227 

Patterson Robt. C. & Bro., Florists 228 

Parslow A., Barrel Factory 229 

Pier, Dannals & Co., Brewers 233 

Penn. Bank 233 

Potzer D. J , Hats, Caps and Furnishing Goods 2.34 

Pittsburgh Acid AVorks 235 

Patterson Rody, .Jr., Liverv Stable 279 

Pittsburgh Catholic College". 247 

Pittsburgh Encaustic Tile Co 248 

Paragon Oil and Grease Works, W. J. Smith & Co 249 

Peoples Wm., Stair Builder 249 

Piitsh'gh Steel Casting Co., Mfrs. Imp. Steel Castings, 251 
Pittsburgh Dry Docks, Reed & Kreps 255 

Runette Wilson & Sons, Dry Goods 158 

Rankin M. W., Wholesale Grocer and Commission 98 

Robison Brothers, Coal Merchants 106 

Reineke H. A Co., Gas and Steam Filters 107 

Roberts E. P. & Son, Jewelers 117 

Roller Theophilus, Wholesale and Retail Furniture... 119 

Roller Mrs. S. A., Millinery, Dress Making, etc 119 

Rosenbaum & Co., Trimmings, Millinery, etc 120 

Reineman A. R. ABro., Florists .". 123 

Rees James, .Machinery 125 

Rose Thomas & Son, Boots and Shoes 128 

Rowbottom Wm., Practical Plumber, etc 140 

Rodrian Adam, Boots and Shoes * 142 

Risher J. C. A Co , Coal Office 1.53 

Rowswell TIios., Livery and Sale Stable 157 

Reed & Smith, Seeds and Implements 139 

Runette Charles, Clothing, Hats, Caps, etc 161 

Robison James, M. D 162 

Rex T. A. M. D., Physician and Surgeon 169 

Russell <6 Thomas, Scrap Iron 173 

Rossiter E. A., Boston Clothing House 174 

Robinson S. M., Photographer 174 

Renshaw John A. A Co., Grocers 180 

Risacher M ., Dealer in Meats of all kinds 186 

Rodney R. T., Undertaker and Embalmer 199 

Ritter George, Baker and Confectioner 199 

Reed J. S. & Son, Planing Mill, Box Factory, etc 204 

Red Ton Bottling Co 208 

Risher D. & Co., L X. L. Tug Link Co 82 

Ruch Jacob & Bro., Carriage Manufacturers 90 

Russell James, Boots and Shoes." 91 

Reinecke E. W., Eagle Pharmacy 93 

Richards W. H. A Co., Turners and Machinists 214 

Robinson James A., Coal, Lime, etc 223 

Robinson Bros., Bankers 232 

Roberts C. W., Groceries and Provisions 235 

Roiling F. & Son, Iron Railing and Wire Works 258 

Ruff Herman, Practical Hatter 260 

Reed >t Co., Advertisers' Agents 260 

Reed James R. A Co., Diamonds,Watches and Jewelry 243 
Robinson, Rea & Co., Washington Works 263 



INDEX. 



Snivply & Radeliile, Wall Paper 97 

Smith L. H. & Co., Stoves, Grates, etc 105 

.Stlimertz W. E. & Co., Boots, Shoes and Rubbers 109 

Spcer A. M., M. D., Oculist and Aurist 110 

Stevonson J. H., Attoniey-al-Lnw 113 

Slianlov F., Boots and Shoes 115 

Steele A. J., Wagon-Maker IIG 

Soevyn F., Mereliant Tailor 120 

Soiforth John, Wines and Liquors 120 

Somers, Brother & Co., Produce Dealers, cic 121 

Schnabel G. A. Carriage Manufactory 137 

Smith, Son & Co., Lamps and Glassware 139 

Stoughton & Haid, House and Sign Painters 141 , 

Schomaker & Co., Commission Merchants 142 

St. James Hotel 142 

Suydam, Lawrence & Co., White Lead, etc 143 

Sniidi L. H., Brooms, Brushes, etc 144 

Smith J. & Son, Steam Dyers, etc 146 

Schneider Max, Dveing, Scouring, etc 147 

Scott Chailos A., iJook and Job Printer 148 

Smith M. P., Saddles, Harness, etc 150 

Smith E. J., Harness, Saddles, Trunks, etc 152 

Schaub A., Leaf Tobacco 153 

Sleitz Louis, Druggist and Apothecary 155 

Spencer, McKay & Co., Maltsters and Brewers 156 

Smith Wm., Real Estate and Insurance Agency 100 

Schneider Aug., Boots, Shoes, etc IGI 

Schwarz Frwi. C, Cabinet-Maker 165 

Sarver W. J., Watches, Clocks and Jewelry 165 

Spongier A. C., Hardware and Furnishing Goods lOS 

Spring Edward, Pharmaceutist 169 

Shoffer Samuel, Grocer 169 

Smith James A., Saddlery, etc 170 

Star Fire.-Brick Works 173 

Schmidt E. W., Wines, Liquors, etc 173 

Stuart Jas. H., Mantels, Monuments, etc 178 

Schleiter G., Dry Goods 180 

Seventh-Avenue Hotel 183 

Sehimdt A Friday, Wines f nd Liquor.s 184 

Shade Jolin J., Bookseller, Newsdealer, etc 18 i 

Sippel M., Merchant Tailor 186 

Stutz S., Mining and Mechanical Engineer 187 

Spreon Frci)., Merchant Tailor 188 

Smith LeeS., Dental Depot 191 

Steel, Lane & Co., Produce Commission 191 

Scott Charles S., Surgeon Dentist 192 

Smith H. &Sons, Merchant Tailors 192 

Schmidt Henry, Pharmaceutist 194 

Smith Wm. FT., Flour Commission 196 

Sperber J. & A., Artists and Photographers 196 

Siierritfct TIazelv,Iron and Wood- Working Machinery 202 

Skyles A Co., Tallow Chandlers 203 

Steven.son J. & Co., Pork-Packers, etc 205 

Straub & Co., Brewers 206 

Spang, Chalfant & Co., Elm Rolling Mills., ., 84 

Solfcl Peter, Boots and Shoes 89 

Seilnig William A., Butclier 91 

Stewart T. B. & Son, Dealers in Coal 91 

Stewart Wra. H., M. D 93 

South Pittsburgh Planing Mill 94 

Stahl W. G., Grain and Provision Broker 94 

Schneider J., DryGowls, Gents' Furnishing Goods, etc. 94 

Speer & Morgan," Tin, Copper, etc 95 

Stewart, Estep & Co., Druggists' Glassware, etc 212 

Staff, John A., Groceries and Provisions 214 

Sell Joseph, Hnts, Caps and Furnishing Goods 215 

Second Ave. Coacli Lino 219 

Stoner & McCluro, Saw Mills 222 

Sliore Wm. & Co., Groceries and Produce 226 

Storch E., Marble, Granite and Stono Works 226 

Sadler J. F. & Co., Forwarding and Commission 226 

Schneiders., Boot»i and Shoes 229 

Sankey Bros., Brick-Makers 230 

Stevenson J. M., M. D 234 

Sands Geor^'C, Plumlier, Gas and Steam-Filler 246 

Solar Iron Works, Wm. Ciark & Co. 247 

Shoe and Leather Bank 248 

Smith W. S., Undertaker and Kmbalmer 2-50 

Snider N. IL, Dealer in Groceries and Produce 251 

Scmnielrock Wm., Undertaking and Livery Stables... 251 

Sexaucr Gust. A., House, Sign and Fresco Painter 252 

Scliimiuel'a Fruit Butter 253 

Sisters of Mercy Academy.. 12 

Smith Wm. A, Sons, Natioinil Foundry and PipeWorks 255 

Sweitzer Eugene, Dyer and Scourer 255 

Smith llonry J., Dry Goods and Notion.s 256 

Sl;ul?rewery,C.Ba3u"erlein,Bro.&Co.,Bennett'sStation 257 
SI. Charles Livery and SaleSlables,J.n.Skelton,Prop'r 258 
Seip P., Confectioneries and Candies, Bread and Cake 260 
Star Fire Brick Works, Harbison & Walker 173 

Thoma John, liOather and Shoo Findings 97 

Towuseud & Co., Rivota and Wire 103 



PAGE 

Tiegel B., Merchant Tailor 116 

The Enterprise Exchange 128 

The Westinghouse Air Brake Co 132 

Totteu&Co., Fulton Foundry 135 

Thompson, Epping & Carpenter, Pump Works 138 

Taylor Isaac, Importer Dry Goods, etc 138 

The Singer Mfg. Co., Sewing Machines 143 

Truxell J. II , Tin Type Rooms 143 

Thomas W., Merchant Tailor 152 

Trimble & Co., Contractors and Builders 164 

The United States Iron and Tin Plate Co 182 

The Morris Printing House 186 

Thomas E. P., Groceries and Provisions 190 

The Mutual Glass Company 197 

Thompson A. W., Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Ware. 200 

The Rochester Tumbler Co., of Pittsburgh S3 

Tradesmen's National Bank 88 

Third National Bank 92 

'The Anderson Sash Balance 209 

Thomas A. J., Contractor and Builder 217 

TurnbuU Jos. & Co., Miners and Shippers of Coal 221 

Tod House, Youngstown, Ohio 230 

Thompson Andrew, Flint and Green Glass Moulds... 248 

The Bank of Pittsburgh 261 

The Pittsburgh Cabinet Co., (Limited) 261 

Union Planing Mill Company ; 131 

Union Chain Works, Reiier & Co 136 

Upperraan & Bro., Livery and Boarding 163 

Urbach Frederick, Saddles and Harness 163 

Union National Bank 92 

Ursuline Academy 249 

Voigt, Mahood & Co., Com. and Produce 100 

Vowinkel & Bivenour, Wholesale Liquors 104 

Vogel Jos. Dry Goods, Notions, Carpets, etc 129 

Veiock M., Boots, Shoes and Gaiters 152 

Voskamp B. H. & Co., Wholegalo Grocers 181 

Volz Louis, Plain and Fancy Job Printing 185 

Voelker A Bruggeman, Merchant Tailors 187 

Vulcan Steam Boiler and Sheet Iron Works 83 

Voelter Julius, New York Trade Stock Yards 90 

Wolf, Lane & Co., Hardware and Cutlery 98 

Weiler Brothers, Wholesale Liq^uors 103 

Weisenberger P. S. & Co., Varnish and Japan Works 103 

Webster, Gray & Co., Importing Tailors 105 

Wanamaker John & Co., Clothie:«( 105 

Wells C. F. & Co., Penn'a. White Lead Works 106 

White, Orr& Co., Dry Goods 116 

Waring E. J. & Co., Star Oil Works 117 

Woodruff Sleeping and Parlor Coach Co 122 

Wattles W. W., Jeweler 126 

Willison J. P., Undertaker and Embalmer 129 

Woodwell & Co., Hardware 131 

Western In.surance Company 131 

Whiteley T. W., Terra Cotta Ware, etc 134 

Walker T. Mehln, Marble and Granite Works 139 

Weyraan & Bro., Tobacco 140 

Wattley C. ct Co., Embroideries, Laces, etc 146 

Wilson John it Son, Wholesale Grocers 147 

Wei.sser G., Assent, Watchmaker and Jeweler. 156 

We.st Point Boiler Works 157 

Williams W. IL, Commission Mereliant 157 

Wittmer Geo. & Co., Ice Dealers 158 

Western Exchange Hotel 159 

Walters P. Jr., Druggist 165 

Williams Jas. L., Undertaker and Embalmer 171 

Walton Wm., Dry Goods, Millinery, etc 181 

AVilkinaon Jas. W., Stationer and Bookseller 182 

Wightman Thos. & Co., Fruit Jars, Bottles, etc 187 

Wallace .Archibald, Wholesale Grocer 189 

Wilson Thns., Manf'r. Talfy and Candies 192 

Wilson, Walker & Co., Union Forge and Iron Mill 89 

Wassoll E. D. & Bro., Scrap Iron, etc 213 

AVhiteT. H., Groceries and Produce 214 

AValsh M. & R., Grocers 215 

WadsworlhS. F., Dealer in Coal 216 

Winterton Ale and Beer Brewery 217 

Wilson J. Parke, Agent Hardware, etc 219 

Wilhelm Henry, Lager Beer Brewer 221 

Woodburn James W., Marble Works 222 

White Jay M., Drugs, Chemicals, etc 225 

Wild S. C, Drv Goods, Millinery, etc.; 229 

W.ard R. B., London Bakerv 232 

Yeager C. & Co., Wholesale' Dry Goods, etc 117 

Young James B. & Co., Phconix Roll Works 154 

Y'oung Jacob, Groceries and Produce 83 

Y'oung Mrs. F. M., Dressmaker and Milliner 225 

Young James, Liverv and Undertaking 230 

Zacharias E. & G. II', Cigar Makers 91 

Zeh John, House and Sign Painter 2.')5 

Zern Peter, Tobacco and Cigars 261 



ADDITIONAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

Alleghonv Vallev K. R 255 

Allegheny Cenlnil Hotel 236 

Atlas Woiks, Machinery and Castings 2U8 

Anchor Savings Bank , 238 

Anshutz >t Co., Lafayette Stovo Works 233 

BiliusC. U., (set in German) 2(iG 

Braun Uaniel, Groceries 206 

Brondei- .lacol) J., Groceries . 2C6 

Brilliant Ice Co., Soelv Bros 270 

Bailev lieflector Co 272 

Baldridgo Robt. S., McKeesport 250 

Blackley .Toseph, Coal and Coke 259 

Bradstreet Mercantile Agency 251 

Central Hotel, Walsh & Anderson, l^roprietors 258 

Clark iM. !•:., McKeesport... 250 

Carter Bros., American S. and C. Window Glass 258 

Coleman H., (iroceries 236 

Coyan Ed. T., Dry Goods, McKeesport 250 

Coyle C. S., McKeesport 250 

Chamlieis J. B. it Bro., Contractors and Builders 260 

Devore W. H., Undertaker 270 

Dietrich W., Liverv 266 

Dilworth, Porter & Co., Rail and Boat Spikes 263 

Dexter Spring Co 256 

Duff A. IC, Livery 200 

Davis. Piof. Slack, Instructor 261 

Evans it Co 

Fitzpatrick Joseph, Groceries 270 

Fallert Igniis, Knoxville Gardens 270 

Fulton H \V., M. D 203 

Garrison A. it Co 203 

Goeddel A., Restaurant 208 

GruiidvT., Carpet Weaver 200 

Gamltle J. N., McKeesport 206 

Garrett D. W., Ovster.s, Ac 240 

Grair, Bennett it Co., Iron Mills 237 

Ganster Joseph, Union Hotel 270 

Gibson .t Co., Merchant Tailors 2.57 

Hampe F., Mount Oliver 203 

Hodgson H. M., McKeesport 2Gj 

Harrison W. E., McKeesport 206 

Horn Martin, McKeesport 266 

Hunter W. W., McKeesport 250 

Hoffman A., McKeesport 250 

Hugusit Hacke, Drv Goods 230 

Hemltip R. S., Drv Goods, etc 202 

Hall W. J., Agt., Tobacco and Cigars 270 

Henning Adam, Saddles and Harness 260 

Hoeveler it Co., Franklin Glue Works 200 

Howe Sewing Machine Co 268 

Idlewood, Summer Resort, W. S. Jackson 268 

Ittel Philip, Flour, Feed, etc 268 

.Tolmston (leo. B., Dry Goods, etc 270 

KirchhofF C, Translator 200 

Kdssler Wm., Tin, Copper, etc 270 

Kno.K, Morris & Co., Coal and Coke 239 

Kuehneisen A., Hats and Caps 200 

Klein Wm. C, Groceries 206 



Kelly G. M., M. D 

Learn J. P. Co., McKeesport 

Lang A., Glassware, Lamps, Oils, etc 

Lewis, Oliver it Pliillips, Iron Bolts 

Lowe Josiah, Groceries, etc 

McVay ct Walker, Cars, Castings, etc 

Blartin W. A., Groceries 

Monongahela Incline Plane 

McKeever Bros., Barrel and Keg Manufacturers 

Manning James R., McKeesport 

Momyer J. B., McKiesjiort 

Miller Reuben, JIcKeesport 

Martin II. F., McKeesport 

Meahl August, Stoves and Tinware 

McCoy Thomas, Oysters, etc 

McKee Joseph 

McCully Wm. &Co., Glass Works 

Mount-Oliver Incline-Plane Railway Co 

National Garden, Mount Oliver 

Neel ct Wampler, McKeesport Planing Mills.... 

Now York Grai)hic 

Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works 

Passniore Geo. W., McKeesport 

Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad 

Pittsburgh, Ft. W. and Chicago Railway 

Priest, Page & Co., Howe Scales 

Phillips, Nimick & Co., Sligo Iron Mills 

Price W. H., Banner Tea House 

Pittsburgh Female College 

Riggs R. L., McKcesi)()rt.'. 

Ryan & Son, McKeespoit , 

Rankin Manufacturing Co., Butchers' Supplies. 

Reuck Harry, Tobacco and Cigars 

Reiehenbacli John, Ale and Lager Beer 

Richards J. B., Real Estate 

Ramsey ct Co., Druggists 

Sehoeller ct Bro, McKeesport 

Stratton James, McKeesport 

Skelley H. C, McKeesport 

Shaw J. D., Taxidermist 

Second National Bank 

St. Clair Hotel, C. P. Bailey, Prop'r 

St. Vincent's Abbey and College 

Starz Christ., Baker, etc 

Schuetz Wm., Wagon-Maker 

Seely C. B., Real Estate, etc 

Tea George W., Druggist 

The Amber Brewery, F. L. Ober it Bro 

United States Show-Case Works 

Union Chain Works 

Velte & Co., Engine Manufacturers 

Vierheller John P., Dry Goods, etc 

Watson G., McKeesport 

West W. H., McKeesport 

Weaver & Co., Advertising Agents 

Wilson Albert H., Druggist 

Wilson, Snyder & Co., Brass Founders 



PAGE 

... 274 

... 206 

... 204 

.... 230 

... 257 

... 264 

... 260 

... 259 

... 2.59 

... 206 

... 266 

... 206 

... 250 

... 200 

... 240 



254 



.. 259 

... 200 

... 255 

,.. 240 

.. 2CG 

... 230 

,.. 255 

... 2.55 

,.. 2;;o 

.. 270 

,.. 200 

.. 200 

,.. 260 

,.. 266 

... 266 

.. 257 

,.. 270 

,.. 260 

.. 2.50 

.. 250 

,.. 204 

,.. 101 

... 237 

... 240 

... 268 

... 270 

... 270 

... 270 

... 208 

... 264 

... 236 

... no 



254 
2( G 
2,''0 
239 
239 
2t5 



AddLson, Wm 269 

Ayres, N. G 271 

Armstrong, Frank B 

Agnew it Co C 

Ablers, C. F D 

Balph, R. A. A James 267 

Black, James L 207 

Barton, A. J 209 

Brown, Marshall 269 

Brown, A. M 269 

Burgwin, Hill 273 

Boothe Willis A 275 

Boothe Wm 275 

Bigger H.J 275 

BovdS. & Co A 

Bidwell D. W. C. <t Co A 

Borland J. H. A Co D 

Bakewell A Kerr G 

Barton A Sons G 

Bruce A Negley (} 

Bissell A Co H 

Burgwin H. A G. C II 

Bowman A Frazier I 

Bfrt-inger W. C. A Co „ B 

Brown Geo. B 257 

Colter James P 267 

Cohen Josiah 207 ' 



Christy B. C 271 

Comings Ed. G 273 

Cook Newton S 275 

Connelly J. H. A Sons, Agents... A 

Coyne & Hatry B 

Cunningham S. W K 

Ca.ssidv M. F., Esq F 

Chaifaiit Wm. L H 

Cadman A. W. A Co H 

Cuthbcrt S. A Son H 

Caldwell J. M 257 

Curran Wra. J 257 

Cleveland Paper Co 257 

Davis T. H 267 

Dithridge Chni. Co. (limited) C 

Evans J. A 267 

Ellis Wm. 11 F 

Edmondson .John F F 

Fulton W. E. F 267 

Fetterman Gilbert L. B 267 

Frieiid Kennedy D 269 

Fox John A 271 

Flack J. B 271 

Frew W. N 273 

Fairbanks A Co A 

Ferguson John S F 

Flaccus Wm. A Son II 

Frazier Robt. S 273 



Gray A Co., .John 

Gardner O. K 

Gray Joseph H 

Galbreth E. Edgar , 

Guthrie Geo. W 

Golden J. C 

Crray's Iron Line 

(iardner Bros 

Guckert Wm. A Co 

(Jrogan A Merz 

Grav Wm. E 

Godfrev A Clark 

Holland R. M 

Hersli (Jeo 

Hay A. B 

Hazen Geo. W 

Houseman M. II 

Horner C. ^I 

Hasbrouck C 

Holman W. A , 

Head A McElroy 

Holmes W. H 

Hutchinson A. A. & Bro. 

Haslage Wm 

Hampe F 

Hampton A Dalzell 

HoHman J. M. A Co 

Iron City College 



I 

E 

267 

271 

273 

275 

A 

B 

C 

E 

!■; 

H 

267 

209 

271 

271 

271 

273 

273 

273 

A 

C 

D 

D 

V 

F 

C 

E 



10 



ADDITIONAL INDEX. 



Jack Thomas J 271 

Jones E P 271 

Johnston A. C 27i> 

Jordan Wiu. J 275 

Johnson, Eagvo .t Earl D 

Johnston A. C 257 

Kay Fredric G 267 

Kerr S. W 269 

Kennedy & Doiy 273 

Kelly Frank 275 

Keenan Thomas J 275 

Kay James 1 275 

Kier Bros B 

Kirkpatrick, Beale & Co C 

Kaercher J. B C 

Keystone Paper Co D 

Kevstone Gaslight Co. (limited).. E 

Knox it Eeed F 

Kerr John H 273 

Knox 257 

Koethen .T. Ludewig 257 

Klonian Chas. II 257 

Lamhie .lolm S 269 

Lyon Walter 271 

Large John R 271 

Lewis W. A 275 

Levis & Bickel B 

Lloyd H., Son & Co D 

Luebbe & Bro E 

Livingstone Novelty Works E 

Llghtenheld G.J 257 

McKelv J. Erastus 267 

McCombs John C 269 

McLean G. W 269 

McFarlandT. M 269 

McCorkleK. E 269 

McGeary Bros 269 

McNally James A C 

Melnty're John E 

McKenna Charles F G 



Miller A. S 273 

Milligan S. C 273 

Moroland W. C 273 

Moreland John D 569 

Moore W. D 271 

Magee F. M 271 

Martin David H 273 

Mills & Co D 

Mundorf A. S E 

^larron John F 

Montooth E. A. & Bro G 

Morrison J. S. & A. P H 

Milliken C. E., Esq I 

Metcalf, Paul & Co I 

Mulholland & McGaflfick I 

Montooth & Brother G 

Meyer Henry 257 

New York & Cleveland Gas Coal Co A 

Over James 269 

O'Brien Chas 273 

O'Keefe T. J 257 

Pennock Isaac M G 

Plumer Lewis 267 

Porte James H 269 

Purviance W. S •. 271 

Powers Chas. L 271 

Patterson W. S 273 

Powers R. J. & W H 

Porter & Donaldson I 

Patterson A. C 275 

Parker T. S 275 

Petty Robt. B 275 

Pickersgill Wm., Jr B 

Pittsburgh Car Wheel Works A 

Pittsburgh Transfer Co I 

Patterson Rody, Jr D 

Pittsburgh Bank for Savings D 

Paxton W. N G 

Phillips Ormsby 257 

Robinson, Rea & Co H 



Rex D.J G 

Reardon Wui F 

Ramsey J. D „ 267 

Rush House 268 

Richards & Hartley 273 

Reese Frank M 275 

Risher J. C. & Co A 

Rees James C 

Robb & Fitzsimmons 209 

Robb J. M. & W. F 275 

Stone L. P 207 

Sipe William A 269 

Shaw John E 269 

Stewart Robert E 269 

Stone William A 271 

Speer John Ewing 273 

Slagle A Wiley 273 

Stoner James M 273 

Schoyer S., Jr 275 

Smith Frank W 275 

Scott Chas. A B 

Stevenson J. H C 

Sewell W. R 271 

BEAV ER T ALLS. 

Algeo Burial Casket Works 59 

Beaver Falls Cutlerv Co 60 

Beaver Falls Mills,Flour,Feed,eto. 61 

Co-operative Flint GlassCo.(Lim.) 63 

Co-operative Foundry Association 60 

Davidson, A., Coal, Coke, etc 63 

Emerson Saw Works 62 

Hall,A.S.iR.W.,Buggies,Wagon3 62 

Penn Bridge Works 64 

Pittsbuvgli Hinge Co. (Limited)... 64 

Wolf, A^F., Stoves, etc 63 

Western File Works (Limited) 61 

Gardner House, Chicago 64 

St. Charles Hotel, Columbus, O.... 59 



S. M. CHESSMAN & BRO., dealers in Hardware, Farming ICHAS. BELTZ, manufacturer and dealer in Saddles, Har- 
Impleinents, Iron, Nails, Glass, &c., also Flour, Feed and ncss, Robes, Blankets. Whips, Fly Nets, &e. Repairing 
Produce, Bridge Street. I fine Harness a specialty. Peun Avenue, near Hiland, E. E. 

PHILIP B. McWILLIAMS, dealer in Builders' and other 
Hardware, Agricultural Implements, Fine Tablo and 
Pocket Cutlery, Window Glass, Putty, &c., Cor. Penn Av., 
opposite Collins A v. 



WALTER I'ERGUSON & CO., wholesale and retail deal- 
ers ill Family Groceries, 171 and 173 Chestnut Street, near 
Walnut. Ask for Silver Baking Powder. Best in use. 



J. L. W^LAND. Established 1861. Wholesale and retail 
dealer in all kinds of Eastern, Lake and River Fish, No. 
76 East Ohio Street, Corner Sandusky, Allegheny, Pa. 



UNION BARREL AND CASK FACTORY. M. Walsh, 
manufacturer of Flour, Cement and Glass Barrels, Cor. 
9th and Washington Sts., Pittsburgh, South Side. 



RICHARDS & HARTLEY F. G. CO., Glass Manufacturers. 
Cor. Pride and Locust Sts., Pittsburgh. 



A. ^W. SMITH. 

BuUder of CARRIAGES, WAGONS & 

SLEIGHS of all descriptions, 

Cor. Fourth & Walnut Streets, McKeesport, Pa. 

C®" Special attention paid to Custom work and Repair- 
ing. Ready made and second hand work always for sale. 



RICHARD SIIAKP. 



SAMUEL m'CUNE. 



SHARP & M'CUNE, 

Improved Modoo Black-Board Liquid 
Slating, 

Nr. 128 Beaver Avenue, ALLE(JHENT, PA. 



W. HAECKLER, Watchmaker and Jeweler, dealer in 
Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, Spectacles, &c. Repairing of 
Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, Spectacles, &e , done promptly. 
Terms strictly cash. Near corner 26th and Carson Streets, 
No. 2527, S. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



A. B. URBEN, practical Pharmacist and Druggi.st, 287 
Webster Avenue, corner Roberts Street, Pittsburgh. Pre- 
scriptions carefully compounded night and day. 



A. J. STEELE, 58 and 60 Anderson Street, near the Hand 
St. Bridge, Allegheny City. Pa., manufactures all descrip- 
tions of Wagons, Carts, Drays and Spring Wagons, Wheel- 
barrows, Trucks, Skids, &c' Particular attention paid to 
repairing and Job Black Smithing. 



ERNST LUFT, English and German Book and .Job Printer, 
Book Binder, &c.. No. 135 Smithtield Street, Masonic Bank, 
Pittsburgh. 



ROBERT M'ELDOUNEY, 

House and Sign Painter, 

Nn, 35 Seventh Ave.. 



Otto JE. Heineman, 
WATCHMAKER & JEWELER. 

JVo. 118 OHIO STREIST, 

Allegheny, Pa. 



T*. H. ITTEL, 

Dealer in 
FLOUR, GRAIN, SEEDS, 

Mill Feed, Potatoes, Hay, Straw, Salt & Produce generally, 
^ro. 3G2 Ohio Street. AlhghenT/ Citj/, Vn. 



O'HARA GLASS CO., (Limited) -(/fl5. B. Lyon & Co., 30th St. & A. V. R. R.. 

J^anzifaotiiTcrs of Flint Glass. 
One of the oldest Glass Manufactories in the West, 



12 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



SISTERS OF MERCY ACADEMY, \Nebsier A-o. 







VIEW OF ST. XAVIER'S ACADEMY, WESTMORELAND COUNTY, PA. 



Through the kindness of the Sisters resident at the Convent of Mercy located on Webster avenue, we are enabled 
to furnish t.ie following slcetcli of that order as it exists in Pittsburgli, showing the aims, object, and benevolent, ciiar- 
itable and educational works of tliis noble band of self-sacrificing women, wliose labors among the poor, destitute and 
sutt'ering at home as well as on the battlefields during the recent War, have endeared thi'in to the hearts of Protestants 
as well as Catholics in every section of the Union. The Sisters of Jilercy first came to Pittsburgh in December, 1843, 
at the invitation and solicitation of the Rt. Bev. Dr. O'Connor, first Catholic Bishop of Pittsburgh, to estaL)lish their 
order in that then newly-erected diocese. This was the original foundation of the order in the United States. Seveii 
Sisters, tlie Mother Superior being Sister Mary Francis Warde, cm;inating from the Convent of Mercy at Carlow, Ire- 
land, volunteered for the American Mission and established their first convent on Penn avenue in a building rented 
from Dr. Speer and adjoining liis residence. Two years later, for the better accommodation of their increasing num- 
bers and their scliool which had been opened in September, 1844, they were compelled to seek more commodious quar- 
ters and removed to "Concert Hall," on the site of tlie present "Library Building." The special objects, or "Works 
of Mercy," to whicli the Sisters devote themselves, are : The education of female youth in every gi'ade of society, the 
poor being especially cared for — tlie v^isitation of the sick and the protection of distressed woraeri of good character. 
Since coming to this country until the present time the Sisters luive labored indefatigably in tliese woiks, and have 
now under their charge the following charital)le and educational institutions: St. Paul's Roman Catholic Or- 
phan Asylum, whicli is located on Tanna Hill, and supports annually an average of 250 orphans of both sexes from 
tlie age of two years upwards until suitable homes can be provided or they are enabled to support iheniselves respecta- 
bly. The institute is supported by the voluntary coatributions of Catholics and the benevolence of other denomina- 
tions. The Mercy Hospital, which was the first hospital establislied in Pittsburgh, opened January 1, 1847, at 
"Concert Hall," the spacious apartment styled the "ball room" being appropriated for this purpose, tlie select school 
hitherto occupying it being removed to one of the smaller houses adjoining. The principal pliysicians of the city have 
ever since fornied the medical staff of this hospital. The first who volunteered their valuable services were the lateDrs. 
Gazzam, Addison and Dan'l. McMeal, Sen., and the present venerable and esteemed Dr. Bruce. The present staff is 
composed of Drs. Jos. Dickson, Shaw, Sargeants, Christy, March, Ilengest and Lee. The building now occupied as 
Mercy Hospital is situated on Stephenson street and was built by the people of Pittsburgh and opened in May, 1S48. 
The Convent of Mercy, which is located on Webster avenue, was erected by the community from means brought 
to it by its members, and is the Mother House of the community. The Jlother Superior and the Sisters who form her 
council reside here, and here are trained tlie young ladies who enter the convent with the intention of becoming 
members of the community. These are forbidden by rule to bind themselves by any obligation for two years and a 
half, this time being devoted to study and the practice of the duties to which they are to devote themselves. Should 
they become members of the community, a majority of wliose votes are required before they can receive the habit of 
theorder and for their profession. The Sisters in this house teach the following parochial schools : St. Paul's 
Cathedral Schools, the girl's department of whicli is attached to the Convent building, and was erected by St. 
Paul's congregation, and the boy's department in a school building near the Cathedral — Our Lady of IMekcy 
School on Second street, St. Agnes' School at Soho, and St. Malaciii's School on the South Side. Connected 
witli the Convent is also St. Mary's AcADE>fY for Young Ladies, where may be obtained a complete and 
thorough education in the higher deiiartments of study, as also in vocal and instrumental music, drawing, and the 
various branches of needlework. Religious instruction to Catholics is made an important matter wherever tlio 
Sisters teach, while children of Protestant parents are neither asked nor expected to participate in the religious ob- 
servances or instruction. At the Convent of Mercy, St. Patrick's on Seventeenth street, St. Mary's on Forty- 
sixth street and St. Bridget's Church on Enoch street, the Sisters have also schools where the same course of 
study is pursued as at the Mother House on Webster street. They have also a Convent with schools connected in 
Allegheny City, and at McKeesport, Allegheny County, and at Latrohe, St. Xaviers. St. Xavier's Academy 
is situated about three miles from Latrobe, in" one of the most healthy sections of Western Pennsylvania, suflii- 
ciently elevated to command from every point an extensive view of the delightful country which suiTounds it. The 
buildings are spacious and elegant, capable of accommodating upwards of one hundred and fifty boarders; there is 
amply play ground, the water and the products of the soil are excellent and abundant. Parents may rest satisfied tluit 
every attention will be paid to the comfort of the children placed at this institution, while the utmost care will be 
taken to nourish in their minds those principles of virtue and religion, which alone can make education profitable. 

The number of pupils receiving instruction from the Sisters of Mercy in the Diocese of Pittsburgh is not less than 
five thousand. The members of the community, at present numbering one hundred and seventy-five, are principally 
the daughters of Irish or American parents, with some of French, (ierman and Belgian origin, while not a few are na- 
tives of Pittsburgh and daughters or some of the oldest and most respected citizens. 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVAOTA. 



CIT7 OP PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY. 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW. 

INSTITUTIONS, INDUSTRIES, COMMERCE AND TRADE, 

Business and Progressive Men. 




Allegheny River. 



Ohio liivtr. 

VIEW OF PITTSBURGH IN 1817. 



Monongahela River. 



In the compilation of this work, having for its object and main design a fair delineation of the 
Pittsburgh of the present, it is not intended to present any elaborate history of the past, except in 
so far as it may be found necessary by statistics and other means to exhibit contrasts that shall 
make the salient points of \\s existing characteristics or conditions more vivid and comprehensible. 
In the language of a celebrated American writer, "Pittsburgh is the most intense!}' interesting city 
on this continent," and round its cradle has been thrown, by poet and historian, the glamor of a 
romance through which we see the combat of two mighty trans-Atlantic antagonists and distinguish 
the war-cries of their savage adherents. 

This spot was hallowed by the adventurous steps of the youthful Washington, and from this 
point, at the "meeting of the waters," one hundred and twenty-six years ago, his calm eye surveyed 
the matchless beauty of the wintry scene before him, and with an apprehension that grasped as by 
intuition all the advantages of the position, he "chose the station" that marked the very westward 
boundaries in the " march of empire," the skirmish line of civilization. Here was constructed the 
fortress, which falling into the hands of the enemy at the beginning of the seven-years' French and 
Indian War, was christened by its captors "Fort Duquesne," and around which group tales of 
fortitude and foray, "treason, strategems and spoils" that still haunt the imagination and read like 
Oriental fictions to the rising generations. The illustrations present views of Pittsburgh as it ap- 
peared in 1817 and the old Blockhonse of 1764. All those events, however, connected with the early 
history of our city have been briefly arranged in chronological order for the reference of the reader, 
the plan of this work not involving more of antiquity than is necessary for a copious understanding 
of the Pittsburgh of to-daj"-, its commercial advantages, institutions and resources. 

GEOGRAPHICALLV, 

the city is located in latitude 40° 26' 34''-^N. ; longitude 80° 2' 38^' W. ; its topography being marked 
by many peculiarities, which give it an individuality of appearance possessed by no other town in 
America. 
(3) 33 . 



CITY OP PITTSBURGH. 



35 




Situated at tlie confluence of the Allegheny and 
Mouongahela rivers, the point from which begins the 
Ohio is the west extreme of the city proper, and the spot 
where a century ago clustered a hamlet of less than a 
score of primitive frontier shanties and log huts, forming 
the nucleus round which clustered and grew a splendid 
municipality. From this vantage ground, looking to- 
wards the great receding river, the national highway to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and often called by travelers the 
"Rhine of America," the observer can see upon his right, 
across the commingling waters of the crystal Allegheny, 
which here mei-ges into the Ohio, the city of Allegheny 
lining the banks of the streams as far east and west as 
the eye can reach and stretching back over a rising 
plain for more than a mile to the hills that crown the 
distance. On the left appear the tremendous bluffs that 
confront the Monongahela, at whose base along the 
margins of the yellow water are strung to the south- 
east further than can be seen countless manufactories 
for iron, stdel and glass, the noise of whose machinery 
, never ceases, the incessant crash of labor and dense 
volumes of smoke filling the air for miles in every 
direction. 

The tributary rivers diverging from this point at a 
generally obtuse angle, cause it to widen ' rapidly, a „ The Old Block House, 

rise gradually taking place from the level of high water ^-« ^ ^^'- ^^^p^^^^"^' '" ^'"■"' 
mark to an elevation of several hundred leet, lorming 

the site of the city of Pittsburgh, the line of' which extends along the course of both streams 
between eight and nine miles — a direct line from river to river marking the eastern boundary. 
'AH those thickly-settled manufacturing districts lying on the south side of the Monongahela 
river have been within the past few years consolidated with the old city. They embrace a 
very considerable amount of territory, and were formerly, and are yet casually referred to, as Bir- 
mingham, Brownstown, Mt. Washington, Sligo, Saw Mill Run, etc. 

The western portion of the city is densely built, and from the contracted ideas of the early 
settlers, each of whom desired to live within range of the fort, the streets have not that spacious 
breadth so characteristic of prairie towns; from this reason, as well as to avoid an atmosphere 
never entirely free from smoke, this part of the city is devoted almost exclusively to business pur- 
poses, nearly all whose, means or occupation permit, residing either at the East End, in Allegheny, 
or some railway suburb. 

This change has taken place mostly within the past fifteen or twenty years, and is not only 
advantageous in the centralization of traffic, but highly conducive to the general sanitary condi- 
tion, placing Pittsburgh among the most healthy cities in the country. 

IN APPEARANCE, , 

from anj'^ surrounding stand-point, Pittsburgh presents a most striking and impressive sight. The 
graceful grade at which it builds up from the point and., water levels to the high central plateau is 
extremely attractive, while the innumerable spires and domes produce an effect of architectural 
beauty unusually captivating. The public and private edifices are both numerous and costly, many 
of them being perfect illustrations of the adaptability of iron for building purposes, and monuments 
worthy of the Iron City in this direction. Of the ten bridges, six of which cross the Allegheny, and 
four the Monongahela, inside the city limits, five are of this material; the viaduct. spanning the lat- 
ter at its junction with the Ohio being regarded as one of the most superb triumphs of modern engi- 
neering ; new in design, solid in structure and of enormous strength, it grasps the river at one splen- 
did sweep, and imparts a feeling to the mind altogether creditable to 
the engineer who projected it and the capital that made its erection 
possible. 

The iron bridges of the P'gh, Ft. W. & C. R. R., and the P. C. 
& St. L. R. R., respectively crossing the Allegheny and Monongahela 
rivers, are also masterpieces of engineering science and mechanical 
art, especially in the case of the former which was erected in lieu of 
a wooden structure, the demolition of the old and the construction of 
the new proceeding simultaneously, without interfering for one hour 
with the regular traflSc of the road, which continued to run its 
trains as usual. 

The wjie suspension bridge at the foot of Sixth street, connecting 
Pittsburgh and Allegheny, formerly known as the St. Clair street 
bridge, is always the object of much attention on the part of 




First Log Cabin erected in 
Allegheny, 1783. 



36 



ENDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



strangers visiting the citj', foi its massive amplitude and graceful lines. It was the design of the 
elder Roebling, and when finished, in 1860, was considered as capping the climax of his fame in 
bridge architecture. 

PUBLIC WORKS AND BUILDINGS. 

Springing from a thrifty Scotch, Welsh and Irish ancestry, the Pittsburghers have given more 
care to those substantial material advantages for which tliey are noted, and their acquisition, than 
devoted themselves greatly to the outward adornment of the city, or schemes involving its embel- 
lishment. Some excuse for this indifference may be also found in the fact that the soot and sulphur 
in the atmosphere soon militate seriously against the appearance of the finest structure, and more 
than all, the bulk of the populace, especially the more affluent classes, living in the outskirts or 
suburbs of the city, prefer to direct their attention to the improvement of those districts rather than 
to the scenes of their daily toil. 

Marked advances, however, have taken place in 
this matter during the decade that has elapsed, and it 
is now confidoutly asserted that, in proportion to its 
population, Pittsburgh has spent more money on 
public works, improvements, streets and buildings 
than any city in the United States. 

The Municipal Hall is one evidence oifered of 
the truth of the above statement, and as the seat of 
the city government is worthy of a more detailed 
description than our space permits. Architecturally 
the building is one of the most handsome in Pitts- 
burgh ; constructed of solid white sandstone, at a cost 
of $700,000, every convenience and modern appliance 
was introduced necessary to make it complete in all 
respects. Here are the offices of the Mayor, Control- 
ler, Engineer and Chief of Police, on tiie first floor; 
to the second are allotted the Council Chambers, 
City Clerk and Attorney, the Boards of Viewers and 
Health, and Water Assessors. Upon the mezzanine 
floor will be found the offices of the Street Commis- 
sioner, Building Inspector, and Council Messenger. 
The third floor is devoted to the uses of the Boards 
of Fire Commissioners and City Assessments, Water 
Extension Committee, Mechanical and Civil Engin- 
eers, Draughting Rooms, etc. ; on the fourth floor 
is the office of the Fire Alarm Telegraph, with which 
the city is supplied, as well as a thoroughly dis- 
ciplined paid Fire Department, and above this the 
cupola, whicii contains the turret clock and alarm bell. 




Shady-Side Presbyterian Church. 



This clock, b}' a system of telegraph 
wires, and arrangements made with Prof S. P. Langley, of the Allegheny Astronomical Observ- 
atory, is connected with the stellar clock of that institution, with which it moves in exact unison, 
affording a reliable and uniform standard of time for the entire communitj^ from which all railroad 
schedules are estimated, labor begun and ended, and all the machinery of life regulated. 

In the construction of tiie new Water Works Pittsburgh again illustrated a decided disinclina- 
tion to do anything by halves, and in 1872 a system of water improvements was inaugurated on so 
vast a scale as to require for the purpose the purchase of over one hundred acres, seven j-ears of 
constant labor, and a total cost of over $-1,000,000. The new reservoirs, of which there are two, are 
situated at the East End, about five miles from the business portion of the city, on the highest 
obtainable elevation above the Allegheny river, from which the water is supplied. The.*e reservoirs 
have an aggregate capacity of 128,000,000 gallons, the mains by which they are supplied and the 
engines, boilers, and pumping apparatus being upon a scale simply stupendous. This colossal 
project, which is now in operation, with some modification of the original plans, together with one 
hundred miles of pipe with which the city is Jaid, will afford water facilities in the future, amply 
sufficient to supply a population three times as great as at present, the consumption now being 
about 15,000,000 gallons per day. 

This thoughtful provision for posterity is characteristic, in a great measure, of such municipal 
legislation as has obtained under the enlarged views of late years, and stamps the citj- government as 
being eminently wi.se, and enlightenel b}"^ a policy that demands more scope than can be afforded 
by the narrow limits of the present day for its operation and completion. 

From public works and buildinjrs to those resultant from private enterprise, the transition is an 
easy one, and here the many beautiful structures scattered throughout the city present a wide field 
for comment and description. Among those of greatest interest, the churches naturally come first, 
and of these in both cities there are not less in all than two hundred — many of more than ordi- 
nary magnitude and architectural magnificence. Perhaps the mo.«t perfect in regard to the latter 
quality is the Trinity Episcopal Church on Sixth avenue, which, besides having the finest chime 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



37 



of bells in the city, has no superior in America as an enduring monument of artistic design and 
rare excellence in execution. 

St. Paul's Catholic Cathedral is, with one exception, said to be the larjrest church in the United 
States, and is a very imposing structure, having an interior remarkable for its pillared vastness 
and simplicity of style. Of other churches worthy of the visits and attention of strangers, the fol- 
lowing are but a few of the most prominent: the First Presbyterian, on Wood street; the Third 
Presbyterian and German Lutheran, on Sixth avenue; Christ's M. E. Church, on Penn avenue, &c. 

Of its commei-cial buildings, Pittsburgh can 
boast with equal truth — many of them illustrat- 
ing the best styles of what may be called Amer- 
ican mercantile architecture, conspicuous ex- 
amples being seen in the building of the First 
National Bank, Dollar Savings Bank, Exchange 
National Bank, Second National Bank, Third 
National Bank, the Iron Bank Block, Fifth 
avenue, the Germania Savings Bank, which con- 
tains the rooms of the Chamber ot Commerce, 
the Pittsburgh Safe Deposit Company, the Bank 
of Pittsburgh, the M. and M. National Bank, 
the Dispatch Building, Hostetter's Block, Li- 
brary Hall, the First National Bank of Alle- 
gheny, the building of Wm. Semple, and otli- 
ers, so numerous as to require omission. 

In its business portion the Iron City always 
wears an air of thrift and industry, which is in 
marked contrast to many equally large but less 
favored places, and, in its suburbs, the truth is 
evident to the most partial observer, that no city 
can show such lovely environs, with so great a 
diversit}" of ever captivating landscapes, dotted 
so profusel}' with the homes and villas of her 
thousands of opulent and comfortable citizens. 
• No description, however elaborate, conld 
be so couched as to give a stranger an adequate 
view in his mind's eye of Pittsburgh, because of 
its vast dissimilarity to ever}^ other city upon 
the continent, this very uniqueness defeating 
all comparison. From so far as we have 
cared to go in this dii-ection, the non-resident 
reader (and this work is designed mainly 
for such) may have gleaned some approximate 
idea of the general plan and appearance of the city, the accompanying illustrations rendering 
efficient aid in this direction, and leaving him with these, other matters of more interest and 
import arise and demand attention. 

A COMMERCIAL CENTER. 

The first question that naturally and promptly arises in regard to any community claiming to 
be a trade center, is, " How is it related, and what are its connections with the rest ot the world P" 
To this querj' an answer with reference to Pittsburgh leads to a discussion of those facilities by 
which she is placed in communication with the consumers of her products, who are found in every 
habitable quarter of the globe. 

The river highways that nature furnished are in the first instance the conspicuous channels by 
which communication is most easilj' secured and maintained with remote centers of traific, and by 
this means, and with the advantages thus afforded, Pittsburgh commands an unequalled position, 
gaining uninterrupted entrance into the interior of not less than eighteen of the most fertile and 
wealthy States in the Union, as well as reaching unchecked, the Central and South American States, 
which already form an important objective point for her exports, and inviting markets, that become 
annually more available. This field alone, for commercial operations, opens up to the practical 
and progressive observer, a future of splendid prosperity for Pittsburgh, toward which she is rapidly 
bending ker steps, and for the attainment of which her energies are being' exerted to the fullest 
extent. 

The firet move in this direction has been taken by the general government, by the inaugura- 
tion of the jetty S3stem at the mouth of the Mississippi, and an appropriation for the improvement 
of the Ohio river. 

The former enterprise, under the charge of Capt. J. B. Eads, has already proved successful to 
an nnlooked-for degree, while the worlts-upon the latter project are yet unfinished and untested. 

The plan for the improvement of the Ohio river is almost too well known to require extended 
notice here. It ma}' be stated, however, that the scheme involves the construction of dams at such 




Germania Bank Building, cor. Wood St. and Diamond Allen. 



38 



INBUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



intervals along a great part of its course as shall pre- 
serve a uniform stage of water, and thus admit of 
navigation during the entire year. Heretofore this 
has been impossible on account of low water, which 
for many months put a period to all traffic by this 
means. 

The work upon the first dam of the series was 
commenced in 1878, at Davis Island, a point about 
five miles below the city, and is now being pushed 
rapidly forward, several hundred men being employed 
upon the works. For this structure the French plan 
has been adopted by the best engineers in the employ- 
ment of the government as being the most available 
and altogether practicable. This is the same system 
used to slackwater the Seine, and affords certain 
advantages that are possessed by no other dam in so 
perfect a degree. The main features of the structure 
being that the entire dam can be sectionally and 
rapidly depressed till it lies flat upon the bed of the 
stream when the natural stage of water is sufficient 
without artificial aids, and its equally prompt eleva- 
tion when desired. This whole operation, as well as 
the management of the locks, will, it is said, require 
the labor of but two men, so admirable are the 
mechanical appliances by which the entire structure 
is controlled and regulated. 

It is impossible to overestimate the advantages 
that will accrue to Pittsburgh by the completion of ^^.^^ Pre^byteriaa Ckurck. 

this system ot improvements, and sate to assert that 

under" its influence a new era of prosperity will dawn upon her that has no parallel in the past. 
The opening of a cheap and reliable means of shipment to those countries that, with an 
ordinary course of development, are bound to become our most profitable customers, will have an 
effect upon the commerce, trade and manufactures of Pittsburgh not yet fully realized by the 
strongest advocates of the improvement of the Ohio river. _ ^^ 

Some facts collated from the report of the "Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, on commerce, 
navigation and foreign commerce, for the year 1878, may perhaps convey some idea of the increas- 
ing- magnitude of the exports of the United States to those countries whose ciiief wants lie in the 
direction of Pittsburgh's products, and to many of whom we shall shortly have direct access by 

The table shows the comparative difference between the amounts of the present exports and 
those of twenty years since, and must convey a significant lesson to every intelligent reader : 




EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 18B8 

Argentine Republic * I'.f-r'o^ 

Brazil ■ ^'1-9'lfio 

Central American States ikt'T^r, 

Danish West Indies (estimated) rS'in? 

French West Indies and French Guiana r -2S'n la 

West Indies, Honduras and Guiana (British) o'^t r'^ 

Havti and San Domingo 0'000'Sc 

Mexico z,.iJA,<>-K> 

West Indies'and" Guiana (Dutch) 12 268'202 

Porto'Rico.r.!".;'/."".Z!'.!Zr.'."".."'. f'^ro'ofi? 

United States of Colombia 63o'3.56 

20'4ii9 



(1877) 
(1»77> 



Uruguay ^ "; 

V«Ti 07:11 Ala >'■ 



Venezuela 



187S. 
$ 2,152,109 
8,686,704 
1,635,764 
2,000,000 
1,590,665 
9,60-1,655 
4,896,354 
7,492,884 
1,005,6.30 
13,162,382 
2,434.564 
4,692,429 
1,093,432 
3,040,359 



These figures afford a very just conception of the rapid increase of a trade to which Pittsburgh 
must look in the future for the' bulk of her revenue, and to which she is invited through the increased 
facilities resulting from the improvements to which reference has been made. 

The Monongahela river, which has been navigated for more than a third of a century by means 
only of a system of locks and dams, is an evidence in a^ comparatively small way of the^usefiilness 
of .such a procedure, and its ultimate benefits in making tributary to Pittsburgh one of the most 
productive valleys both in coal and agricultural resources to be found in the Union. 

RAILROADS. 

Some account of the artificial channels to the outer world properly follows a _ description of 
the natural and most ancient avenues ; and in these creations of toil, capital and genius, Pittsburgh 
is certainly not behind any of her sister municipalities, being the point of junction for no less than 
ten railroads, most of them trunk lines. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



39 



Of these roads, the Pennsylvania Central, as beine the oldest and perhaps the most important, 
should be entitled to the first position, as not onlj- affording the directest route to the seaboard 
cities, but, pursuing a course through the most materially prolific portions of the State, which it 
traverses latitudinally for three hundred and fifty miles, this great artery of traffic places Pittsburgh 
within ten or twelve hours of the Atlantic ports, and connects with the entire system of eastern 
railroads. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad presents another favorite outlet to the East hj a route veering 
to the south-east and making its objective point, Baltimore, through the Monongahela and Cum- 
berland valleys, and minei'al lands that will be referred to hereafter in connection with natural 
products. 

Both the above roads are active competitors for the trade of Pittsburgh, and are justly regarded 
as two of the best managed organizations in the United States, combining in themselves an amount 
of talent and capital which inures greatly to the benefit of the commerce of this cit3^ 

By the Allegheny Valley Railroad north- eastwardly, the central trunk lines of New York are 
reached and connections made for the lake routes west, or all points east. 

The most important outlet to the West is afforded by the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad, which, in operation twenty-five j^ears or more, has done no little to promote the commer- 
cial relations of Pittsburgh with the West and North-West. This road, at various points, taps the 
network of railways which ramifj^ over the whole West, and proves the shortest for trans-continental 
travel. 

The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad presents another channel to the West by a 
southerly course, reaching the points named in its title by the most direct and available routes, con- 
necting and interlacing roads that place the States of Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana and Illinois 
within easy reach of the Iron City. 

The Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad opens a northern track for travel and trade, which, with 
the Pittsburgh & Erie Railroad, and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Road (the latter being the last 
brilliant evidence of Pittsburgh's enterprise), affords such ample communication with the lakes 
and the trunk lines to the North- West as leaves nothing in this direction for the most ambitious 
citizen to desire. 

Besides the roads already mentioned, the following, of a present local character, are not by 
any means to be ignored : the Pittsburgh, Virginia & Charleston Railroad, whose projected point of 
completion is indicated in its title, is in operation only for about twenty-five miles along the south- 
ern bank of the Monongahela river ; the West Pennsj'lvania Railroad, which traverses the north 
side of the AUeghenj'- river for an equal or greater distance, an outlet from the great oil fields of 
Pennsylvania; and the Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, a narrow gauge railway connecting 
at present with the Pittsburgh & Southern R. R., local environs, and coal mines of great magnitude. 

These eleven great arteries, through which the vivifjdtig tide of traffic is forever streaming, cer- 
tainly confer a position upon Pittsburgh, so far as these facilities extend, that can not be otherwise 
than of the highest advantage to her commercial and productive thrift. We present herewith some 
statistical facts and figures in connection with these roads that will prove of interest to the reader 
as showing not only the advantages they confer upon Pittsburgh, but the wealth and resources of 
the regions through which they pass within an established trade radius. 

From the report of Mr. William 
Wilcox, Inspector of the First Bitu- 
minous Coal District of Pennsylva- 
nia, for 1878, to the State Secretary 
of Internal Affairs, the following data 
have been collated: This district em- 
braces the counties of Allegheny, 
Washington, Greene, Fayette, West- 
moreland, Somerset and Bedford, 
and lies to the south, south-east and 
south-west of Pittsburgh ; the two 
last named counties being the most 
remote easterly and possessing in all 
but 12 mines worthy of record. The 
whole district is one of the most pro- 
ductive in the world, and contains 
inexhaustible supplies of this min- 
eral, the quality of which for manufacturing, illuminating or heating purposes is unsurpased. 

Along the lines of these various railroads are placed the mines which supply the bulk of all the 
bituminous coal consumed in the United Slates, their distribution is shown by the following table, 
the trunk lines including the various branches in brackets : — 




Picture of the once famous Pittsburgh and Cincinnati Packet "Allegheny." 

Time from Louisville to Cincinnati^ 9 hrs., 50 min., Receiving 

the Horns from the celebrated Steamer Telegraph No. 2. 



f Pittsburgh, Cinn. & St. L. R. R. 
t Chartier's Valley R. W. 



22 Collieries. 



Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon 2 



do. 



40 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Pittsburgh, Washington & Balt'e. E. R. 

Hiclcman Branch, 

Mt. Pleasant Branch, 

Berlin Branch, 

Salisburg Branch, 

Bridgeport ABedford Branch, 

Six Mile Run Branch, 

Youghiogheny Branch, 
Pennsylvania Railroad, > 4> 

South-west Penu'a. R. R. J ** 

West Penn'a. R. W 4 do, 

f Allegheny Vallev Railroad,) f. 

I Plum Creek Branch, / " 

Little Saw iSIill Run R. R 1 do, 

Montouss Run R. R 4 do. 



69 Collieries. 



do. 
do. 
do. 



Besides tlie mines above enumerated, all of wliicli are immediately within the tributary ranjie 
of Pittsburgh, it may be well, while confined to the first bituminous district, to state that there are 
upon the Monon<i;ahela rivfer 86 mines, and upon the Youghiogheny river 3 mines, independent of 
railway facilities, making a total of 244 bituminous coal mines, the aggregate product of which for 
the year 1878 was, as closely estimated by the Inspector from satisfactory data, nut coal and slack 
not included, 9,372,881 tons of 2000 pounds each. To attain this result is required the labor of over 
18,000 operatives directlj'', besides a number impossible to estimate in the immediate contingent 
occupations of shipping and maintaining the necessary roads, machinery, barges, steamers and 
general appliances. Tlie dependent manufacture of coke alone engages the attention of forty-one 
firms, who operate in all 3,902 ovens and manufacture annually 75,577,200 bushels of coke, em- 
ploying directly about 1,000 laborers and others. The prodigious increase that has taken place in 
this branch of industry may be more readily observed bj' a comparison, which indicates signifi- 
cantly the vitality inherent in the resources of this city. In 1842 Messrs. S. & J. Cochran, who are 
still engaged in the business, began the first manufacture of coke in this district by the construction 
of two ovens on the Youghioghenj", the product of which as a very hazardous venture, they shipped 
on a flat boat to Cincinnati, where it arrived in safety, and found a more ready market than the 
projectors of the enterprise had at first dared to expect. This cargo consisted of six thousand bush- 
els, and at that time M'as considered a very considerable one. In 1878 the shipments of coke to 
western and south-western parts from the Monongahela and Youghiogheny valleys am.ounted to 
65,697,000 bushels with every appearance of a substantial and continued increase in the tratlric, and a 
more universal demand. 1'hese are some of the facts presented by the State Inspector of mines for 
the First Bituminous Coal District of Pennsylvania. 

The report of the Inspector for the Second District, Mr. J. J. Davis, is almost equally interest- 
ing as this section lying to the north and embracing those counties situated in between Lake Erie 
and the New York line, and Allegheny and Westmoreland counties on the south, is also a territory 
over which extends the influence of Pittsburgh, its capital, labor and commerce. In this district of 
the bituminous coal divisions of the State are 58 mines, nearly half of •which are located in Clarion 
and Mercer counties, which are directlj^ accessible by the Allegheny Vallej^ and the Erie & Pitts- 
burgh i-ailroads and their branches. In the operations for which these mines form a basis are em- 
ploj'ed over 2,000 workers in the various departments, tlie production in 1878 being about 675,000 
tons of coal, exclusive of slack and nut. The manufacture of coke in this district is a very large 
additional item to swell the importance of the natural resources in this department, and it is to be 
regretted, though the law under which he acts does not require it, that Mr. Davis failed in his report 
to the Secretary of the Interior to give accurate statistics in reference to this important depart- 
ment of the coal trade. 

In a valuable article read by Wm. P. Shinn, Esq., chairman of the Edgar Thomson St«el 
Works, (Limited, ) before the American Institute of Mining Engineers, convened in this city, May 
13, 1879, it is stated, in commenting upon the coal interest, of which Pittsburgh is the centre, that 
the surrounding area in Pennsylvania alone of bituminous coal is not less than 15,000 square miles, 
exclusive of the tracts easy of access in Ohio and West Virginia. From the same authority it ap- 
pears that the total production of coal in the United States during the year 1878 was 49,130,584 
tons, of which Pennsylvania supplied 17,605,262 tons of anthracite and 13,500,000 tons of bitumi- 
nous, or over 63 per cent, of all the coal mined in the United States. The soft coal produced in the 
Pittsburgh' districts representing not less than 50 percent, of all the bituminous produced in the 
country, the true importance of which is not thoroughly understood without consideration. 

From the same paper some figures are taken with reference to the increase in the manufacture 
of coke that deserve attention, as being highly indicative of the vital forces constantly operating to 
enlarge the borders of Pittsburgh's pi'osperity. From the most reliable data, and in accordance 
with the estimates of expert and experienced producers, it appears that the following table, stated 
in tons of 2,000 lbs. is as nearly correct as possible : 

1875, Coke produced 666,495 tons. 

1876, " " 770,758 " 

1877, " " 869,429 " 

1878, " " 1,012,328 " 



CITY OP PITTSBURGH. 



41 



An increase of 
nearly 100 per cent, in 
the short period of four 
years, and with no evi- 
dences of abatement in 
growth during the cur- 
rent twelve months. 
Such evidences of splen- 
did progress, while cal- 
culated to fill the mind 
of a stranger with as- 
tonishment, has no such 
effect upon the average 
Pittsburslier, who sur- 




Exposition Buildings, Allegheny City. 



veys such results with a calmness devoid of enthusiasm, as being quite in the natural order of his 
experience in the past, and equally to be expected as the outcome of the future. 

The matchless advantages possessed by Pittsburgh for the manufacture of coke, is an ample a.s- 
surance that, no matter what unfortunate contingencies may arise in time to come, this must always 
be the main source of supplies for the entire country in this commodity, which also guarantees a 
perpetuity to this location as the centre for the production of pig iron, a reflection which suggests 
some consideration of the great staple and ponderous industry wherein lies the pith and puissance 
of Pittsburgh as the manufacturing stronghold of America. 

THE IRON TRADE. 

Around the earh" history of every modern industry that has had and still exerts a pregnant in- 
fluence upon the condition of the race is centered an interest, an absorbing attraction, that manifests 
itself in the significance attached to the labors of the historian and archaeologist, who with un- 
daunted resolution delve after the details of germinal facts. 

The circumstances surrounding the erection of the fir.st blast furnace in Pittsburgh, the nation- 
ality, characteristics and mental complection of its projector, his hopes, fears, first trials, struggles 
and conquests, would furnish matter for a storj- of no less real importance tlian that of many a half 
forgotten empire, and would assuredly captivate by episodes of more living human sympathy. But 
little of such material however has been pi-eserved, and as the last competent writer on the subject 
we borrow from the paper of Mr. Shinn the loUowing succinct sketch, which begins in this con- 
nection upon the topic of Pig Iron: "The first blast furnace erected in the immediate vicinity of 
Pittsburgh was located on Two-Mile Run, near the present Shad3'side station, on the Pennsylvania 
railroad. Is was built by George Anshutz, about 1792, and was operated only about two j^ears, as 
its location appears to have been a mistake, based upon the supposition that iron ore was to be 
found in that vicinity. It was not until 1859 that the second blast furnace — and the first of the ex- 
isting furnaces in Pittsburgh — was built by Graff, Bennett & Co., on the south side of the Mononga- 
hela river, and known as " Clinton " Furnace. The pig iron industry of Pittsburgh is therefore less 
than twenty years old at this date. There are now twelve blast furnaces in Pittsburgh and its im- 
mediate vicinity, and three more in progress; the annual capacity of which, when the three named 
are completed, will be about 486,000 net tons of 2,000 pounds. 

The furnaces are in detail as follows : 



Built 



Name. 



1859 Clinton. 

1861 Eliza No. 1. 

1861 Eliza No. 2. 



186:^ . 

1863 . 

1865. 

1865. 

1872. 

1872. 

1872. 

1872. 

1877. 

1879, 

1879 

1879. 



Superior No. 1. 
Superior No. 2. 
Shoenberger No 1. 
Shoenberger No 2. 



Isabella No. 
Isabella No. 
Soho. 

Lucy No. 1. 
Lucy No. 2. 
Furnace A. 
Furnace B. 
Furnace C. 



Owned by 



Graff, Bennett & Co. 
Laughlins & Co. 

Superior Iron Co. 

Shoenberger, Blair & Co. 

Isabella Furnace Co. 

Moorehead, McLeane& Co 
Lucy Furnace Co. 

Ed. Thomson Steel Co. (L) 









Annual 


Height. 


Bosh. 


( 


Capacity 
I'ons. 


45 feet. 


12 feet. 




14,000 


60 " 
60 " 


17 " 
14 " 


} 


70,000 


45 " 
45 " 


12 " 
12 " 


1 


25,000 


62 " 
62 " 


13 " 
13 " 


\ 
1 


48,000 


75 " 
75 " 


18 " 
20 " 


\ 
i 


80,000 


65 " 


19 " 




31,000 


75 " 

75 " 


20 '• 
20 " 


} 


85,000 


65 " 


13 " 




25,000 


80 " 


20 " 




45,000 


80 " 


20 " 




45,000 



The following table, compiled from the statistics of the American Iron Trade as furnished by 
James M. Swank, secretary of the American Iron and Steel Association, shows the proportion which 



42 



rNDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



the product of Pennsylvania pig irOn bore to that of the United States, and the proportion which 
the pig iron produced in Allegheny county bore to that of Pennsylvania, and the whole United 
States respectively, during the j-ears 1874 to 1878 inclusive, all stated in tons of 2,000 lbs. : 



Year. 



1874 
1875 
1876 

1877 
1878 



Pig iron 

made in 

Unite'^ tates. 



2,689,413 
2,266,581 
.2,093,236 
2,314,585 
2,577,361 



Pig iron 

made in 

Pennsylvania. 



1,213,133 
960,884 
1,009,613 
1.153,356 
1,342.633 



Per cent, 
of total 
product. 



45.11 

42.40 
48.23 
49.83 
52.09 



Pig iron made in AUe- 
gheny county. 



143,660 
131,856 
128,555 
141,749 
217,299 



C a " 
» S 3 



11.84 
13.72 
12.73 
12.29 
16.18 



:P^n 



5.35 
5.82 
6.14 
5.12 
8.40 



From this statement it will be seen that the pig iron product of Allegheny county has steadily 
increased from 5 34-100 per cent, of the product of the United States in 1874 to 8 40-100 per cent. — 
or almost exactly one-twelfth — in 1878. 

The amount of pig iron brought into Pittsburgh by rail and river during 1878, was 250,476 gross 
tons, equal to 280,533 net tons; adding to this the pig iron made in Allegheny county during the 
year, 217,290 net tons, makes a total of pig iron made and brought into Allegheny county during 
the year 1878 of 497,832 net tons; or 19 32-100 percent. — nearly one-fifth — of the total product of 
pig iron for the United States. To this add muck bars, 2,033 net tons; blooms and billets, 35,791 
net tons ; scrap iron, 64,536 net tons, and we have a grand total of 600,192 net tons of pig iron, 
muck bar, blooms, billets and scrap, most or all of which was consumed in Allegheny countj- during 
the year 1878, an amount nearly equal to one-fourth of the whole pig iron production of the United 
States for that year. 

ROLLED IRON. 

The first rolling mill in Allegheny county, owned by Christopher Cowan, was built in 1812, and 
known as the Pittsburgh Rolling Mill. And the second the Union Rolling Mill — not the present 
mill of that name — was built in 1819, and was accidentally blown up and permanently dismantled in 
1829, the machinery being taken to Covington, Kentuckj'. This mill had four puddling furnaces, 
the first in Pittsburgh ; it was also the first mill in Pittsburgh to roll bar iron, and was the largest 
and most extensive mill of the kind in the western country. 

The Grant Hill Iron Works were erected in 1821, by William B. Hays and David Adams, near 
where the Court House now stands. 

The Juniata Iron Works were erected in 1824, and were owned by Dr. Peter Shoenberger. 
The Sligo Mill was erected in 1825 where it now stands, by Robert T. Stewart and John Lyon. 

Pig metal for the supply of these mills was mostly brought from the Juniata Valley, which also 
supplied them with blooms. The Juniata pig iron and blooms were hauled over the Alleghenj' 
Mountains to Johnstown, usually on sleds in the winter season, and taken down the Conemaugh, 
Kiskimiuetas and Allegheny to Pittsburgh on the spring and fall freshets. In 1821 Pittsburgh had 
8 rolling mills, using 6,000 tons blooms, chieflj' from the Juniata Valley, and 1,500 tons of pig metal. 

In 1856 there were in Allegheny county 25 rolling mills and 33 foundries. The six rolling 
mills in existence in 1826 employed 281 hands, and made 5230 tons of iron, valued at $559,000 and 
consumed 561,700 bushels of coal. In 1879 the situation in this regard is as follows : 

• 

Number of rolling mills completed 34 

Number of rolling mills building (at McKeesport) 1 

Number of common puddling furnaces 769 

Number of Danks puddling furnaces 11 

Number of Siemens puddling furnaces 10 

Total puddling furnaces 790 

Number of employees 12,172 

Annual capacity in tons 500,000 

The number of single puddling furnaces in rolling mills in the United States — counting a double 
furnace as equivalent to two single — was in 1878, 4463, so that the number in Allegheny county was 
17 7-10 per cent, of the number of puddling furnaces in the United States, while the number of roll- 
ing mills in the United States being 340, Allegheny county contained 10 per cent, of their number. 

The following table shows the amount of rolled iron, including sheets and nail plates, produced 
in Allegheny county and in the United States during the years 1874 to 1878, stated in tons of 
2.000 lb. : 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 43 



TOTAL ROLLED IRON, INCLUDING NAILS. 



In the United In Allegheny 

Year. States, County, Per Cent, of 

Tons. Tons. U. S. Product 

1874 1,110,447 274,625 24.73 

1875 1,097,867 239,069. 21.78 

1876 1,042,101.. 247,943 23.79 

1877 1,144,219 268,486.. 23.46 

1878 1,232,686 282,333 22.93 

It will be seen that the proportion of rolled iron — exclusive of rails — made in Allegheny county 
has varied from 24.73-100 per cent, in 1874 to 22.98-100 per cent, in 1878 of the whole product of 
rolled iron — exclusive of iron rails — made in the United States. The falling off in percentage of 
the rolled product, indicated since 1874, is mainly, if not wholly, owing to the fact that the wages 
paid puddlers and other rolling-mill expert labor in Pittsburgh are from 30 to 50 per cent, higher 
than is paid for similar labor in rolling mills east of Pittsburgh. Six of the rolling mills have con- 
nected with them nail mills, having an aggregate of 472 nail machines, which produced, in 1874, 
562,995 kegs of nails of 100 lbs. each, and, in 1878, 441,013 kegs, the former being 11.45-100 per 
cent., and the latter being 10.10-100 per cent, of the product of the United States; the reason for 
the reduced proportion being attributable to the same causes as that given for rolled iron. 

Allegheny county has many specialties in iron among its manufactures, prominent among which 
are, Messrs. Jones & Laughlins' cold-rolled iron, for shafting, piston rods, etc. ; Messrs. W. D. Wood 
& Co.'s planished sheet iron, the only successful rival of the Russia sheet iron ; the Tin and Terne 
Plate Works of the United States Iron and Tin Plate Co., and Messrs. Kirkpatrick, Beale & Co., 
the only manufacturers of that material in the United States; and Andrew Kloman's Universal Mill, 
for the manufacture of weldless eye-bars and other bridge material, by a new and highly successful 
process, applicable to iron, but which is particularly successful with steel. 

The specialties above enumerated are only such as are found nowhere else in this country, there 
being many other specialties manufactured here which are not, however, exclusively products of this 
county. 

In glancing at the iron trade of Pittsburgh, that branch of it which relates to founding and cast- 
ing is second in importance, labor and capital, to the rolling-mill interests, and equally prominent 
so far as the chief celebrity of this city is concerned The first iron foundry was established in Pitta- 
burgh in 1803. This industry having effected a lodgement here grew with all the vitality of an in- 
digenous plant. So considerable has been the advancement made in this direction that it has be- 
come an accepted fact that in large work or small, from a thumb latch to a columbiad carrying a 
ball weighing 1000 pounds, the facilities which Pittsburgh enjoys for casting iron or steel are not 
duplicated on this continent. From the first foundry erected in this city in 1803 and the direct line 
of its business successors, has been turned out ordnance that has bellowed in three wars of the Re- 
public. Over 2,000 guns and mortars were cast during the war of the Rebellion, and from Perry's 
victory on Lake Erie to the battle of the Wilderness the resolute " dogs of war " cradled in Pitts- 
burgh ; have been ever ready to persuade for peace with most eloquent enunciation. 

A detailed history of the first Pittsburgh foundry would make interesting and instructive read- 
ing, but each enterprise of this description is filled with matter to attract, and the general plan 
must in this department of the work be adhered to. In Pittsburgh at the present time are, includ- 
ing roll and heavy machine, general stove and malleable iron founderies and machine shops and 
founderies combined, not less than about forty separate establishments engaged in these closely al- 
lied industries, besides which there are extensive forges, engine and machine shops, plows and agri- 
cultural implement works, manufactories for steam pumps, builders and domestic hardware, saddlerj' 
goods, locomotives, bolts and nuts, spikes and rivets, iron bridges, wrought iron pipe and boiler 
flues, cast iron pipe, boilers, stills and tanks, wire iron fences, car wheels, chains, horse-shoes, 
nails, sheet iron, and in short every possible article for the construction of which modern skill and 
invention have regarded iron as the best or cheapest material. These operations emploj' thousands 
of expert artisans, whose wages are higher than paid any similar class of workmen in the world, 
creating a reactive influence upon the community at large that is promotive of the most satisfactory 
results. 

STEEL. 

Pittsburgh stands pre-eminently at the head of the crucible steel production of this country. 
In 1813 there was a steel furnace here owned by Tuper & McKowan, probably making only bli.«tcr 
steel. In 1829 an Englishman named Broadmeadow, made blister steel at Pittsburgh, and about 
1831 made a cast steel of low grade in pots of his own manufacture. His works were located at 
Bayardstown, now Fifth wai-d, near the old Fifth ward Market House. Josiah Ankrim & Sons, file 
makers, Pittsburgh, are said to have succeeded in making their own steel about 1830. In 1831 
Messrs. Whitmore & Havens successfuU}' produced blister steel at Pittsburgh. In 1833 the firm of 

Note. — The product given for Allegheny county in Mr. Swank's report includes iron rails ; but the only iron rails 
made in Allegheny county from 1874 to 1878 were of very light patterns, from 12 to 20 lb., and but very small in 
quantity. 



44 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



G. & J. H. Shoenberger commenced to manufacture blister steel here. At about 1840 the firm of 
Isaac Jones & William Coleman was formed at Pittsburgh, and manufactured blister and spring 
steel, which business they successfully prosecuted until 1845, when they were succeeded by Jones & 
Quigg, who built the Pittsburgh Steel Works. In 1846 Coleman & Hailman commenced the manu- 
facture of blister and plow steel, and subsequently made all but first-quality cast steel. 

In 1850 there were in Pennsylvania thirteen works, with an annual product of 6, 078 tons, of 
which six works, with a capacity of 3278 tons, were in Pittsburgh. In 1853 the firm of Singer, Nim- 
ick & Co., which had been organized in 1848, was successful in producing the higher grades of cast- 
steel for saw, machinery and agricultural purposes. In 1859 Messrs. Hussey, Wells & Co. were 
successful in making crucible cast steel of the best quality; and in 1862 Messrs. Park, Bro. & Co. 
accomplished the same result. There are now in Allegheny countj' : 

Crucible steel works 12 

Having Siemens pot furnaces 33, with 1123 pots. 

Coke holes 223 " 

Total pots 1346 

Open-hearth furnaces, 4 completed, 2 erecting, total 6 

The erection of the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, the only Bessemer steel works in Allegheny 
county, was commenced by Carnegie, McCandless & Co. in the spring of 1873, and in 1874 the or- 
ganization was changed in name to " The Edgar Thompson Steel Co., Limited." Their works, 
located at Bessemer Station, on the Penns3'lvania railroad and Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and 
on the Monongahela river, commenced operations on September 1st, 1875. Thej' have two Be.sse- 
mer converters, blooming mill, and rail and billet mill, and a five-ton forge hammer. The company 
is also erecting three blast furnaces on its ground near the steel works. This company, although 
its works have been in operation less than four years, reached in 1878 the largest output in rails and 
billets made by any works in the United States in any one year, and the largest output of Bessemer 
ingots made by any " two ccnverter " plant in the world. 

The production of the various qualities of steel in the United States, and in Alleghenj' county, 
respective 1}^, during 1877 and 1878, was as follows, stated in tons of 2000 lbs. : 



Kinds of Steel. 



Bessemer steel ingots 

Open-hearth steel ingots 

Crucible cast-steel 

All other steel 

Bes.seraer steel rails 



United States. 



Total Product. 



1877. 



560,587 
25,031 
40,430 
11,924 

432,169 



1878. 



732,226 

36,126 

42,906 

8,556 

550,398 



Allegheny County. 



Total Product. 



1877. 



73,278 

800 

24,747 

8,323 

54,635 



1878. 



99,344 
1,025 

27,365 
6,579 

72,246 



Proportion of 

United States 

Product. 



Per ct. 

1877. 



13.07 
3.20 
61.34 
70. 
12.65 



Per ct. 

1878. 

13.57 
2.84 
64.95 
76.90 
13 13 



Of the total product of Bessemer and open-hearth steel ingots in the United States, in 1877, 
there was made in Alleghenj^ county 12.65 per cent., and of the total product of the United States 
in 1878, Allegheny county manufactured 13.06 per cent. Of the total product of crucible, cast, 
blister and puddled steel manufactured in the United States in 1877, Allegheny county produced 
63.16 per cent.; and of the product of the United States in 1878, Allegheny county produced 66.93 
per cent. 

The percentage of product in open-hearth steel has heretofore been low, but there have been 
erected and put in operation since January 1, 1879, two open-hearth steel furnaces — one by Ander- 
son & Co.. and one by Hussey, Howe & Co.; two others are in process of erection by Shoenberger, 
Blair & Co., and Mr. Thomas S. Blair is about to start his open-hearth furnace at Glenwood, here- 
tofore operated in connection with the manufacture of iron sponge. When the open-hearth furnaces 
now being erected are completed, Alleghenj" county will take the lead ia open-hearth steel, as she 
has heretofore done in crucible steel. 

Pittsburgh has many specialties in steel manufacture, probably the most important of which is 
the higher qualities of tool steel, which, during the past ten j'ears, have almost entirely supplanted, 
ill the markets of this country the English tool steel — a result reached only after the most patient 
effort and in opposition to the most determined prejudice of the manufacturers and users of tool 
steels. 

It is notable, also, in connection with the Bessemer steel manufacture, that the steel for the 
cables of the East-river bridge was manufactured here into wire rod by Anderson & Co., and that 
the steel for the Glasgow bridge over the Missouri river, the first all-steel bridge in this country, was 
manufactured under the "Hay" process by the Edgar Thompson Steel Co., Limited, and rolled bj' 
Hussey, Howe & Co., and Andrew Kloman, into the various shapes used in constructing that 
bridge. 



46 • INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

GLASS. 

In that part of this work which is devoted to the details of the various industi'ial enterprises of 
Pittsburgh will be found much matter pertaining to the glass trade, which will amply repay the 
perusal of the reader and convej'^ a very satisfactory idea of the extent and importance of our 
resources in this direction, which ranks first in prominence after iron and steel. 

The first glass house in Pittsbui-gh is said to have been in operation in 1795, and was located 
near what is now called " Glass House Ripple," in the Ohio river. It is, however, on record that 
Gen. James Hara and Major Isaac Craig commenced arrangements for the manufacture of glass 
in 1796 with an eight-pot furnace. In 1807 George Robinson and Edward Ensel commenced the 
manufacture of flint glass, and in 1808 they were sold out to Messrs. Bakewell & Page; their suc- 
cessors, Messi's. Bakewell, Pears & Co., having carried on the business to the present time. In 
1826 there were in operation in Pittsburgh and vicinity seven glass works, with a capacitj'' of 27,000 
boxes of window glass, and of flint glass to the value of $30,000. The number of glass manufacto- 
ries now in Pittsburgh, is as follows : 

"Works. Pots. Hands. Product. 

Table Ware 24 242 1,895 $2,000,000 

Window Glass 24 234 1,200 2,000,000 

Flint Glass Bottles 8 66 619 420,000 

Glass Chimneys 9 90 790 500,000 

Green Glass Bottle 10 67 944 1,200,000 

Total 75 699 5,448 $6,120,000 

The amount of glass manufactured in Allegheny county is about one-half the total production 
of the entire United States, and from every reasonable indication will not only maintain this supre- 
macy, but even become more iDre-eniinently prosperous in this branch of manufactures. A con- 
clusion of this kind seems not to be avoided, from the fact that everj'^ year marks some surprising 
improvement for the rapid and accurate manipulation of this material, under patents which are 
held exclusively by Pittsburgh producers. During the past few months one extensive manufacturer 
on the South Side has discovered and perfected a process, by which goods are produced in almost 
exact imitation of the finest French ceramic ware, a result never heretofore obtained in glass, and 
on every side is observed the sedulous application of more effective appliances, for the retention and 
enlargement of this staple industry, and its more comprehensive development. One fact in relation 
to the glass trade of Pittsburgh bears more than ordinary significance, when considered with refer- 
ence to the future aggrandizement of this department of our resources, and that is the gratifying in- 
crease of an export trade, that but a few years since had no existence whatsoever. 

In accordance with the annual report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics on the Commerce 
and Navigation of the United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878, it appears that in 
1871 the exports of glass and glassware amounted to $466,447, and for 1878 $869,682, an increase 
of nearly 100 per cent., making the prediction a safe one that for the fiscal year jui^closing the ex- 
ports will amount to over one million dollars. 

These figures at first to the casual observer may not seem to carry the real importance that 
should be ascribed to them, but when it is considered that England, France, Belgium, Italy and 
other countries are largely engaged in supplj'ing the world with glass and glassware, under the pro- 
tection of ancient guilds, and the advantages of cheap labor, materials and an established trade; 
the progress made in this direction by a far removed inland city of a new continent, should be re- 
garded as little less than mai'velous, and should have the effect of inciting renewed and active ef- 
forts for the accomplishment of annually greater results. 

PETROLEUM. 

But two decades have passed away since the systematic commercial production of petroleum 
staggered the credulity of the whole world, and hurried to Western Pennsylvania all the drifting ar- 
gonauts of fortune from Nova Scotia to New Mexico. 

No such exodus to any given locality had hitherto been known in this country or perhaps in 
any other. Not even during the gold excitement were the shores of California visited with crowds 
so vast or heterogeneous. Towns of no small magnitude actually sprang into existence in the night 
like mushrooms, and the oil regions of the Ke.ystone State were metamorphosed almost by magic 
from deserted wilderness into thriving, populous communities, while sudden wealth poured from the 
punctured bosom of mother earth, with a copious prodigality that seemed absolutely limitless. The 
consequent excitement of that period in which Pittsburgh was deeply involved and the immediate 
conversion of numerous refineries which had been erected for the distillation of coal into refineries 
for petroleum, is a well remembered phase of local history. This city became at once the virtual 
centre of the oil trade of the world, a position still sustained, and of which it would be difficult to 
deprive her. 

The production of petroleum in 1859, though far from being a discover}' in one sense, was in 
another a very important one. As earlj'^ in the historj' of America as 1627 the fact of its existence 
was made a matter of comment by a French missionarj', Joseph Dalaroche, in letters written from 
near that locality which has lately become so prolific of oil known as the Bradford regions. De 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 47 



Charlevoix, a French historian, traveler and Jesuit, in his Historie de la Nouvelle Fi-ance, recounts 
from his journal of May 1721, the fact of their being at the head waters of the Allegheny fountains, 
which are like oil, having the taste of iron, with a " piquante odeur, " and being used by the natives 
for the alleviation of pain. 

This is regarded as the first reliable mention of petroleum in Pennsylvania, and to a greater or 
less extent from that time its existence has been generally recognized. For many years, prior to 
1859, it was gathered from the pools and waters of oil creek by absorption in blankets or woolen 
fabrics which were spread upon the surface of the stream and at intervals wrung out. Bj this 
tedious process the annual product maj' have reached perhaps a hundred barrels, which was known 
as Seneca oil, rock oil or naptha, being sold as a medicament for certain diseases, especially those 
of a rheumatic character. Kier's Petroleum Liniment was well known during the period between 
1851 and 1859--60. This preparation was manufactured by Mr. Samuel Kier, a resident of this city, 
b}'^ whose advice the first commercial oil producer commenced opei'ations, and in whose shop was 
constructed the first oil rig, primative tools that would now be regarded as curiously obsolete. 

Supplied with these implements, Col. E. L. Drake, of New Haven, Connecticut, began to bore for oil 
at Titusville, exactly twentj' 3^ears ago (June, 1859), and after laboring for more than two months was 
rewarded by striking a twenty-five barrel well, and from that moment began the prodigious excite- 
ment before referred to, and petroleum became an article of commerce with a dominant interest of 
its own. Ten years from the date of its first production on this basis the annual amount exported 
to foreign countries, especial^ to Europe, in crude, refined and the various products of petroleum 
had reached the sum of $31,122,338, the bulk of which was handled in Pittsburgh and controlled by 
Pittsburgh capital. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878, the export of this commodity had 
reached the amount of $4G, 574,974, a result not to have been anticipated, as during that year the 
production had more than ever overstepped the bounds of demand, reducing the value of petroleum 
to figures lower than had been known up to that period. 

The following table presents a summary of the production of petroleum in the United States, 
by which it will appear that from Pennsylvania emanates 98 per cent, of all the natural oil found 
in the country : 

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM. 

1877. 1878. 

Pennsylvania 13,135,651 barrels. 15,165,462 barrels. 

West Virginia 77,172 " 250,000 

Kentucky and Tennessee 73,000 " 75,000 

California 73,000 " 75,000 

Ohio 36,500 " 45,000 

13,490,171 " 15,608,462 

When it is remembered that nearly 6,000,000 barrels of petroleum were refined in Pittsburgh 
during the past year, to say nothing of the shipping and handling of other vast quantities, some 
idea may be gained of the wealth which is derived from this source alone by this immediate locality. 
The largest manufactory and market contiguous to the oil regions of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh has, 
from the supplj^ of tools, engines, tubing, barrels, materials and merchandise, secured a very con- 
siderable annual revenue, which seems in no danger of immediate reduction. Such being in brief 
the history of the oil trade, it can hardly be denied that it forms an episode in the annals of com- 
merce for which there is absolutely no parallel and no precedent, and to which in no small degree 
the prosperity of Pittsburgh may be readily traced. 

MISCELLANEOUS RESOURCES AND PRODUCTIONS. 

The coal, coke, iron, steel, glass and oil interests of Pittsburgh have now been passed in rapid 
review, and though from these various sources are formed the very bulwarks of our commercial 
thrift, which are, fortunately, staunch enough to prevent all hostile inroads, still there are innumer- 
able lesser interests which all converge to fill out symmetrically the full development of Pittsburgh's 
resources and advantages, and are well worthy of attention. 

Among these, the manufacture of cotton goods has from a very early period engaged consid- 
erable capital, and furnished occupation for a large number of operatives. The mills in this local- 
ity are situated in Allegheny Citj^ and are five in number — two being of extraordinary magnitude. 
These mills, in the aggregate, run 36,000 spindles, 800 looms and 350 cards — the total number of 
employees ranging between 1200 and 1500, to whom are paid about $250,000 annually; the produc- 
tion, during the same period, varjdng, of course, in value, with the state of the market, but consid- 
ered at the present time to be not less than $1,000,000. 

The manufactui-e of white lead is carried on extensively in this community, and with uniform 
success to those engaged in this department of industry, as well as the establishment of a reputation 
for a superior article that is peculiar to Pittsburgh. In the two cities there are eight factories for 
the corroding of lead and the making of derivative contingent products, which employ not less than 
225 hands, to whom is paid about $125^^00 per annum. The consumption of raw material by these 
concerns amounts to 6,500 tons of pig lead annually, 200,000 gallons linseed oil and 300,000 lbs. 



48 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA, 

acetic acid, besides kegs, cans and boxes, in due proportion — the total product in paint leads, &c., 
in kegs of 25 lbs., being about 700,000 packages. Many of these works also prepare paints and 
colors upon a scale of considerable magnitude, and more than one has latelj' given attention to the 
manufacture of iron-oxide paint, which is establishing a superiority for certain purposes that makes 
it more desirable and considerably cheaper than lead paints. 

The production of salt in this city, which, owing to the low price of this commodity, seems to 
be but of small importance, is yet attended with a very considerable revenue, and is obtained with 
such ease and convenience as to attract attention. It was demonstrated some years since, in mak- 
ing experimental borings for oil, that saltwater might be found under either of the cities almost 
anywhere at a depth of from 800 to 2000 feet. One manufactory of this description possesses a 
well 1600 feet deep, which spouts brine at the rate of from 800 to 900 barrels per day, the water 
being ejected by the force of natural gas, which is collected and used for lighting and heating the 
works. Of the four establishments in operation, the value of the product annually is about $l;-iO,000, 
and is remarkable for purity and whiteness. 

In alluding to natural gas, it ma,y be said that it is more than a conjecture that, at from 2000 
to 3000 feet from the surface, exist tliose veins of carburetted hydrogen so commonly struck in the 
oil regions of Butler county, where, for an extended period, this gas has been burning in an unin- 
terrupted and unquenchable stream. Some years since a question arose in regard to the possible 
utilization of this wonderful product for purposes of iron and glass manufacturing, and a line of 
pipe was laid to the nearest gas well, 18 miles distant, connecting at this end with the extensive 
rolling mills of Spang, Chalfant & Co., which are located on the north side of the Allegheny river, 
above the city. The experiment proved a complete success, and, though many alterations were 
required, the mills from that time have been operated solely by this novel and inexpensive fuel. 
Some idea may be gained of the enormous pressure exerted by this gas from the fact that an India- 
rubber ball was shot through the entire length of the pipe in 16 minutes. The Rochester Tumbler 
Co., situated about 25 miles from the city, on the Ohio river, is also supplied from two wells on 
the premises, with the same convenient combustible, which is found to be far superior in the process 
of annealing to any other fuel. Many other concerns are also in possession of this advantage, and 
the presumption generally obtains that, at no distant day, a complete revolution may be effected in 
all manufacturing operations requiring heat, by this means. 

Looking at the ponderous resources with which Pittsburgh is naturally endowed — coal, iron, 
petroleum, gas — it is impossible, taking into account her felicitous geographical position, to avoid 
the conclusion that she is but in the very morning of her greatness, merelj'' tipped by the slanting 
beams of a prosperity that shall, in coming years, deluge with golden showers of unalloyed success. 
The rapid growth of the city has created a demand for building materials that greatly fosters sev- 
eral important industries which derive from this development a continual impetus. First among 
these may be noted the manufacture of brick, which is carried on upon a very extensive scale, there 
being not le.ss than 25 separate manufactories of building brick, and ten of fire brick and tile, 
employing, in all, from 800 to 1000 workmen; the products realizing not far from $1,000,000 annu- 
ally. ... . . . ■ . 

The lumber interest, in this connection, is also of conspicuous importance, and involves in itself 
sufficient capital and labor to make it of no small import. The territory in Pennsylvania and New 
York watered by the sources of the Allegheny river was for many years the main and almost only 
source of supply for timber possessed by Pittsburgh, and so great was the drain upon this section 
that, in 1831, the amount of lumber annually floated was estimated at,30,000,000 feet, which, for 10 
or 15 yeai-s, gradually increased, till the probable annual receipt of lumber by the Allegheny river 
exceeded 50,000,000 feet. Such an enormous decimation of the forests, however, could not continue 
always, and this, together with the devastations of fire, impaired materially the productive i-ichness 
of this district. The demand, however, was in no way abated; on the contrary, the nece.ssity for 
lumber became more urgent, and. the construction of railroads through western Pennsj'lvania 
about that time, fortunately, opened up new regions in this State, as well as by the lakes, secured 
connection with the great forest of Canada, Michigan and the Northwest. In this city, at the 
present time, are engaged in the lumber business, having saw-mills and yards, or planing-mills, 
sash, door and box factories, not less than 75 different concerns, whose operations employ about 
1300 laborers and artisans, and to whom is psiid, in the aggregate, more than half a million dollars 
annually — the total products having an estimated yearly value of $3,500,000. 

As contingent industry, consuming a large amount of lumber and wood of various kinds, the 
manufacture of furniture is not to be ignored. Pursuing this industry are from 12 to 15 con- 
cerns in the cities, whose aggregate output is estimated at nearly a million dollars annually, 
engaging the labor of from 300 to 400 artificers and others, and consuming certain classes of hard- 
ware, marble, upholstery goods and varnish, to a large amount. 

Another interest employing considerable quantities of lumber and hard woods is that related 
to the manufacture of wagons and carriages. In this branch of industrial art are found in tlie 
cities about thirty establishments, some of them very extensive and widely celebrated for the 
elegant finish and designs, as well as the substantial character of their work. More than 400 ar- 
tisans are engaged in the various branches of this trade, and when the value of repairs is taken 
into consideration in connection with the manufacture, the aggregate busines.s of these concerns 
may be estimated as about $750,000 per year. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



49 



The manufacture of barrels and kegs forms no unimportant factor in the general prosperity, to 
which it adds materially. From the refiners of petroleum and manufacturers of nails and white 
lead comes a great demand for articles of this description, to supply which there are about twenty 
cooperages, eitlier independent or in connection with oil refineries, involving the labor of not less 
than from 500 to 600 coopers, whose work results in an annual product valued at $1,250,000. 

Elsewhere will be found a table compiled from the very latest and most reliable sources of in- 
formation, showing the exact number of Urms, individuals and corporatioiis engaged in each sepa- 
rate manufacture, vocation or mercantile pursuit, a glance at which, together with a perusal of the 
detailed descriptive notices contained in tliis volume will afford all the facts upon these various 
matters that can be considered practicable. There are almost innumerable avenues pertaining lo 
manufactures of less importance through which we have conducted the reader in the articles above 
referred to, and to which special consideration is invited, as making up the sum of Pittsburgh's 
stamina; and, as before remarked, the object of this sketch does not involve minute particulars, 
these being furnished in another department, but rather breadth of drawing and effect. 

MERCANTILE AND FINANCIAL. 

It is frequently urged by comparative strangers with regard to the mercantile interests of 
Pittsburgh, that they lack force, importance or aggressiveness, and while freely admitting the pre- 
eminent greatness of our manufacturing operations, allege that in trade we are far behind other 
cities of like or less population. As applied to the past the truth of these strictures can not be 
readily gainsaid ; but as relating to the present condition of affairs they are certainly in wide con- 
travention of the facts. 

The assertion may seem startling and perhaps paradoxical, I ut it is nevertheless a verity that 
heretofore the mercantile interests ot Pittsburgh have been retarded by too much prosperity. In 
ordinary business ventures Pittsburgh merchants absolutely slept upon their oars, and the favoring 
trade-winds of smiling circumstance actually wafted them into snug financial harbors, while their 
only knowledge of storms was confined to casual dreams, suggested by the far off thunder of dis- 
asters elsewhere. When the complications arising from the monetary convulsions of 1873, involved 
Pittsburgh, there was a general and wide awakening of these somnolent mariners, and a struggle 
began with unpropitious elements in which many seeming goodly crafts were swamped, but in 
which was displayed, almost for the first time, some native vigor, resolution and laborious activity 
which saved the fleet and taught a salutary lesson worth millions. Under the influence of the in- 
struction so unwelcome to the learner, it is shown that during the past six or seven years, in the 
teeth of great obstructions, the mercantile strength, influence and operations of this city have pal- 
pably augmented, and that an era of undoubted energy has begun that will lead to the most satis- 
factory results. In the departments of dry goods, boots and shoes, hardware of all descriptions, 
— much of which, especially in fine tools, is manufactured here — leather, liquors, drugs, clotiiing 
and cloths, groceries, crockei'y and earthenware, pork and provisions, grain, flour and malt liquors, 
etc., in a wholesale way, there has been a marked development by the determined extension of a 
trade radius which has been aided in no limited degree by lately acquired advantages in railroa J 
competitions of unusual importance. The outlook fur the future with reference to tlie commercial 
thrift of this city has never appeared in such luminous colors, and the field for enterprise in this 
direction presents as many solid inducements for tlie investment of pluck and capital as any in the 
country. With the experience of the past as a guide, Pittsburgh is fast achieving a position in this 
regard to which she has always 
been justly entitled ; from which 
she has been debarred only by a 
sentiment of intense conservatism 
and too much good fortune. As 
tliey stand to-day, the character 
of the fit ancial institutions of this 
city will compare favorably, for 
solvent stability and correct man- 
agement, with the monetary con- 
cerns of any city in the world, 
and their prosperity may be taken 
as a sure barometer, indicative 
of the general condition of affairs. 
As a conclusive evidence that they 
are prosperous it may be stated 
that there are in Pittsburgh sev- 
enty-one banks and banking insti- 
tutions with an aggregate capital 
of about $20,000,000 and an a.-rgre- 
gate surplus of over $4,000,000, 
which is a showing that must be 
taken as proof of robust finan- 
cial health. Many of these banks 




(4) 



View on Wylie Avenue — BuHness Iwuse of H. Smith & Sons. {Seepage 192.) 



60 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



are of such antiquity as to be ind'ssolubly identified with not only the history of this city, 
but that of the nation. The Bank of Pittsburgh in a career of sixty-five years has made 
in trying times advances to the general Government, and through every financial crisis that 
has occurred during its existence has paid its circulation liabilities in gold, except in 1837 when it 
suspended specie payments for a few days at the instance of the citizens who assembled in conven- 
tion for the purpose of making such a request, laboring under the needless apprehension that the 
demands upon the coin resources of the institution would be greater than it could meet. From the 
organization of this bank till the present time the fiduciary concerns of Pittsburgh have justly ac- 
quired an unusually fair reputation for being conducted upon the safest and most reliable prin- 
ciples. The number of failures that have occurred among them are indeed very limited, confined 
mainly to private enterprises, and, except in one or two instances, far from being of disastrous 
magnitude. The same remark may be made with reference to the fire insurance organizations, the 
outgrowth of Pittsburgh capital, of which there are nearly half as many as there are banks, some 
of which carrj' on an underwriting business which extends over the entire United States, adding no 
little to the general revenue of the city. 

The solvency of Pittsburgh insurance com- 
panies has been so conspicuous as to occasion 
a wide recognition of the fact that, while not 
assuming vast or unwieldj' proportions, they 
afford equal security and protection with the 
most vaunted institutions elsewhere, and are 
conducted with vigilance and discretion. The 
total amount of capital invested in the fire- 
insurance companies of these cities, in round 
numbers, amounts to not less than. $4,500,000 — 
a sum which represents the accumulations as 
well as capital of the twentj'^-four joint-stock 
fire-insurance companies, having their home 
offices in these cities, and emanating from local 
enterprise. It has been asserted that Pitts- 
burgh, more than any other city of like popula- 
tion in the United States, felt the depressing 
influences (following the year 1873) which dis- 
ordered the values of the entire country, but a 
careful examination will prove that in reality 
this community has absolutel.y suffered less than 
any other of even ajiproximate dimensions. In 
1874 and 1875 the trade, manufactures and com- 
merce went forward with unabated prosperity, 
seemingly unaffected by the torpor that began 
to paralyze other places. In 1876 some pre- 
monitions began to obtrude themselves, more 
indicative, however, of future than real present 
trouble; work was plenty — no one was com- 
pelled to an enforced idleness, and though there 
had, it is true, been some serious failures, it can 
not be said that, up to this time, contractions 
had seriously grappled Pittsburgh in dead earn- 
est, or that the conflict between existing conditions and inevitable results had assumed an aspect 
other than that of a lively skirmish, in which a great deal of smoke and dust is produced, with but 
little damage or destruction. During the two years that followed, however, the combat deepened, 
and a goodly number on the defensive were carried from the field, "dead for a ducat," hipped in 
pocket and drained of fiduciary fluids. Even during this period the hum and roar of Pittsburgh's 
industries never ceased. No crowds of idle men loitered in the parks or thronged the thorough- 
fares, giving ocular evidence of commercial prostration — no soup-houses were necessary — and no 
extraordinary charitable disbursements demanded, as was the case in almost every other manufac- 
turing city in the world. 

And now, in the middle of the j'ear 1879, it may be emphatically asseverated, without the aid 
of an active imagination or assumptions that germinate alone in hope, but with a solid phalanx of 
supporting facts at hand, that Pittsburgh has finally and assuredly crossed the rocky isthmus of 
adversity that debarred from pacific waters, and has resumed a voyage favored b.y auspicious gales, 
and signs that indicate prolonged prosperity in a manner unmistakable. In coal, iron, glass, and 
other products and manufactures, active operations are rife on all sides; prices firmer, abetter 
demand, and a feeling of general security to which the community has long been a stranger. Mills, 
factories, furnaces, forges, foundries and mines are resonant with the reiterant clangor of labor, and 
a tidal wave of commercial good fortune floods every industrial avenue. 




Fotirth Baptist Church. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



51 




Pittshiirgh Savings Bank. 



PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, THE PRESS, &c., &c. 

In pursuing reflections with reference to the material advantages of Pittsburgh in regard to its 
resources and the prestige that it has acquired as a manufacturing center, it should not be over- 
looked that, in other respects, it has developed with an equal pace, and that, in the organization of 
public, charitable and benevolent institutions, schools, colleges, hospitals, libraries and other means 
for the education of humanity or the amelioration of the condition of the unfortunate, provision has 
been made in keeping v^ith the most enlightened views of a Christian community and the dictates of 
the highest civilization. 

From the last report of the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, it appears that there are in the cities of Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny 78 school buildings, 61 of which are constructed 
of brick or stone in the most substantial manner, involving the 
most approved arrangements for ventilation, heating and the 
general convenience and comfort alike of pupil and preceptor. 
These buildings are subdivided into 628 schools, governed by 
local school boards and central boards of education. Six hun- 
dred and forty-one teachers, male and female, are employed in 
these schools, which are so graded and arranged that by pro- 
gressive advances the scholar may — beginning in the primary 
department — graduate from the central high school with a 
finished academic and classic education, entirely at the public 
expense. Aside from the benefits couferred by this comprehen- 
sive sj'stem, there are numerous educational institutions for both 
sexes which afford almost unrivalled advantages for the acquisi- 
tion of the higher branches of culture. Some of these have 
attained a wide celebrity, and number among their classes stu- 
dents from the most remote States. The Western University of 
Pennsylvania is perhaps the best illustration of the truth of this 
statement. The college was chartered by the State in 1819, and 
a splendid building erected, which was formally opened in 1822, but unfortunately consumed during 
the great fire of 1845, with all its philosophic appliances, collections, archives and libraries. 
Another structure, however, was shortly erected on Duquesne Waj-, which was also burnt down in 
1849, tiie course of instruction being thereupon suspended until the present University building was 
built, on Ross and Diamond Sts., opposite the Court House, in 1855. From tluit time the institu- 
tion has flourished with wonderful vitality. In 1858 George Woods, LL.D., was appointed Chan- 
cellor, a position which, for 21 years, he has filled with marked usefulness and abilit.y. During this 
period the University has been liberally endowed by public-spirited citizens, and these who perhaps 
recognized the beneficial influence of the institution upon their own early training. One of the 
most prominent patrons of the college, William Thaw, Esq., alone became its sponsor for $100,000, 
which was donated in such a manner as to cost the generous giver nearly double that sum. Bj- the 
aid of these endowments it has become possible to reduce the tuition fees to a merely nominal sum, 
while greatly enlarging the curriculum, which now embi'aces a range equal.to the highest acquire- 
ments, including ancient and modern languages, military and civil engineering, natural sciences, 
laws, &c. — the advantages for the study of astronomy in connection with the Allegheny Observa- 
tory, and the lectures of Prof. Samuel P. Langley, the well-known astronomer and one of the fac- 
ulty, not being equaled in the United States. With ample cabinets — geological,- natural, histor- 
ical, conchological — libraries, scientific apparatus of the finest mechanism, and a faculty of 16 
accomplished educators, it is but a natural result that the Western University of Pennsylvania 
should have achieved its present prominence. The faculty and board of trustees are composed of 
representative men from various denominations: Wm. Thaw, Hon. J. K. Moorhead, Wm. Frew, 
Jas. Park, Jr., Dr. C. G. Hussey, Rt. Rev. J. K. Kerfoot, Rt. Rev. D. R. Kerr, D. D., Hon. F. H. 
Collier, John Harper, Esq., and others serving in the latter capacity. On the other hand, perhaps 
the mo.st useful institution for the proper education of women, in this community, sprung from the 
well-directed efforts of the Methodist denomination in the establishment, a quarter of a century ngo, 
of the Pittsburgh Female College, which was chartered by special act in 1854. This school, which 
has undoubtedly done much to promote a high degree of female culture, is under the immediate 
direction of Rev. I. C. Pershing, D. D., for 20 years president of the faculty, and the contingent 
supervision of a board of trustees composed of 24 gentlemen of the highest standing, presided over 
by the Rev. Bishop, M. Simpson D. D., one of the brightest luminaries of the Methodist denomina- 
tion. The course of study pursued at this institution embraces not onl}- those branches pertaining 
to the solid resources of the human mind, classic and modern languages, English literature, mathe- 
matics, moral and mental philosophy and the natural sciences, but includes instruction in those 
polite accomplishments which are almost as essential. In this department a conservatory of music 
forms a prominent feature, and an art school for culture in drawing, painting and plastic art, affords 
more than ordinary advantages. Established upon the highest principles of usiM'ulncss, as a pri- 
mary design, without thought of pecuniary advantage other than essential to porpctunte the college 
upon a self-sustaining basis, the school has become a prominent institution of learning, and pre- 



52 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



sents advantages in a numerous faculty, of exceptionally solid attainments, and terms of marked 
moderation, that attract pupils from all sections of the country. Under the aegis of the Episcopa- 
lian denomination, the Bishop Bowman Institute, a collegiate school for young ladies, has assumed 
a prominent position among the educational establishments of the State, taking a high rank on the 
score of broad usefulness and able management. This academj- has been established for about 17 
years, its aims being to impart a "thorough and liberal Christian education,'" more than usual 
attention beinir directed to the solid branches of academic culture, and the discipline of the mind to 
effective and original action. To these aims the school has proved adequate in a marked deeree, a 
success due in no limited measure to the labor and influence of the rector, Rev. Robert. J. Coster, 
M. A., and a faculty of rare scholastic accomplishments. The institution was chartered in 1866 by 
tlie State, and is under the contingent supervision of a board of trustees, the chief executive officer 
of which is the Rt. Rev. John Barrett Kerfoot, D. D., LL. D., whose official visits to the school and 
lectures on moral philosophy and the evidences of Christianity, lend additional advantages of a high 
order to those already enumerated. 

The Pennsylvania Female College is another denominational school for the education of young 
ladies, as its name implies, under the especial pi'otection of Presbyterian sponsors. The organiza- 
tion was chartered in 1869, and the buildings, which are remarkable for beauty and magnitude, 
finished and occupied in 1870, from which time the academy has been educationally successful. 
In this connection it would be extremely ungracious to omit mention of one of the most admirable 
as well as useful educational institutions in the countr}', viz., the Pittsburgh School of Design for 
Women. This art school was organized and incorporated in 1865, with the object of affording 
greater opportunities for the education of women than heretofore possessed, and presenting them 
all the advantages to be derived from a s3-stematic training in the technical as well as theoretical 
knowledge of art. Its mission was a high one, but it has already accomplished a noble work among 
its graduates, being found able, and, in many cases, talented artists, and competent instructors in 
fine art, designing, architecture, mechanical drawing, &c. The school is mainly dependent upon 
the voluntar\- contributions of those interested in the work, and affords a worthy channel for the 
wisest benevolence and public spirit. The officers and directors of the school are among the 
most prominent and esteemed members of the communitj', and the faculty consists of Annie W. 
Henderson and Olive Turney, who were among the first graduates in 1871. In speaking of matters 
connected with art and the general educational advantages of Pittsburgh, the Art Society should 




Pennsylvania Female College. (See page 227.) 



CITY OF PITTSBUEGH. 53 



not be forgotten, being an institution highly promotive of culture in music, painting, literature and 
plastic art. This association was organized in 1872-3, Rev. S. F. Scovel, D. D., being the first 
president — Wm. R Thompson, Esq., having occupied this position for some years, being at present 
the chief executive officer. One hundred members are enrolled upon tlie books of the society, many 
of whom are noted musicians, artists and literati, or representatives of the highest intellectual cul- 
tivation of the community. The meetings are held semi-monthly during the Winter in the gallery 
of the Pittsburgh Library Association, and afi'ord means for instruction and entertainment of the 
most attractive and elevating character. 

The above reference to the Pittsburgh Library Association suggests this valuable public 
institution, which has perhaps filled as wide a field of usefulness in the promotion of general 
education as any similar organization in the western portion of the State. Founded in 1847, 
the society lias numbered among its officers gentlemen of the highest social position, of com- 
manding influence and ability, who have given no little time, labor and talent to foster the 
intelligence of the community by the establishment of this library upon a substantial and 
permanent basis. That its condition at the present time more nearly approximates tills stand- 
ard than ever heretofore is mainly due to the tact and energy of Mr. William N. Riddle, who, as 
president of the Association during the past two years, was great)}' instrumental in organizing two 
brilliant semi-social schemes — the Bazaar of Nations and the Library Loan Association — from the 
profits of which the library has been placed upon an excellent footing. From the report of the 
librarian it appears that over L5,000 volumes are now upon the shelves of the institution, witli a 
rapid annual ratio of increase greater than in the past. The ofiicers of the Association, incumbent 
at the present time, are as follows: Wm. N. Riddle, President; Alexander Langhlin, Jr., Vice- 
President; Wm. U. D. Barr, Secretary; Wm. Thaw, Jj-., Treasurer; Directors, Fred. Rinehart, T. 
Brent Swearingen, S. George, Jr., W.' L. Chalfant, W. P. Schell, Jr., and Willis L. Eaton. The 
building occupied by the library was built expressly with a view to its proper accommodation, and 
is one of the most splendid and sumptuous structures in Pittsburgh, the main hall of the library 
being perhaps the handsomest apartment for the purpose in the country, elegantly furni.'^hed, with 
appointments and embellishments of great arti.stic merit and beautj". Though this library is not 
entirely free to the public, yet the annual charge for membership is so small as to place its advan- 
tages within the reach of all who desire to embrace them, the number inscribed upon the rolls of 
membership at present being between K400 and 1500, with every indication of rapid augmentation. 
The library hall building, while, as before remarked, being built mainly with a view to the advantage 
and accommodation of the library, was the work of the Library Hall Company, a joint-stock cor- 
poration, organized in 1869 for the special purpose indicated. This company, though entirely dis- 
tinct from the Pittsburgh Library Association, really emanated from it, and succeeded, through 
the capit-al and interest contributed by members of that Association, in the admirable accomplish- 
ment of its design. The existence of the libraiy hall building is a powerful confirmation of the 
above statement, and, as before remarked, is one of the most sumptuous structures in the country. 
It was erected at a total cost of $290,000, the materials employed in the construction of the facade, 
which is extremely unique and beautiful in architectural design, being gray stone, wliile the wlole 
ponderous edifice is solidl.v and accurately built. Besides containing choice and spacious a]iart- 
ments, halls, galleries, ante-rooms, &c., &c., for the library, the building contains tlie finest public 
hall in Pittsburgh, capable of seating 1400 people, elegantly furnished, and suited in scenery and 
stage appliances for dramatic, operatic and other exhibitions, concerts, lectures, &c.. and is by all 
means the favorite hall for such and kindred purposes. In addition to tliis, the building is fiited 
with an art gallery and music room, properly lighted from the top, and in every way adapted to 
the purposes for which it was designed. The first or ground floor and ba.sements are devoted to 
trade purposes, resulting in a handsome revenue from this and all sources. Charles J. Clarke. Esq., 
is president of the company, in connection with which, as directors and ofiicers, will be found many 
of our first citizens. 

Allegheny City is also supplied with a copious librar}', which is maintained entirely at the 
public expense and by voluntary contributions, ample rooms being provided for it in the muninipal 
buildings. In Allegheny is also located the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian 
Church, which was established in 1831, the college building being first located on what is now 
known as Seminary Hill. This structure, however, ^as destroyed in the Winter of 1854, and tlie 
present structure erected in 1855 on Ridge Avenue, being a large and commodious bnilding. For 
more than a third of a centm-y this celebrated Seminary has been the focal point in the West, as 
Princeton in the East, for the education of clergymen of the Presbyterian denomination, and has 
performed a great work through this means in the evangelization of the country. It appears that, 
under the regulations governing this college, no charge is made Jar ivition or room, and all other 
expenses are so modified as to meet the most limited means, making it possible for any earnest and 
resolute pupil to graduate at an expense within compass of the narrowest resources. The faculty 
consists of six eminent divines, as follows: Rev. Samuel Jennings, D. D., LL. D., Rev. Wni. H. 
Hornblower, D. D., Rev. William H. Jeffers, D. D., Rev. Samuel H. Kellogg, D. D., Rev. Benjamin 
B. Warfield, A.M., Rev. Luther Halsey, D. D., LL. D.; the trustees, directors and other ofiicers 
being among the most prominent in the-^clerlcal or lay society of the denomination. 

In its provisions for the poor, unfortunate, sick, criminal, or insane, Pittsburgh has given the 
most striking assurances of being possessed of an active philanthropj' that has not been surpassed 



54 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



by any community in Amei'ica. In attestation of this assertion, it ma3' be well to point out a few 
of the most prominent charities for the benefit of those at a distance, to whom it is desirable to con- 
ve}^ a jtist conception of Pittsburgh as it is in every material or social aspect. 

The Western Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, located at Dixmont, eight miles from the 
city over the P., Ft. W. and C. R. R., is perhaps one of the best conducted and most useful institu- 
tions of this character in the countrj^ The buildings are vast and complete, so far as human inge- 
nuity and unlimited means can devise or produce, costing in all nearly $1,000,000. Surrounding 
the main structure lies a domain of 320 acres, the State, cities and various counties in West Penn- 
sj'lvania contributing to its support by appropriation, or a charge exacted for the care and mainte- 
nance of patients from the various localities. 

The Homeopathic Hospital is an institution emanating exclusively from the benevolence of 
those believing in the superior efScacy of this school of medicine ; nor has it received the aid to 
which it is entitled by the State, though its advantages are provided gratuitously for the indigent, 
who are supplied Vv'ith attention, medicines, treatment, maintenance and surgical care during their 
entire requirements. The institution was incorporated in 1866, under the title of The Homeopathic 
Medical and Surgical Hospital and Dispensary of Pittsburgh, and from that period has been sus- 
tained entirely hy voluntary contributions. The board of trustees includes the names of many of 
the most prominent and liberal men in the city. The medical board consists of one consulting 
physician, four surgeons, four physicians, two obstetricians, and ten dispensary physicians — 21 
medical men in all. representing the highest efficiency in the homeopathic practice of medicine. 

The Pittsburgh Infirmary, which owes its existence to the philanthropic efforts of Rev. W. A. 
Passarant, is another institution designed to afford relief for the sick and unfortunate. It was 
founded in 1848 and chartered two years later, performing from its first establishment a noble work 
in the aid freely bestowed upon those appealing for help, regardless of race, creed or condition. 

The Mercy Hospital, though under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy, is equally broad in its 
provisions for the sick, and affords admirable facilities, the buildings being large and very com- 
modious. The solicitude of the Sisters has made this institution widely useful and entitled to the 
general consideration in a marked degree. 

Besides the foregoing, there are numerous other benevolent establishments, whose names will 
briefly convej'^ an idea of their purposes without further description : Home for the Friendless, 
designed for destitute children ; Allegheny Widows' Home; Home for Aged Protestant Women; 
The Home for Destitute Women ; Boarding Home for Working Women ; The Sheltering Arms, a 




Pittsburgh Female College. — See Page 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



55 



reformatory and home for unfortunate girls and j'oung women ; Home of Industry ; and Home of 
tbe Little Sisters of the Poor; besides two orphan asylums being under the charge of the Sisters of 
Mercy, who richly deserve the title by which they are known. There are also two other orphan 
asylums and an institution for the education of deaf and dumb children. 

The municipal arrangements for the support of what maj' be called the pauper portion of the 
community are admirable, and by the conjunction of farms, which are worked mainly % the inmates 
of these establishments, they are made, to a great extent, self-supporting, thus relieving able and 
provident citizens from an onerous load of taxation for the maintenance of the poor. These observ- 
ations are particularly apijropriate to the Pittsburgh poor farm, which is located at Homestead, on 
the Monongahela river, about eight miles from the city, and has been, for the past two or three 
j'ears, under the excellent and systematic management of Mr. G. L. Braun, who has, during his 
incumbency as superintendent, not only made many improvements conducive to the health and 
comfort of the inmates, but, by judicious economy and the high cultivation of about 90 acres of 
arable land pertaining to the domain, has reduced the cost of the actual maintenance ot each 
inmate to the sum of 20 and four-sevenths cents per day, or considerably less than that required bj- 
any similar institution in the State. The property, in all, attached to this almshouse, is about 149 
acres, and it is reasonably assumed that, with 150 acres additional and a management equal in 
efficiency to the present, the entire establishment might be made self-supporting. A valuable and 
necessary addition is being made to this institution bj" the erection of a separate and suitable build- 
ing for the accommodation of the insane and demented, for the proper care of whom no adequate 
provision is possible with the present limited room and between HOO and 400 inmates, varying with 
the seasons. This structure is a three-story brick building, 43x195 feet, designed b}' T. I). E\ans, 
architect, and constructed in the most substantial manner, l)eing particularlj- remarkable for tlie 
introduction of the most perfect system of heating and ventilation ever devised, and extraordinary 
moderation in cost, which, for a municipal building, is the occasion of verj' favorable comment. 

The Pennsylvania Reform School, at Morganza, on the P., C. and St. L. R. R., a short ride 
from the city, is another of those splendid charities for which our city is becoming noted. This 
institution was established in 18o4 as a House of Refuge, where the young and \icious of both sexes 
might, by compulsory training and education, be brought into a better moral and intellectual con- 
dition, fitting them for useful and responsible positions in society. AVith this object, a large build- 
ing was erected near the lower part of Allegheny City, where, until 187G, was pursued what is 
called, in reformatory parlance, the '"congregate system," part of which required the restraining 
intluences of bolts, bars, walls and donjon keeps. In conformitj'' with more modern ideas, however, 
and the introduction of methods requiring the abandonment of physical restraints, the establish- 
ment of the school at Morganza upon the " family system " was projected. In pursuance of this 
plan, over 500 acres were purchased at the above place and six separate buildings erected — one 
main and five family dwellings, the plans approved being those furnished by E. M. Butz, Esq.. archi- 
tect. These buildings resemble, in external appearance and internal appointments, the best class 
of the largest private dwellings, except the female department and main structure, which are of 
greater dimensions. Over half a million dollars was spent in the execution of this project, the 
wisdom of which is not questioned. About o20 inmates are now being educated and maintained by 
the institution, which came formally under the sole control of the State during the current year. 
Upon the abandonment of the old structure before referred to, that building was conveyed to the 
State, and is now undergoing changes, alterations and extensions, on the basis of plans designed 
by E. M. Butz, by which it will become a detached part of the Western Penitentiary. 

Much could be 
said in this connec- 
tion of the truly civ- 
ilized mode of con- 
ducting our penal 
institutions, the 
workhouse at Clare- 
mont being a re- 
markable illustra- 
tion of the benefi- 
cent effects of a 
conjunction of sal- 
utary, useful and 
profitable labor and 
moral restraint, lea- 
ding not only to tlie 
improvement of the 
convict in every re- 
spect, but the main- 
tenance, to a great 
degree, of the insti- 
tution upon a self- 
supporting basis. 




56 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

These are a few of the most prominent of those organized efforts for the improvement of the 
needy, the instruction of the ignorant, and the care of the destitute or criminal, for which Pitta- 
burgh is entitled to the esteem of the humane; in addition to which there are fruit and flower chari- 
ties, societies for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals, an association of bankers and 
bank clerks, for mutual benefit and assistance, of which Mr. Wm. N. Riddle is president, an influ- 
ential club for the preservation of the fish and game of the State, law and order societies, and 
numerous other institutions, supplying special needs, or in the performance of noble work, evincing 
the vital operations of an active public spirit, greatly conducive to the social welfare of the whole 
community. 

In proportion to its population, it has been frequently asserted that Pittsburgh supports more 
daily newspapers than anj' other city in the country, nor has any advance agent of any company, 
providing exhibitions for the public, been found willing to controvert this statement; such, on the 
contrary, vehemently endorse the truth of the allegation, sometimes profanely and sometimes 
tearfully, as thej gerrymander from one office to the other. In any event, Pittsburgh is well sup- 
plied with journals, the general standing of which is nearly all that could be desired. We shall 
mention, briefly, in the order of seniorit}', the most prominent: 

The Commercial Gazette, now conducted by King, Reed & Co., was established in 1786 as 
the Pittsburgh Gazette, and, by the purchase of the Commercial, in 1878, effected a consolidation 
of the two papers, by which the title was appropriately changed to the present style. This morn- 
ing journal is the organ of the Republican party in Western Pennsylvania. It has a large circula- 
tion — is ably conducted, especially with reference to politics and mercantile affairs, producing a 
handsome revenue, and exerting an active influence upon all questions of public import. A weekly 
edition is also issued. 

The Evening Chronicle was founded in 1841 as a morning paper, but was subsequently 
changed in 1848 to an evening journal. It is now and has been for manj^ years owned and pub- 
lished by Joseph G. Seibeneck, Esq., who conducts it independent of politics, but not without a 
distinctive and conservative poHcy. As a family journal, this paper has a large circulation, and is 
a general favorite with all classes of the community, especiall}- long residents in this section. The 
weekly edition forms a valuable addition to the journals of the city. 

The Daily Post, as the only organ of the Democratic party in Western Pennsjdvania, occu- 
pies a place peculiarly its own, having an extensive circulation and wielding a strong influence in 
all matters pertaining to the party of which it is the mouthpiece. It was established in 1842, and 
has been owned and conducted for many j-ears bj^ James P. Barr & Co. A weekly edition is also 
issued, which finds numerous subscribers in all parts of the State. The Post is ably conducted, 
and, in a financial point of view, is successful to a marked degree. 

The Pittsburgh Daily Dispatch was established in 1846 by the late Col. J. Herron Foster, 
and was published at first as a penny paper. In 1865 Daniel O'Neill and A. W. Rook purchased 
one-half interest in the concern, which was then in no flourishing condition, and in 1867, on the 
demise of Col. Foster, became sole proprietors. The extraordinary talent for journalism, political 
acumen and business abilitj- possessed by Mr. O'Neill soon caused the paper to assume a foremost 
place among local publications, and in a short time the Dispatch became the leading representa- 
tive journal of this end of the State. The aggressive vigor with which it was conducted resulted 
in a circulation of from 13,000 to 14,000 daily, and an almost princely revenue. On the demise of 
Mr. O'Neill, in 1877, Mr. A. W. Rook, the surviving partner, associated with him Mr. Eugene M. 
O'Neill, under the style of Rook & O'Neill, subsequently changed to Rook, O'Neill & Co., by the 
admission of Mr. Chas. A. CaiToll. The Dispatch is independently Republican, politically and is 
cleverly conducted in all departments, being justly regarded as one of the most influential and 
profitable journals in Pennsylvania. A weekly issue is published, which has a wide support. 

The Evening Leader was founded in 1870 by John W. Pittock, and is now owned and con- 
ducted by the Leader Publishing Company, which publishes, in addition to the evening paper, a 
dollar weekly and Sunday issue, the latter having a very extensive circulation, being the largest and 
best conducted Sundaj- journal in the city. In politics, the Leader is not aUied to any part.y, but 
is none the less pronounced in its views upon all matters either in church or State. It is popular 
with a large class of the community — displays ability in its management, and secures a \evy satis- 
factory revenue. 

The Sunday Critic, published bj- Carson, Haslett& Clark, has been established for some years, 
and is now settled upon a solid footing. It is Democratic in politics, has a good circulation, and is 
a well-managed and readable sheet. 

The Sunday Globe. — This paper is owned and conducted by J. Breen, who has succeeded in 
making it a vivacious and peppery journal, with a large subscription list, a good advertising patron- 
age, and the other essentials for a healthy and prosperous existence. 

The class papers are the American Journal of Industry, an enterprising and valuable sheet 
published in the interest of manufacturers b}' Geo. E. Williams, Esq., and the Pottery and Glass- 
ware Reporter, which emanates from the same source. Though founded within a limited period, 
these journals have attained a pronounced success, and may be justly regarded as representative 
trade papers and vigorous exponents of the industries of this section. 

The American Manufacturer is also an excellent paper, conducted in a very circumspect 
manner. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 57 



The Evening Telegraph was first published in 1878 by a joint-stock company, which finally 
surrendered the journal to tlie control of Ralph Bagaley, Esq., who has conducted it for some years 
with satisfactory result.s. In tone, the paper is Republican, and aims to inspire confidence by an 
honest and fearless course. Its management is in able hands, and the journal is achieving the 
respect of the community, which is evinced by a rapidly enlarging subscription list. The Tele- 
graph has also a weeklj- edition, and iu all respects gives solid proofs of success. 

The Allegheny Evening Mail is the onl}- journal published in Allegheny. It has a good cir- 
culation — is a spicy little sheet, and is conducted editorially bj' Mr. John B Kennedy. 

Besides the above English, there are three German dailies, the most important of which is the 
Freiheits Frepnd, owned and published by Messrs. S. and W. Neeb. It is the Republican organ 
for the Germans, and is an official paper for both cities and the county. It is conducted with a 
large share of financial success. The other German papers are the Volksblatt andREPUBLiKANEK. 

The religious element of the community contributes to the success of several denominational 
journals whose names are indicative of general characteristics : The Presbyterian Banner, The 
Methodist Recorder, The Pittsburgh Christian Advocate, the organ of the M. E. Church, The 
United Presbyterian; The Catholic, and others, published weekly. 

The Hardware Reporter, publislied simultaneously at Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Chicago, 
and the American Manufacturer and Iron World at Pittsburgh and New York, published bj- the 
National Iron and Steel Publishing Company-, are the leading publications of the nation, representa- 
tive of the iron and hardware trades. The manager and treasurer, Mr. Frank Woods, is one of the 
most thoroughlj' posted and ablest trade journalists in the country. To the iron and steel manu- 
facturer, to the dealer, to the hardware merchant, whether the extensive importer and exporter or 
the retail dealer, either The Hardware Reporter or the America7i Manvfacturer should be their 
weekly visitor. Address National Iron and Steel Publishing Co., 97 Wood Street, Pittsburgh. 

Y Wa.sg. — It is estimated that in Western Pennsylvania nlone there is a Welsh population of 
more than 50,000, while in the collieries and iron works of Ohio and the West there are undoubt- 
edly as many more. This large class of Welsh-speaking citizens is fortunate in the possession of a 
really first-class weekly newspaper, printed in their own language by "Y Wasg Printing Com- 
pany," of which Mr. Jenkin Jones is President; Mr. Joseph D. Jones, Vice-President; Mr. 
Thomas W. Davis, Secretary; Mr. D. W. Lloyd, Treasurer; and Mr. R. T. Daniels, Managing 
Editor. Y Wasg is a neat and attractive eight-page paper, ably edited and conducted in the 
interest of the Welsh people of this section, whose industry and peculiar qualifications have done 
80 much toward the development of the iron and coal interests of Western Pennsylvania. It is 
the only Welsh newspaper west of the Allegheny mountains, and, with one exception, the only one 
published in this country. Its circulation throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio and the West, is large 
and steadily increasing, and as an advertising medium for those desirous of reaching this class 
of trade, it is unequalled by any paper in the city. 

In this brief summary of the salient points and obvious advantages of Pittsburgh, it has been 
necessary to condense too much to permit of the production of a sketch that should possess the 
advantages of a careful literary production; nor was labor in this direction considered necessary or 
essential. It would have been pleasant to have loitered with the reader round old historic scenes 
and landmarks of the past — to recall names that have figured in the annals of the nation, and 
legends that may not be forgotten in connection with ahr.ost classic haunts; but the relentless pro- 
pulsion of our theme and object forbade. Industry has been the reiterated cry, and for its evi- 
dences the reader is referred to the sketches and descriptions of Pittsburgh's laborers and labors, 
with which this work is replete. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

There is no feature of American progress and enterprise which more favorably impresses the mind of the foreign 
tourist than the adniiralile system of railway management, the magnificent coaches, the solid and substantial road 
beds, and the elegant structures used for depots and stations by tlie great railroad corporations of this country. In all 
these departments the Pennsylvania Railroad Company stands pre-eminently and conspicuously at the head, and the 
various connections of this company, intersecting with iron bands nearly every section of the Union, furnish means 
of communication for business men and pleasure seekers at once, the most direct, the most picturesque aud beautiful, 
the most convenient and the most comfortable of any road in the world. Railways being now the common highways 
of the land, the managers of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company have made every eflbrt, in their power, to accomodate 
the tniveliiig propensities of the restless and progressive people by well equipped and pleasant routes extending through- 
out the varied and interesting scenery of the Middle, Easters, Northern and Southern States of the Union. The numer- 
ous and widely diverging lines of tlie company, following the course of beautiful rivers, penetrating the fastnesses 
of giant mountains, reacliing the restless waves of the mighty ocean, and meandering through romantic vales and sylvan 
scenes of breezy heights, reaching from the home of the pilgrim fathers and the earliest settlement to the great and 
growing cities of the West, afford facilities for sight seers and pleasure seekers unrivalled on the continent and unsur- 
passed by those furnished by any other company in the world. By arrangements recently completed, the Pennsyl- 
vania Company is now prepared to furnish excursion tickets at special rales to and from almost every prominent point 
of interest on the continent at greatly reduced rates. This company has general ticket offices in all the principal cities 
of the Union, presided over by affable and accomodating gentleiueu, who are always happy to turnish full and explicit 
intormation to travelers relative to the various routes controlled by the company, and an eleg.intly illustrated work 
on Summer Excursion Routes has been carefully prepared under the supervision of competent writers, which will be 
furnished upon application at the different offices, and which will be found an indispensable vade mecinn to pleasure 
seekers and summer tourists. The main offices of the company are located in Philadelphia, Mr. Frank Thomson, gene- 
ral manager ; Mr. L. P. Farmer, general passsen^er and ticket agent ; Mr. Chas. E. Pugii, general superintendent. 

The general ticket office of the Western district is located at No. 78 Fifth avenue, cor. Smithfield street, Pittsburgh. 
Mr. Robert Pitcairn is the general agent and superintendent for this division. All the gentlemen connected with 
this company are noted for their ability in the various departments in which they are engaged, being selected solely 
with an eye to their fitness and general qualifications. 



58 



BEAVEE FALLS. 



^^|m|his thriving and prosperous town with her varied industrial establishments, as being ciosely 
"^^^ identified with the great manufacturing interests of Western Pennsylvania, is worthy of most 

^^^^ favorable consideration in these pages. 

^g On the banks of the Beaver River, that at this point sweeps in a graceful curve along 

A the base of the eastern hills, that rise abruptlj' from its borders to a height of 100 feet or 

more, in a broad, beautiful valley, sloping back to a range of hills on the west, along whose base 
the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. bends, this attractive and growing young city, that dates her foundation 
back but a half score years, is situated. A more beautiful spot for a city Is seldom seen, bj^ her 
gifts Nature having been very bountiful to this favored place. In addition to the beauty of the 
scenery and attractiveness of the situation, its healthfuluess, etc., one of the finest water powers in 
the country is here afforded. In the hills that surround the place are stored inexhaustible supplies 
of coal that Is easily mined and transported to the places of consumption. The hills are covered 
with large quantities of timber of various kinds of hard wood, that are valuable for many purposes. 
The surrounding country is one of the finest agricultural districts In the state, bj- which abundant 
and cheap supplies of food for the busy thousands, who in the varied workshops are producing the 
many articles that find markets in all parts of the world, bringing wealth, contentment and happi- 
ness to her homes, is assured. Proximity to the sources of supply of raw materials is another 
advantage enjoyed. 

Numerous coal pits are opened Into the adjacent hills and an abundant suppty is brought forth. 
The Water Power was secured b}' building dams across the Beaver River, which In all seasons affords 
an abundant and never failing supply. The dam at this point was built in the construction of the 
P. & L. E. Canal many years ago, a fall of 20 feet or more is obtained, and this great natural power 
is utilized by a large number of factories that line the banks of the river In the vicinity of the race, 
and there Is yet abundant room for other establishments. By the completion of the new P. & L. E. 
R. R. a competing line is now had to all parts of the country, a consideration in these days of Rail- 
way monopolies and discrimination of the greatest importance. The Ohio River is distant but 22- 
miles, b}' which connection Is had with the great natural higliways of the West. 

The manufacturing interests that have been attracted here in the short period of her growth are 
of a greatly diversified character — embracing a number of the finest establishments in their particu- 
lar branch of industry in the United States, and which are remarkable. In many respects, for their 
splendid equipment, the superiority of their products and the great success they have attained. 
Mention of each separate industry Is given in detail in these pages. The town is abundantly and 
inexpensively supplied with water by the Holley system, tiie engine being driven by a 42-Inch water 
wheel with a capacity to supply four times the quantity of water now required. Fire plugs are dis- 
tributed throughout the city, the pressure being sufficient to throw water to the tops of the highest 
buildings. A fine reservoir, with fine storage capacity, has been constructed, from which the water 
after being filtered is distributed throughout the mains. The Fire Department Is well equipped with 
a steamer, Babcock engine, an abundant supply of hose and other apparatus, and has proved to be 
very efficient. The town is well lighted, numerous gas lamps being erected along the streets. 

A spirit of enterprise and improvement pervades the whole place and progress seems to be the 
watchword with all. The water power, which Is now verj^ fine, Is proposed to be enlarged by the 
building of another dam with 30 feet fall, that will give a tenfold Increased power and afford abun- 
dant facilities for largely increased manufacturing interest that is being attracted to this point by 
the great advantages afforded. A new iron bridge, 700 feet long, is in process of erection by the 
Penn Bridge Works of this place across the Beaver River, at the upper end of the town, that will 
bring a large and wealthy agricultural district in direct communication with it and prove of great 
advantage to the mercantile interests of the place, which are already of a greatlj' diversified nature. 
The natural beauty of the place, its healthfuluess and central localitj-, have been the important 
considerations in the selection of this point for the location of the Reformed Presbyterian Univer- 
sity, which will be removed from Geneva, 0., here, where the Harmony Society have generously 
donated them 10 acres of beautiful ground most admirably located. 

CHURCHES. 

There are now 8 churches in the town, some of them verj' handsome and substantial structures, 
— two Methodist, two Presbyterian, one Reformed Presbyterian, one Episcopalian, one German 
Lutheran, one Evangelical. 

A handsome Public School building is situated near the centre of the town. There are many 
fine and substantial business houses located on Main street, and many fine private residences in 
different parts of the place. The streets are admirably laid out, are wide and airy, and the neat and 
attractive cottages of the busy artisans who find employment in the various manufactories, sur- 
rounded with shrubbery and flowers, present a picture of contentment and happiness that is foreign 



BEAVER FALLS. 59 



to the dwellings of the toiling millions in some of the great manufacturing centres. The population 
is estimated at from 6000 to 7000, and Avill scarce!}' fall short of the latter figure. The distance to 
Pittsburgh, with the interests of which this place is intimately connected, is but 30 miles by rail. 

It is appropriate, in connection witli this review of Beaver Falls of to-day, to glance at some of 
the causes that have contributed to the wonderful growth of the place, aside from the many natural 
advantages briefly mentioned above, and the men whose foresight, energj^ and public spirit have been 
the means of attracting to this point the industries that have built up the place and the name of 
Beaver Falls known throughout the Avorld as a great industrial centre. The property upon which 
the town is now built, something over ten years ago, came into possession of the Harmony Society 
at Economy, a communitj' of people, who perhaps will be recognized more generally under the 
name of the Economites, who, for many years, have been located a few miles from the place in a 
town built by themselves, called Economy, and who, bj' their industry and frugality, have accumu- 
lated great wealth. Having loaned a large amount of money secured bj' mortgage, they were 
eventually compelled to take the property, which they were desirous of selling ; failing to secure a 
purchaser for it at what they considered its value, Messrs. Baker and Henrie, Trustees of the Soci- 
ety, decided to lay out a town and sell the property off in lots. The services of the men to whose 
energy and abilities perhaps more than any other cause is Beaver Falls indebted for her position 
to-day. Messrs. H. T. & J. Reeves were called into requisition, and the property placed in their 
hands as Agents for the Society. These gentlemen had been previously recognized as among the 
most enterprising and reliable Real Estate operators in this section, and realizing the great mutual 
advantages of the place for manufacturing purposes and the advantages to be derived from the estab- 
lishment of industrial interests on the property, directed their efforts toward inducing manui'acturers 
to locate in the town, to whom the liberal inducements were extended as well as material aid by the 
Harmony Society. Among the first establishments to locate here was the cutlery works, which 
was originally started in Rochester, a few miles below this place. Messrs. Reeves induced the pro- 
prietors to remove to Beaver Falls, Avhere other enterprises have rapidly followed, generously fos- 
tered and encouraged by the liberal policy of the Harmony Societj^, guided by the wisdom of Messrs. 
Henrie and Lenz, Trustees. 

Messrs. Reeves and Judge Hice, the able counsel of the Society, have been the active instru- 
ments of building this thriving young city, which, guided by their wisdom and aided by the abundant 
capital of the Societ}', has risen to such solid proportions in the short period of 10 years, and as 
these gentlemen are still actually guiding the varied interests of the place, and pushing with charac- 
teristic energ}- every enterprise that could tend to increase the prosperity of the town, and oversee- 
ing their aim, and the great interests of the society, in their connection with the various industries 
located here, must naturally feel great gratification as they look upon the wonderful results of their 
well directed efforts. Possessing so many natural advantages, encouraged and fostered bj' the far- 
seeing and liberal policy of the patrons of the place, no place in the United States offers more 
inducements to manufacturers than Beaver Falls, whose future must be as brilliant as it will be 
enduring. 

ALGEO BURIAL CASKET WORKS - ^. G. Algeo & Son, Beaver Falls, Pa. 

These fine and excellently equipped works were established by Messrs. Algeo & Son in 1874, and have been in the 
enjoyment of a piosperous anil growing trade since their beginning. They are admirably located on the banks of the 
Beaver river, supjilied with abundant water power by wliicli the inachioery is driven. They are fitted with complete 
and perfect machinery, and are in every respect most conveniently and systematically arranged. The building, 
which was built with a view to the requirements of the business, is 40x100 feet in size, 2 stories high, and in all respects 
is a most pleasant and convenient establishment, representing an investment of $26,000. The product of the establish- 
ment, Burial Caskets, CoiHns, etc., have attained a wide reputation for their superior make and tine finish. Their 
trade is derived mainly from the Eastern cities of Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia, Buffalo and Rochester, N. Y. 
A patented improvement, the invention of the Algeos, is used on all their coffins and adds greatly to their popularity. 
It consists of a rim forming an inside finish arranged for neatly and quickly attaching the linings thereto. This im- 
provement has met with high appreciation by undertakers everywhere, and has tended largely to give Algeo's Colfins 
their liigh reputation over all other makes. A steady and increasing demand keeps his works constantly in opera- 
tion, giving employment to 20 hands, with a monthly pay-roll of $1,000. This firm are also manufacturing a sand-pa- 
pering machine of their own design, having originally l)uilt one for their own use and finding it to surpass any ma- 
cliines heretofore made, and costing only about % as much. They liavc commenced the manufacture and sale of them, 
and are meeting with a flattering number of ordeis. It will be better appreciated when it is stated that the machine, 
wliich is now sold at 8150, can do as much and as perfect work as the $450 machines, and are simpler and more easily 
kept in order. TJ. Baird, 7:> Water st., is the Pittsburgh agent for the machines, where samples can be seen. Mr. W. 
G. Algeo is a native of Allegheny, born in 1830, he learned the trade of cabinet maker early in life, with the old firm 
of T. B. Young & Co. of that city. Prior to engaging in his i)resent prosperous enterprise he was engaged a number of 
years in the furniture business in Pittslmrgh. His son, the junior member of the firm, was born in Pittsburgh, and 
has grown up in the business with his fatlier, acquiring a thorough knowledge of it in all its details. Enterprising, 
prompt and reliable the firm of W. G. Algeo & Son occupy a leading position among the manufacturers in their lino 
and can present advantages to the trade not easily duplicated by cotemporaneous establishments. 

ST. CHARLES HOTEL, COLUMBUS, O. James G. Dunn, Proprietor. 

Popular Prices,— $2.00 Per Day. 

The most centrally located hotel in the city. Street cars pass the door every five minutes to all the depots and all 
parts of the city. Tlie superior excellence of this elegant hotel will be sustained as heretofore. Its central location is 
unsurpassed, being convenient to all retail stores, and all places of amusement. 



60 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

BEAVER FALLS CUTLERY CO -Beaver Falls. Pa. 

II. T. Reeves, President. Jno. Reeves, Sec'y. otkI Treas. 
In the whole range of thia work, reviewing the great and wonderfully diversified industries of this State, there 
will be found uo more noted establishments nor any entitled to more favorable consideration in these pages than 
the one forming the subject of this sketch. The enterprise was founded on a comparatively limited scale in 1S07, orig- 
inally as a private company. Dr. C. G. Hussey, Hon. T. M. Howe and other prominent gentlemen being connected 
with it, among the number Mr. Jas. W. Brown, wlio was President of ihe company for a considerable time and largely 
contributed by his talents towards placing it on a successful basis at the start. In 1870 the concern was changed to a 
jointstock Co., the ownership passing largely into the hands of the Harmony Society. Mr. Henry T. Keeves was elect- 
ed President, and Mr. John Keeves Sec'y. and Treas. Under the able and enterprising management of these gentle- 
men, assisted by Judge Hice of Beaver, the industry has grown into its present grand proportions. The obstacles that 
had to be overcome in placing the institution in its present prosperous condition can scarcely be appreciated by thoee 
not having had experience in such matters, and would have dislieartened less resolute men than those who were fortu- 
nately at the head of it. Among many others, the procurement of skilled labor was one of the earlier difficulties met 
with ; for a period of 4 years a force of Chinamen were employed, who, in a short time, became proticient workmen and 
rendered entire satisfaction to their employers. The overcoming of the prejudice existing against American cutlery, 
was a task of still greater difficulty and years of patient etibrt wer6 required to convince the public that American 
manufacturers could produce as good an article as any in the old world. This has been done, and foreign cutlery is 
rapidly disappearing from our markets, which are being abundantly supplied with the products of American skill and 
of a quality tliat bids fair to surpass in the near future, tlio finest goods of the English maker.s. These works are situat- 
ed near the Beaver River, and in close proximity to the P. & L. h. K. R. and the P. Ft.W. & C. R. R. The buildings, 
which are built of brick and stone in the most substantial manner, covering an area of 2 acres, were specially designed 
to meet all the requirements of this industry, and are as finely equipped and arranged as any similar establislimeut in 
the world, and in the passession of a quantify of patented and greatly improved machinery and processes of manufac- 
ture are in this respect much superior to all others. The products of the establishment consist of all grades and kinds 
of table and pocket cutlery, from the commonest to the finest kind. Butcher and Carving knives, etc., have attained a 
high reputation for superiority that is fully merited and that has created a demand that is taxing the lull capacity of 
the works to supply. A new department is now (1879) being inaugurated for the manufacture of Solid Steel Scissors. 
a number of skilled workmen having been securea for this branch of work, and ere long the Beaver Falls Scissors will 
be on the market, and will doubtless speedily win their way to public favor bv their excellent quality. The Steel em- 
ployed in the production of their table Cutlery is made at the steel works of this place, which have been run princi- 
pally in connection with the cutlery works, and is rolled under a patented process exclu.sively owned by the Co., by 
which the bevels of the knifes and forks are perfected on the long strips of steel as they are rolled into shape, the 
blades being perfected by this single operation, thus obviating all necessity for forging each blade separately as is done 
in other establishments, and securing perfect uniformity and great improvement in quality of the blades. The reheat- 
ing, hammering and tempering by the ordinary method which tends to lower the quality of the steel by the burning 
out of the carbon, is entirely done away with l)y this process, which has greatly improved as well as cheapened the 
products of these works. The strips, alter coming from the lolls, bear the marks of the blades, which are simply cut 
apart by shears, when they are ready for the grinder and polisher. 200 of these blades can be rolled per minute, and 
the capacity of the Cutlery Co. is equivalent to 1200 dozen of their finished goods per day, boxed ready for the market. 
Although fitted with most perfect machinery that inventive genius can devise, most of which is peculiar to these 
works, 250 to 300 skilled operatives are yet employed in the cutlery works. Their good.s are distributed to the trade 
from the great trade centerf,, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh, etc. This sketch of these celebrated 
Works would be incomplete without mention of the Great Knife and Fork, the largest ever made in the world, and 
which are marvels of mechanical skill and beauty. The entire knife is 9 feet and 7 inches, and width of blade ten 
inches. The Knife and Fork cost in production more than $1500. The handles are of solid ivory, each using an entire 
Elephant's tusk, they are perfect specimens of the carver's art. The blade, which is polished like a mirror, is beauti- 
fully and artistically" etched, and among the beautiful designs contains an excellent portrait of Ex-Gov. Hartranft. It 
would rcHjuire a man 9 feet square and forty-eight feet high, whose weight must be 100,000 lbs., to gracefully manipu- 
late the steel. Tl>e work was all done by the regular employees of the comjjany. Mention should be made also of the 
great improvement in fuel that has been attained by the boring of a well in the vicinity of the works, from which an 
abundant supply of natural gas is obtained, by which the works are lighted and heated. The heat supplied by the 
gas is much more even and under more perfect control, and is free from sulphur and other deleterious .substances that 
interfered with the perfection of tlie goods that is now obtainable. Both steam and water power is employed in driv- 
ing the machinery. The trade mark of the establishment is a very appropriate and suggestive one. A prostrate lion, 
on which the eagle with outstretched wings is proudly standing. Mr. H. T. Keeves, the President of the company, 
gives his personal attention and supervision to the entire business management of the establishment, in which he is 
assisted and advised by Mr. John Reeves and Judge Hice. Not alone for the production of a class of goods superior to 
that produced elsewliere in the world, and the great advantage they are able to present to the trade in their products 
is the Beaver Falls Cutlery Co. entitled to consideration, but the grand results that have been achieved, and the vic- 
tory gained for American Industry and the overthrow of English competition entitles the Beaver Falls Cutlery Co. 
and tlie enterprising and talented men to whose perseverance and skill the accomplishments of these results are due, 
to high praise and great consideration at the hands of the American people. 

CO-OPERATIVE FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION -Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Among the many successful and prosperous Industrial and manufacturing establishments in this enterprising and 
thriving young city, the Co-operative Foundry Association occupiesa prominent position. The enterprise was founded 
in 1872, and under the able management that has guided its atfairs, has attained a prominence in their line of products 
highly gratifying to the association. The main products of tlie establishment consist of a variety of Cook and Parlor 
Stoves, Hollow Ware and fine Castings of all descriptions. The plant of the association is large and well equipped, 
consisting of 2 large buildings, 30x172 feet each in extent, and Warehouse 43x60 feet. All good, substantial buildings 
erected with an esjiecial view to the requirements of the business. The machinery and appliances, with which they 
are fitted, are of most approved and valuable kinds. The motive power is supplied by a fine engine. The whole es- 
tablishment in all its departments is coveniently arranged and adapted to the work done, and is in charge of thorough- 
Iv experienced and practical men throughout. The products of the establishment have attained a wide celebrity for 
their many excellent qualities and handsome finish. Their trade is quite extensive, reaching over the greater i)art of 
the West and throughout this State. The high quality of their products are bringing them a largely increasing trade 
from year to year, and their works are taxed to their full capacity to meet the demand. 30 hands are employed, to 
whom' S1200 monthly is disbursed. The management of the Association is in the hands of well-known enterprising 
gentlemen, who are pushing the industry with commendable energy. The business is managed by a board of Directors, 
consisting of James Todd, Pres't, Gawn Ward, Treasurer, Henry Miller, Secretary, Thos. Christian, Henry Doffert, 
L. M. Armor, W. Shaner. Mr. Todd is a native of Pa., born in 1815. He came to Beaver Falls 12 years ago, since 
which time he has been connected with the foundry from its commencement, having been book-keeper for tlie Asso- 
ciation ; prior to that time he was identified with River pursuits, living at Brownsville, Pa. Mr. M. is a native of Beaver 
Co., he has been connected with the association since its commencement. Mr. Gawn Ward is also a native of this Co. 
He is a well known enterprising Groceryman, of the place. He does not give his exclusive attention to the businesn 
management of the concern. These gentlemen, in their management of the affairs of the association, have largely con- 
tributed to its success and popularity. The establishment is in every way reKahle and its products rank among the 
best goods in the market. 



BEAVER FALLS. 61 



WESTERN FILE WORKS, I.imited-Beaver Falls, Pa. 

In reviewing the great industries of this section, and giving brief sketches of the notable establishments that 
spring into existence iit the bidding; ol the genius of progress and enterprise, luuny instances of remarkable 
acliievcnients, and the successful accomplishment of what but a little while ago seemed impossible, are met with. 
And witliin tlie range of this whole work, containing accounts of tlie great and wonderfully diversified industries 
of this State, it is doubtful, if there will be found a single instance in which American skill and capital have 
achieved a more signal triumph, than is instanced in the results achieved by the Western File Co., Ihat have 
grown to be the largest File works in the world. The many triumphs of American Industry have been due mainly 
to the improved methods of manufacturing and the introduction of labor saving machinery, enabling American man- 
ufacturers to compete with the low-priced labor prevailing in foreign countries. It was for a long time thought 
impossil)Ie to devise any machine that could cut a file equal to the hand cut file, for reasons, that it is not nec- 
essary in the limits of this article to give. This result has been more than successfully accomplished, as the per- 
fect machinery that is now used by this company, is producing files that have, in many critical tests, been prov- 
en superior to the hand made files of the best English brands, and other machine made files. The following ex- 
tract from the Chicago Commercial Advertiser of June 26, 1879, explains the point of superiority in the machines 
used: "It is alone for the Western File Co. "Limited" to .say that with their dally capacity of 1000 dozen they 
combine, in their now perfect machinery, in which they use a loose cliisel not in any way fa.stin or to the ham- 
mer, and with as free action as if held with the hand, all the advantages of the hand-cut file with a uniform 
force, accur.tey and perfection heretofore unattained, many of which advantages have had to be sacrificed in all 
other machines to attain .speed. With the use of the loose chisel, which allows the operator to make any shaped 
tooth desired, the Western File Co. "Limited," are enabled to furnish files specially adapted to different kinds 
of work — for machine filing; for planer knives and the hardest steel worked; for cast iron and other rough usage, 
and guarantee tliem superior to ordinary files for such work." Every description of files are made, from the most 
delicate needle files, for Jeweler'.s work, to the largest sizes used by machinists, embracing over 1000 different va- 
rieties. The products of these works have not only established their supremacy in all the American markets, but 
are being .sold in different parts of the world, from many foreign countries there is coming a steadily increasing 
demand. They have entered into active competition in European markets with the Sheffield files, are rapidly es- 
tablisliing their superiority there. The magnitude of these works, their wonderful achievements in successfully 
overcoming combined foreign competition, and sending their products to the very doors of their great competitors, 
all speak volumes for the skill and ability that has been displayed by the management, who merit the favorable 
consideration of the country, for the notable victory they have gained for American Industry. These works, before 
stated, the largest in the world, were founded in 18C9 l>y Blake & Fessenden, and have been in continuous oper- 
ation since. In 1875, the style of the firm was changed to the Western File Co. "Limited," without increase of 
Qipital. The capital stock all paid up is S21G,000. A very large amount of steel is used. Ail of which is the 
finest grades to be had and of American make. The works are devoted exclusively to the production of files, 
and they now have been running to their full capacity, to meet the increasing demand that is being made upon 
them from al. parts of the world. The buildings are very substantial brick structures, consisting of I main buil- 
ding, 500 feet long, 2 stories high, having four 1 story wings, another 300 feet long, and two others 60 feet long 
each, and a nunibor of other smaller buildings adapted to particular uses. They ar< very eligibly located, enjoy- 
ing every advantage of cheap and convenient transportation, the P. & L. E. R. R. passing in dose proximity, af- 
fording every convenience fur the receipt of material and the shipment of products. They are in point of equip 
mont the most splendid, as they are the largest works in the world. The most perfect machinery, novel and ingen- 
ious, most of which is peculiar to these works, is employed tliroughout. Another advantage possessed by this Compa,- 
ny is the use of natural gas for annealing and other purposes, as the files are not brought in contact with the sulphur 
and other impurities which all coal contains in a greater or less degree, and which are well known lobe injurious to 
steel. It is also admitted by the best steel workers that the natural gas is very superior for heating, either for forging, 
annealing or hardening. Throughout the entire works the most thorough system prevails, 150 of their cutting ma- 
chines are employed. A large number of workmen find constant employment, to whom large sums are disbursed for 
wages. Tlie "Western" is the most popular brand made. Other brands are made for jobbing houses to order. The 
following guarantee, which the Company sends out with their goods, should be strong enough to satisfy anyone : The 
Western File Co., "fjimitod," guarantees to furnish files, all kinds, and for all purposes, the most superior for both 
fast filing and durability to any ever made. This is a strong a.ssertion, but it is a fact. The management of the Com- 
pany has been most liberal and enterprising, and in the grand success that has been attained, they are now reaping 
the well merited reward of their enterprise. 

Mr. Jas. M. Fessenden is Chairman. He is a gentleman of long practical experience in the business. He has gen- 
eral supervision of the manufacturing oper.ations, the various departments of the works being under the immediate 
direction of skilled superintendents. Mr. E. ,1. Blake is Secretary, and Mr. F. Fishey, Treasurer. The business man- 
agement in their hands is conducted with marked ability and success. In every respect these great works present ad- 
vantages to the consumers of files, that are, perhaps, not equalled by any simiiaf establishment in the world. 

BEAVER FALLS MILLS,— M6w. Mellon & Sons. Dealers in Flour, Feead Grain. 

Beaver fa lilt, Fa. 

The old Mills, forming the subject of the present sketch, were fir.st established about 75 years ago by some Quakers, 
who had settled in this country. It was afterwards owned and operated by Mr. James Patterson, n gentleman w!io 
was largely interested in this part of the county, for a Dumber of years undergoing some changes and improvements, 
but being permitted to become badly out of rcpair.s, it passed from the latter gentleman into the hand.s of W. W. 
Wallace, Sam'l McCleary, T. N()l>le,'vVm. McKec and some other Pittsburgh gentlemen, who, under the name of the 
Beaver Falls Mill Co., made many alterations and improvemeuls, substituting now and modern machinery for the old, 
that had done duty for .so long a period and greatly (Milargcd the capacity. Tlio Mills were controlled and operated 
by this company for souk* years, finally passing info the hands of the present firm in 1874, who have successfully oper- 
ated them since. The firm have enjoyed alarge and very prosperous county trade from the surrounding rich agricul- 
tural region, and the Mill has heretofore been mainly employed in tliis kind of trade, grinding all Uirtds of grain that 
WHS brought to its dnors. The completion of the new P. & \j. E. R. R., which passes in close proximity of the Mill, has 
greatly interfered with this profitable liriuicli of business, by creating an obstacle to the access to mill of country 
teams unaccustomed to the locomotive. This necessitated a change in some departments of the mill, which has been 
promptly made, in order to produce a different quality of fltmr from that wliich liad formerly been made, which was a 
good flour, adapted to thecnunty trade onjovrd. The mill is now equipped and is making the new process flour, 
which, under the brand of the Beaver Falls Mills family flour, enjoys a verv high local reputation and is in every way 
a very excellent flour. The mill is capable of grinding.about 50l) bnsliels of grain per day, and the product is all ab- 
sorbed by the home market. The mill is driven by water power, with a fall of about 19 feet,, and having 3 water 
wheels, with an aggregate power equivalent to 50 horse powei'. Under its i)r(!sent enterprising management it has 
been kept in perfect orderand improvements added tokoop pace with theadvanceof fbeage. Mr. Win. Mellon isa na- 
tive of Westmoreland Co., this State, born near (frecnsburg in that county in 1822, and has been engaged in the milling 
business all his life. His father moved to B'atar Co. in 1846, where the family has resided ever since. Mr. M. is an 
enterpri ing gentleman, closelv identified with th'> interests of this growing and prosperous community and is justly 
esteemed as one of the prominent citizens. Mr. W. A. Mellon is a native of Beaver Co., he has charge of the office and 
books of the firm, in which position he enjoys the confidence of all the patrons of the establishment. 



G2 INDIJ8TKIJCS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

A. S. & R. W. HAli'L.—Manufrs. of Buggies, Barouches, Spring Wagons, &c. 

Miilhcrri/ Street, Beaver FalLf. 
Tliis cntornriaing niul prosperous Tinn fouiulcd tlioir prnsont industry in May 1875, since wlion great progress has 
boon mmle, (Miiiirgoil iiieilitics ereiitcd, and an extonsivo and growing trade liuilt up. 'J'iio buildings erected by tliein to 
aceoniuiodale their business are a substanliiil two-story frame building 2().\f)() feet, with largo basement, and a black- 
smith shop yi.xT)!) feet. 'VUo capital at first invested was small, but has increased from time to time, until now there is 
invested from 17(100 to S^HOOO in buildings and sloek, and an annual business amounting from S80()0 to Jlo,0()0 is done, 8 
hands are employ(Hl in the manufacture of all kinds of light vehicles, buggies, carriages, coaches, spring wagons, Ac. 
'I'lu' (|nality of tllo work of this tirin is equal in every respect to the best work turned (mt in the country. The gentlc- 
uu'ii eomposing the llrni arc thoroughly reliable and iiraetieal workmcMi, and will not turn out any inferior work. Their 
tradt^ has already extended into adjoining counties and slates and into Maryland. They are taxed to tlieirfull capacity 
to meet the growing demand that is made upon them. ]\lr. II. S. Hall is a native of Beaver, born in 1810. lie learned 
the trad(M>f carriage building in the noted establishment of (!. West <t Co., and after completing his aiiprentieeship lio 
went, into the great estalilisliment of 11. Hale it Co.. of New Hav(>n, Conn., where ho remained two years perfecting his 
knowledge of tlio trade. He possesses all the re(]uisiles for building n large establishment in the enterprise in which ho 
is engaged. He was a member of the llrm of Wu.-ncr, IMngham <t Hull, of New Brighton, for ii period of 3 years, jirior 
to founding his i)ies('nt eslablishnu'nt. K. W. Hall is also a native of Heaver Co., he learned the trade of machinist in 
Wellsville, ()., and followed it unlil engaging with his brother in their jirescnt business, taking charge of the forging and 
blaeUsinilhing departnienl of the works, as well as devoting hisatlcntion to the sale of the ])roducts. Both gentlemen 
devote their personal attention to the manufacturing, and are regarded as iu ov^ry way a reliable and enterprising lirra. 

EMERSON SAW WORKS^-Emerson, Smith d Co., Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Hv the entire range of this work, reviewing [\w industrial interests of the State, no establishment will be found more 
worthy of consideration, none that has achieved more notable triumi)hs for American skilland inventivegenius, than the 
lOmerson ,Saw Works, and Mr. .1. 10. ICiner.son, to whose energy, talents and inventive genius are nuiiuly dui! the grand 
results achieved, is justly en lit led to tlu^ advanced position he holds among the leading inventors of the age, as well as 
the high considiM'ation with which he is regard(>d by the entire county. I'lie prcseni works of Kmerson, Smith A Co. 
were founded in 1871 on a niiieli smaller si'ali' than at present prevails, the rapid growth of the business having neces- 
sitated fi'ei|uent enlargements and inijirovi inenls which the conliniud growth of demand for their Jiioducts still 
renders lUM'cssary, and before long their pi(>sint very e.\tenMiv(! plant will be doubled in size and eajiacity. All the 
imiu'ovinnents ami additions that have bi'eii and are being innde are erected in the most enduring manner, the buil- 
dings being built of stoiui in a very substantial way, tluit will last for generations. They now cover an area of 1 acre 
of ground, with - acres of adjoining ground, that will doiihth.ss in a few years al.so be utilized in the enlargement of 
the works and the extension of their facilities. The entire works are titled with the most perfect machinery that can 
be devised, which is driven by a tine iW luusi^ power engine, and is divided and very coveuiently arranged into G sepa- 
rato deiiartments, consisting of Toothing, l''itling, Smithing and Hammering, (irinding, Tempering and Finishing. 
The whole being undi'r the direct sui>ervision of Air. ICineisun himself, who, with years of practical experience and 
knowledge derived from a close study of the requirements of a perfect saw — is perhaps the most scientilic saw maker 
ill the wiu'ld. The (establishment now ranks as one of the largest in the U. S. It is most eligibly situated on llio 
banks of Ueaver lliver, with convenient access to an abundance of chca)) fuel, having in adilition the advantages of a 
natural gas well iu closi* proximity to the works, which is now being utilized to sup])ly light to the buildings, and is 
usi'd in some departuuuits of the work for fuel, 'i'he P. A L. K. Ii. K., with convenient siilings, passes In front of their 
door, atroriling every convenience for the receipt of materials and the shiinuent of their iinnlucts. The entire plant 
represents an inveslinent of tf7r),t)00. Ji'rom lla to 10 hands are employed in the various departmentsof the works, all of 
whom are skilled mi-chanics. Daniaseus tenipercMl Saws of all desciiplions are made, but the main products of the 
works consist of the specialties below nientioiu-d, viz: ICmeison's ratent I'laner Saws, for general use; Emerson's Pat- 
ent Flange Toothed Saws, for general use ; lOmerson's Patent Clipper Flange Toothed Saws ; ICiuerson's Patent Lum- 
hermau's (.'Upper Saws, lOxtra thin ; Kmer.son's ratent Dniversal and AdjustabUe Saw Swage; ICmerson's Patent Labor- 
Saving .\ttachmeiit and Twin (Hipper C'ross (Uit Saws, together with the various kinds of insert saw teeth. Theabovo 
specialties lire all the inventions ol Mr. lOmerson, and are iierfectly adapted to the dillercnt requirements for which 
tlicy wore designed. At the famous saw contest in Cincinnati iu 1871, Mr. Emerson, with one of his saws made at 
these works, fully demonstraled their superiority over all other kinds, and carried oil" the purse of SlOO in gold and all 
tlu' premiums that were awanU'd, as well as having caniiMl oll'the prt>miums at wherever they have been exhil)ited, 
for liotli solid and adjustable test saws. The grand aehievcments of these works are matters for justifiable inide, and 
no establishment in the world can present a more splendid ri'cord. A thorough knowledge of, and close attention to 
tlu' luisiness, Tlmy use only of the v(-ry best quality of material, and the emiiloyment of the most skillful workmen 
have contributed to the I'csults attained. Tlu- I'laner Saw tooth is now one of tlio jirincipal specialties invented by 
Mr. I'liuerson, and exclusively owned by this tirm. It was tirst introduced about 8 years ago, and is having a very ex- 
tensive sale, it is designed to obviate the necessity of tiling, and so cheaply are they made and supjilied, that it is far 
cheaper to use the planer liit, than to lile the saws; they are sold at three cents each. The many very highly coni]]li- 
mentary leders received by the tiini from tlu'ir <leligliled eusloniers in all parts of the country and world, fully attest 
the great superiority of the planer tooth and other styles of saws here made, space will luit permit of mention of the very 
numerous ingenius in venti(uis of great utility, n'lating to tlu' saw business, that have been made by Mr. Fmer.son, and 
that are niaiiufactured at these works, his inventive genius seems to have covered tlu> whole range of sawing and saw- 
mill applianei's and devisi'd th(> many improvements that have made his name so wi'll known throughout the whole 
world. .V neat ealalogne is published, giving full information in regard to all their products. This notice wiuild be in- 
complete wilhoiii some per.sonal mention of Mr. ICniersou, who.se inventions have completely revolutionized the saw 
Imsiness and his assoeiati's in thisgri'at establishment. Mr. lOnierson is a native of JMaiiie,"borii in 18'J;!. He went 
from there in 18.'>2 to the I'aeitie Coast, and engaged in the lumber business, where the suggestions for great inventions 
that he has since made were- received. He invented the insert saw tooth. He quit the lumber business and engaged in 
the manufacture and insertion of saw teeth, eondueting a shop in San Krancisco and one in Sacramento. He eventu- 
ally sold out his business there, and remove<l to the state of N. .1., where he organized sind l)uilt uji the American Saw 
l'.o , and conducted its operations a numln"r of years; severing his connection with this ('o., he made an extensive tour 
through the foreign manufaeturing cities, inspceling the various processes of manufacturing, and gaining much valua- 
ble intormation and largely increasing his knowledge, already very extensive of the saw business. He was accorded 
many privileges and treated with much consideration by the foreign manufacturers. Keturning to this country in 1869, 
he came to Beaver Falls and established the presi-nt industry, and is an enduring monument to the triumphs of 
American skill and genlous, of what Mr. lOmerson has every cause to be proud. The other meml)ers of the tirm 
are Messrs. ,Ios. B. Smith and .lulins 1''. Kurtz. Mr. Smith was formerly a large contraetorand builder, and .several of 
the prominent buildings of rittshnrgh were ereeteil by him, including the tine Union Depot that was destroyed by 
the great ,luly riots. He does not take an active interest in the business managemont, having retired from active 
business pursuits. Mr. .luliiis F. Kurtz, the junior member of the tirm, has charge of the tinancial alVairs and 
general oiliee Imsiness, a position for which he is eminently qualilied by years of nractieal experience, having 
been cashier of the Pa. company bir a number of years. He brought with him into this enterprise a large 
personal acquaintance with the biisiness interests of the country with ability of a high order. The tirm of Em- 
erson, Smith A Co., ill their partiiuhir line of products, stands unrivalled by any cotemporaneous establishment 
In the world, and no word of I'ommcndation can more than express the fulT award of merit that Is justly their 
due, and their products are rapidly supplanting nil other makes in every part of the wi>rld, being far in advance 
in all the desiralde requisites in tirst class articles of all other makes. Mention should be made of the fact that 
American Steel is exclusively used in these works, having proven in every respect equal to the best English Steel 
ever made, and In some respects superior. 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 63 

A. F. 'WO'LT— Manufacturer of Stoves and Hollow Ware, Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Among llie nuuiher of lino nianufacturing ostablislunonts in Beaver Falls, (hero are none more complete or perfectly 
ananged in their way llian tlie .splenilid new Stove Works of Mr. A. F. Wolf, wliicli are worthy of more than passing 
notice, in a work rovit wiiit; the iniluslries of this section. These works were originally founded by A. F. Wolf & Co., 
afterwards carried on bv Mes.srs. Hildenlirand A Wolf in 18G8, on ft luiich smaller scale than at present exists. In J870 
Mr. llililenbrand withdrew from the firm and the business has since been conducted by Mr. Wolf himself. It has 
j;radually grown and increased under the enterprising management of Mr. W., and enlarged facilities were added from 
time to time to keep pace with the demand for his products. A tine establishment liad thus been built np, when, in 
the early part of the present year (1879) the entire establishment with all the valuable patterns, was burned to the 
ground, and the labor and toil of years suddenly destroyed. With characteristic energy, Mr. W. immediately set 
al)Out repairing his loss, and in a brief time his present tine works were erected. They are in many respects liiodol 
ones, and are as eomi)letely and conveniently arranged iis could i)Ossibly be desired, and every facility is attbrded for 
the perfect and convenient manufacture of tlie dillcrcnt classes <if ])roducts here made. The building is 22.') feet .square, 
and the ditl'erent departments arranged in the most systematic manner. The works are sujiplied with all the latestand 
most approved machinery requisite in this branch of industry. A new and complete set of patterns liave taken the 
place of those destroyed, and the works in every respict arc superior to the old ones. The cupola has a capacity of 7 
tons. From 112,000 io 115,000 is invested in the plant, while a largo stock of Stoves and Hollow Ware is carried, as 
well as large quantities of raw material. 4o to 50 hands are employed, to whom ?2,200 par month is paid for wages. 
These works, in point of equipment and character of products, will comi)are uio.'+t favorably with any in the United 
States. The trade extends throughout the West and man/ parts of the East. Shipments have been made to Japan, 
from whence a iirotitahle trade may yet be derived. A spirit of progress and improvement pervades the whole estab- 
lishment, improveuuints being continually made to their already very excellent products. Among some of the im- 
provements that have been devised, the front top feed on all the cook stoves made, is one that has proven of great 
utility and convenience, and though first invented and adopted by Mr. Wolf on his stoves, has been adoi)led by many 
of the stove makers throughout the country, Mr. Wolf having neglected to jirotect himself by taking out patents. The 
invention is a very ))erf(H't and convenient one, alibrding an opening for supplying fuel without permilting the smoke 
and dust to escape from the stove, or without removing pots or kettles from it. This, with other improvements, has 
given to the products of this foundry an extended re|)utation, and has jilaced the "Howard Coal Cook Stove" and the 
"Woman's Rights Wood Stove," intlu; front'rank of the most poiiular stoves in the country. The practical working 
of the foundry is under the charge of Mr. U. A. Tliomp.son, the superintend(Mit, who is a thoroughly experienced stove 
maker, and a gentleman of inteliigiiuce and ability. Mr. Wolf is a native of Lancaster Co., this State, he has been en- 
gag(!d in the present business since l.Sl'iS, prior to that time he had been iMigagcMl in mercantile pursuits in Indiana and 
Ohio. He is an enterprising pulilic spirited gentleman, taking an active interest in the aftairs of th(> community, with 
the interests of which he is efosc^l y idenlilieil. With the most perfi'ct facnlities, large experience and abundant means, 
Mr. Wolf is enabled to present advantages to the trade not easily duplicated in this or any other market. 

A. 'DA'VIDSO'N^—Miner and Manufacturer of Coal and Coke, Beaver Falls, Pa. 

The hills adjoining the town of Beaver ]'"'alls contain an abundant store of Coal, the vein being .S feet thick and the 
eoal of an excellent quality. A number of pits are in operation along the hillside — the most prominent and extensive 
being those of Mr. A. Davidson, which are located on the line of the Pittsburgh, Ft W. & C. Ry. on the western side of 
the town. Two main entries are driven into the hillside, from which the coal is brought forth and run down an inclino 
to the foot of the hill, where Mr. Davidson has recently erected a large building, 72x10 feet, with hack building 45xG0 
feet, most conveniently arranged for loading, etc.. where the coal is screened and stored, and loaded into wagons or ears 
for delivery to customers. The capacity of these mines is from 75 to 100 tons per day, and from 10 to IJO miners are cm- 
ployed. The trade is mainly local, msmy of the manufacturing establishments being 8ut)plied from these works, besides 
a large number of private families. Coke is manufactured also, on a limited scale, the coal making a good coke for .some 
purposes. Mr. Davidson is a native of this place, and has been engaged in tlie coal business hero since 18G8, since which 
time his business has grown into its present large [jroportions. Prior to engaging in the coal business he was engaged in 
the lumber business. He is a gentleman well known and esteemed in the community with whose interests he is identi- 
fied. He ia now prepared, with the increa.sed facililies that have been added to his works, to meet any demand that 
may be made upon him. 



CO-OPERATIVE FLINT GLASS CO., Limited. 

Manufacturers of all kinds of Flint Glassware. 

This new and extensive establishment, originated and successfully established by a number of practical Glass 
workers, who conceived the idea of uniting their savings and labor and establishing a factory of their own, where 
the products of their willing hands might bo Ixn'ined, — is deserving of particular mention in a detailed review of the 
great industries of this section The factory, which was ready for work and started up on the 18th of May 187S1 — 
within 3 months after ground had been broken — was built by the members of the company, who all went to work 
with willing hands, and in this brief time had the satisfaction of having completed one of the most i)erfeetly equipped 
and arranged glass factories in the U. S. The works are most conveniently located and rare iudgment was displayed 
in the selection of the site. The raw material is brought direct to their doors by the P. & L. ll;. K. R., and the products 
of the factory are rolled directly into the ears. The men in all the difl'erent departments are thoroughly experienced 
and skilled workmen, and are nearly all stockholders in the company. The class of work turned out covers the whole 
range of flint glassware and embraces a great variety. of table ware, bar goods, jelly tumblers, toilet articles, lamps, and 
every conceivable variety of plain and fancy ware. The quality of the glass that is now being made here, is beyond a 
doubt equal in every respect to any heretofore made in the U. S. The results of their first 6 months' operations have 
t)een most gratifying, as they weie greeted with a rapidly increasing number of orders from all parts of the country, 
taxing their works to their utmost capacity to meet the demand. Notwithstanding the jealousy with which many of 
the older glass manufacturers of this .section, who would gladly confine the productions to them.selves, look upon this 
new enterprise and their wise predictions of failure, the success of the enterprise is now fully assured, and the 
popular Co-Operativo Flint (Jlass Co are in a manly manner pushing their way to the favor of the trade in all parts 
of tii(> country to the disadvantage of the older combinations. Mr. L. Stoehr, the chairman of the company, is also 
(ieiieral Superintendent of the works. He is a thoroughly competent and experienced glass worker and an enterprising 
and popular gentleman, possessing every requisite for the position he holds. Mr. Jos. K. Brown, the Secretary and 
Treasurer, to whom the inception of the enterprise is mainly duo, has been connected with the glass business for 
many years in the capacity of clerk in one of the leading Pittsburgh manufactories, where he gained a thorough in- 
sight into the details of "the business management of tlu; glass business, and formed an extensive acquaintance 
with the trade throughout the country. He is well fitted for the position he holds, and possesses many qualities 
that have secured for him the esteem of his as.sociatcs, as well as all who know him. The members Of the company 
throughout are all men of character ami experience, who have enjoyed the confidence of the community in which 
they have lived, and bring into their neweiiterpri.se the hearty good-will of the entire public. 

With abundant facilities, cheap transportation, posse.ssing within itself skilled and pr.actical workmen in every 
department, and a determination to merit thoTTighest success, this company is fully competent to hold their own 
against any adverse ciretimstances that may arise, and to produce articles as low as any concern in the U. S. Prompt 
and reliable, all orders entrusted to their hands are executed in the most satisfactory manner. 



64 INDUSTKIES OF PENNSYLVAIvriA. 

PirrSBURGH HINGE CO., Ijim.ited-Beaver Falls, Pa. J. ir. ucMuhon, 

Manufacturers of QUADRATE BARB £ENCE WIRE. '^"i-eas. 

The greatly d'versified character as well as the tnagnitiide of the flbat industrial establishments that have sprung 
Into existence at the bidding of the genius of enterprise and progress i'ii this great Iron centre of America, is perhaps 
but faintly realized by even her own citizens, and the value and importance of a work of this nature, conveying 
some adequate idea of the magnitude, extent and variety of the great industries of this section, is apparent to all "who 
give the subject thought, and the dissemination of such knowledge as herein contained, throughout all parts of the 
world, must be largely conducive to the interests of all in any way connected with the prosperity of the community 
at large, as well as the individual establishments themselves. 

The Pittsburgh Hinge Co , Limited, pursuing a special branch of manufacture, of a class of articles adapted to 
the great agricultural interests of the country, on a scale of great magnitude, are deserving of more tlian ordinary 
consideration in these pages. The company was organized in J875, and leased the works at Beaver Falls now occu- 
pied, which had previously been operated by the firm of Reiter & Armor, iu the exclusive manufacture of Hinges. 
These works since coming into the hands of the present company have been greatly improved and enlarged, and fa- 
cilities added for the manufacture of the many varieties of goods now made. The plant consists of one main 3-story 
frame building 70 by 140 feet, one 3-story stone building 5'J by I'iO feet, chain shop 120 by 180 feet. The whole estab- 
lishment isfltted with machinery of the most perfect kind, much of which is novel and peculiar to this establish- 
ment, and is admirably adapted to the work that it so wonderfully performs. The machinery is driven by water 
power aggregating 120-horse power. The machinery (the patent belonging exclusively to this Co.J for making their 
celebrated Quadrate Barb Fence Wire, is the most perfect iu the world and gives to this establisliuient a great ad- 
vantage over any contemporaneous concern in the same line. The works are capable of producing two car loads of 
their various goods per day. Their trade extends to all parts of America, and their products are rapidly finding 
foreign markets, possessing undoubted superior qualities. l''rom 250 to 300 hands are employed in the workshops 
and from $6000 to $8000 is disbursed in wages monthly, a considerable number of the force employed being boys. The 
trade reaches in the neighborhood of half a million dollars annually. The products of these works consist of all va- 
rieties of agricultural chains, such as Coil, Well, Trace, Halter, Log Chains, etc. liame Clips, Crowbars, Harrow Teeth, 
Fire Shovels and Pokers, Strap and T Hinges, Screw and Strap Hinges, Single Trees, Double Trees, Keck Yokes, 
Wrought Iron Seat Hoolcs, Clevises, Wagon and Plow Kails pointed by liand, patent Picket and Tent Pins, Lap Rings, 
Repair Links, and a great variety of other agricultural hardware. Ko other establishment in the U. S. covers the 
sanje range of products as this. Wherever these products have been sold, they have met with the approval of all 
who have used them, and they rank among the best goods in the market. 

Thk Quadrath B.V.UB FiCNCE WinE. — One of their leading specialties is an article that so perfectly supplies a 
want long felt, so fully meeting all the requirements of a durable, perfect and cheap fence that, tliough of compara- 
tively r<^eent introduction, the demand for it has grown so rapidly that the capacity of the works have been fully 
taxed to meet the demand. The advantages of the barb fence are so nu.iierous, while lieing the cheapest fence made, 
that it is apparent to all that the demand for it will continue to increase more rapidly in the future than heretofore The 
advantages possessed by the Quadrate Barb Wire over other styles are set forth in the following claim : Having Jour 
points st-anding at right angles. Each barb is firmly fastened to its place and warranted not to become loose or slide along 
the vflre. The barbs remain equally firm on single and twisttd wire. The wire is twisted by a process that does not 
iijjure it. The barbs are put around the twisted wire, preventing untwisting in case either wire breaks. 

Car-loads of this wire are daily shipped to all parts of the West and South, California, Australia, South America, 
and other distant parts. Mr. J. H. McWahon, Treasurer, has charge of the business management of the establisliment, 
to whom all communications should be addn ssed. He is a native of Pittsburgh and has been identified with the iron 
business since boyhood. The patrons of the establishment will find in him a gentleman of high character, at whoso 
hands they will receive the fairest treatment. 

The Pittsburgh Hinge Co. in their great products offer inducements to the trade that are not easily duplicated by 
any establishment in the United States. 

PENN BRIDGE WORKS -5. T. White, G. E., Beaver Falls, Pa. 

These Works were originally founded in 1864 by T. B. White & Sons, at New Brighton, on a much smaller scale than 
at present prevails. In 1876 the firm was dissolved, and the business has since then been conducted by his son, Mr. T. 
S. White. On the first of April 1879 the works were removed to their present location in Beaver Falls, where a much 
more eligible situation was secured, affording greatly increased facilities for the rapidly enlarging business. New works 
were erected, which are 60 feet wide and 24(» feet long, finely fitted with new and improved machinery and convenient 
and necessary appliances for the successful prosecution of work, and in mauy respects are very complete and well 
equipped. All the modern appliances and machinery required for the most jierfect work are to be found in them 
Abundant room for yards and necessary work is had in the ground adjoining the works. The P , I't. W. it C. Ky. passes 
in close proximity with convenient sidings, and it is but a short distance to the line of the P. &L. E. R. R. The mechan- 
ical department of the work is under the direct supervision of Mr. T. B. White, whose long, practical experience and 
thorough knowledge of bridge architecture renders him peculiarly fitted for the business 30 to 40 hands are employed 
in the works, to whom from $1000 to $1500 per month are paid. From 8U00 to 12,000 toi;s of iron are consumed annually. 
The trade of the Penn Bridge Works extends to many distant parts of the U. S., bridges having been eiecied in Massa- 
chusetts, Iowa, Missouri, Mississippi and many other States, while a large amount of work is done in building county 
bridges thrnughont neighboring counties, contiguous to these works. Many of the fi:ie iro.i bridges on the line of the 
P. & L. E. R. R. were erected by these works. A 700 foot iron bridge across the Beaver at Ibis point is now in process of 
erection by them. The fine bridges on l)ock and Water St., Meadville, I'a,, which are prominent for their symmetry 
and beauty, were also erected by Mr. White. These works with their new and enlaiged facilities are prepared to do 
work ia any part of the country on as reasonable terms as any cstablishmeMt, and can take contracts and execute work 
in the most prompt and satisfactory manner. Many improvements sug'j;ested by years of practical experience and 
study have been made, and are peculiar to these works; among other notable point'^, cast iron details in the con- 
struction of bridges having been done away with. 'J'he trade of these wijrUs, already huge, is rapidly extending. Mr. 
T. S. White was born in New Brighton in 1852. He has thoroughly qualified himself by study for the business in 
which he is engaged. He is a graduate of Cornell University in tli'e degree of Civil Engineer, and since that time 
has been connected with these works. The Penn Works in their br:inch of business oU'er superior inducements and 
are worthy of must favorable consideration at the hands of those requiring their class of work. 

GARDNER HOUSE, CHICAGO -J ewett Wilcox, Manager. 

CORNER MICHIGAN AVENUE AND JACKSON ST.— Rates $2.50 and $3.00 per day. 

The GARDNER, in all the appointments, luxuries and comforts of a first-class hotel, has no siiperior in the city. 
Mr. Jewett Wilcox (late of the Tremont) having assumed the management, calls the attention of his friends, patrons, 
and the traveling public generally to the fact tiiatin point of desirable surroundings, the Gardner — being situated on 
one of the broadest and most fashionable avenues in the city, directly facining the lake, from which it is only separated 
by the park in front of the house — has many advantages in its attractive location not iiossessed by any other hotel in 
the city. 250 rooms newly and eleganvly furnished; convenient to all places of amusement; only one block from stretH 
cars running to all parts of the city. This short distance is more than compensated U<v by the delightful breezes fiom 
the lake, making the Gardner unequalled as a Summer Hotel. SPECIAL CONTRACTS made to delegations, excur- 
sions, conventions and permanent guests. 





■ 
























65 




LOWEST AND HIGHEST PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR FIFTY-THREE YEARS— 












1825-18 


77. 
















(Compiled from the Reports of the Secretary of th 


eT 


reasury for 


1863 ar 


id 1873, thf 


' Commercial 




and Financial Chronicle, Reports of the N. Y. Chamber ( 


jf Commerce, 


and the IS 


. Y. Shipping 




List and Price Current.) 






















The following table, carefully compiled from the sources 


ndicated, takes the prices 


of the twelve months in 


each 




year, selecting the highest and lowes 


» quotation for each article. 


It is to be understood, 


where no mention of qu 


ility 




is made, that the 


price quote 


d is lor the cheapest grade of each commodity. 






■~ 






The prices are those of the New York market 




















Year. 


Seef, 


Mess. 


Butter. 


Cheese. 


Coal. 
Anthracite. 


Coffee, 
Rio. 


Corn. 


Cotton, 
Upland. 


Flour, 


West. 


Ha 


ms. 
If. 

.s. 




Bill. 


1 


h7 


lb. 


Ton. 


lb. 
L. H. 


Bush. 


lb. 


Bbl. 
T. H. 


t: 

Cl 




L. 


H. 1 L. 


L. 


H. 


L 


H. 


L. 


H 


L. 


H. 




§ 1 Cts. 


Cts. 


$ 


CI 


s. 


CIS. 


.is. 




$ 




1825... 


8 CO 


10 GOi 8 


22 


5 


10 


8 CO 


n on 


16 


19 


42 


75 


13 


27 


3 25 


4 25 


7 


11 




182H... 


8 00 


10 0013 


18 


6 


1211 0) 


12 OOJU 


17 


62 


83 


9 


14 


4 25 


5 75 


8 


U 




1827... 


50 


9 7512 


22 


6 


101 » 50 


12 50 14 


15 


54 


75 


8 


12 


4 37 


6 5(1 


10 


12 




1828... 


8 50 


10 00 


13 


18 


4 


7 


10 0) 


12 0012 


15 


46 


62 


9 


13 


4 56 


8 00 


8 


11 




1829... 


8 01) 


10 50 


12 


16 


4 


8 


10 (0 


Id 00 12 


13 


48 


64 


8 


11 


5 0) 


8 87 


9 


10 




18^0... 


7 63 


la 00 


12 


16 


n 


8 


7 0> 


12 10 


12 


48 


65 


8 


13 


4 75 


6 0' 


9 


11 




1831... 


7 00 


9 25 


12 


18 


5 


8 


6 (0 


9 0" 10 


13 


54 


75 


7 


1! 


5 00 


7 25 


9 


11 




1882... 


8 37 


10 75 


12 


18 


5 


7 


8 50 


Iti 00 12 


14 


.51) 


87 


7 


12 


5 60 


7 O-* 


9 


11 




1833... 


8 50 


11 00 


14 


2(1 


6 


9 


5 to 


10 0» 


11 


14 


65 


86 


9 


17 


5 50 


6 60 


8 


10 




1834... 


8 .50 


10 00 


12 


17 


5 


9 


5 50 


6 50 


11 


12 


53 


75 


10 


16 


4 81 


5 75 


8 


10 




1835... 


8 75 


13 50 


13 


22 


6 


9 


5 50 


9 


11 


13 


70 


1 12 


15 


20 


5 37 


7 87j 8 


12 




1836... 


9 25 


13 50 


10 


26 


7 


12 


7 00 


n (10 


11 


13 


83 


1 12 


12 


20 


6 87 


10 25 9 


17 




1837... 


11 00 


15 00 


12 


24 


7 


12 


8 50 


11 0() 


9 


12 


I 00 


1 15 


7 


17 


7 00 


11 62 9 


15 




1838... 


14 00 


16 00 


17 


27 


6 


10 


7 00 


9 5(t 


9 


12 


76 


1 00 


9 


12 


7 00 


9 00 10 


15 




1839... 


12 50 


16 00 


12 


25 


8 


12 


6 50 


9 O" 


9 


12 


75 


98 


11 


16 


5 75 


9 1211) 


14 




1840... 


9 75 


14 75 


12 


21 


5 


9 


6 00 


8 50 


9 


12 


46 


63 


8 


10 


4 62 


6 nOl 4 


10 




1841... 


7 00 


10 25 


8 


15 


3 


7 


() 50 


9 ( 


9 


11 


47 


81 


9 


11 


4 68 


7 50; 4 


9 


! 


1842... 


6 25 


8 25 


9 


15 


5 


9 


5 00 


9 CO 


6 


10 


54 


68 


7 


9 


4 25 


6 37! 4 


9 




1843... 


6 00 


8 37 


6 


11 


4 


6 


4 50 


6 (0 


6 


9 


48 


60 


5 


8 


4 43 


5 62; 3 


9 




1844.. 


5 00 


6 75 


8 


11 


3 


7 


4 25 


6 00 


6 


7 


43 


54 


5 


9 


4 25 


5 00 3 


9 




1845... 


5 50 


9 75 


9 


17 


6 


8 


4 50 


6 00 


5 


8 


45 


85 


4 


9 


4 31 


7 OD 5 


10 




1846... 


6 25 


8 50 


10 


17 


6 


8 


5 0) 


7 00 


6 


8 


55 


80 


6 


() 


4 (0 


6 00| 5 


H 




1847... 


8 25 


13 75 


13 


)i-Z 


6 


8 


5 (0 


7 00 


6 


8 


64 


1 10 


7 


12 


5 50 


8 25 


6 


13 




1848... 


7 75 


13 00 


13 


2ii 


5 


8 


4 50 


6 OO 


5 


8 


52 


78 


5 


8 


5 25 


6 62 


5 


11 




1849... 


8 75 


11 00 


10 


18 


5 


7 


5 ( 


6 00 


5 


10 


57 


70 


6 


11 


4 93 


6 12 


6 


11 




1850... 


8 00 


9 75 


12 


18 


4 


8 


5 00 


7 00 


7 


14 


55 


72 


11 


14 


4 93 


6 25 


(i 


11 




1851... 


7 50 


9 75 


10 


1^ 


4 


8 


4 25 


7 0(t 


7 


11 


53 


68 


8 


14 


4 00 


5 12 


7 


1! 




18.52... 


8 25 


17 00 


15 


29 


6 


<» 


5 dO 


7 ((» 


7 


10 


62 


78 


8 


lu 


4 25 


6 00 


8 


10 




1853... 


7 00 


11 25 


13 


24 


8 


10 


5 00 


7 Oit 


8 


12 


64 


82 


10 


11 


4 87 


7 50 


8 


10 




1854... 


8 00 


IJ 00 


15 


24 


6 


12 


6 00 


7 5o 


8 


12 


76 


98 


8 


11' 


7 25 


10 75 


7 


11 




1855... 


8 25 


14 00 


17 


2S 


6 


1^ 


5 50 


7 50 


8 


12 


93 


I 15 


7 


11 


7 5s 


10 18 


8 


11 




1856... 


8 CO 


12 00 


13 


28 


6 


11 


5 50 


6 50 


9 


12 


48 


94 


9 


12 


5 20 


8 31 


9 


11 




1857... 


9 50 


15 00 


16 


28 


5 


14 


() 0) 


7 0' 


10 


12 


71 


98 


13 


In 


4 25 


6 70 


6 


10 




1858... 


9 00 


12 00 


13 


25 


3 


10 


5 00 


6 00 


9 


12 


58 


1 <3 


9 


13 


3 75 


5 2 


9 


13 




1859... 


5 00 


9 75 


14 


27 


2 


11 


5 25 


5 50 


10 


13 


76 


1 0.^ 


n 


12 


4 00 


6 5' 


9 


12 




1860... 


4 53 


5 50 


10 


21 


9 


12 


5 50 


6 00 


11 


15 


64 


9.^ 


10 


11 


4 2--) 


5 50 


10 


13 




1861... 


5 00 


6 25 


8 


22 


2 


1<» 


4 20 


6 < 


11 


17 


48 


74 


11 


28 


3 9) 


5 65 


7 


11 




1862... 


5 00 


10 75 


10 


26 


4 


13 


4 25 


8 5(» 


10 


33 


50 


75 


20 


68 


4 20 


5 85 


5 


9 




1863... 


5 00 


9 00 


14 


30 


8 


IH 


7 00 


11(0 


26 


33 


68 


1 23 


54 


88 


5 10 


8 0" 


5 


8 




1864... 


5 00 


16 00 


21 


48 


12 


27 


9 00 


15 fM» 


33 


52 


I 25 


1 97 


72 1 


9" 


7 15 


11 75 


11 


17 




1865... 


9 00 


14 00 


20 


38 


10 


IH 


8 50 


13 5021 


22 


70 


97 


33 1 


22 


5 00 


8 80 11 


23 




)866... 


11 00 


21 50 


25 


60 


5 


2o 


8 50 


13 0018 


21 


8-) 


1 3> 


32 


52 


5 25 


11 7011 


22 




1867... 


12 0) 


28 00 


15 


48 


7 


2(1 


(5 50 


8 5017 


19 


1 00 


1 4i> 


15 


36 


6 25 


11 3010 


16 




1868... 


11 00 


2 4 75 


28 


60 


7 


19 


6 50 


11 5" 16 


17 


1 <1 


1 4 


16 


33 


5 50 


9 75 11 


18 




1869... 


5 (0 


IH 50 


16 


55 


11 


2:< 


6 50 


h) 5ii 


11 


13 


75 


1 IH 


25 


35 


4 95 


6 4" 


17 


24 




1870... 


5 00 


16 00 


18 


46 


5 


IH 


4 50 


8 5i» 


11 


13 


76 


1 15 


15 


26 


4 5) 


6 05 


9 


14 




1871... 


8 (0 


18 00 


12 


4> 


5 


Iti 


5 0) 


13 0" 


12 


17 


65 


90 


15 


25 


4 60 


7 00 


6 


13 




1872... 


4 00 


12 00 


20 


39 


10 


19 


3 75 


6 25 


16 


19 


61 


80 


18 


25 


5 25 


6 80 


6 


9 




187.i... 


8 00 


12 00 


18 


50 


8 


l(i 


5 0) 


6 50 


19 


2:J 


50 


77 


13 


21 


4 6i 


7 25 


5 


10 




1874... 


8 25 


11 50 


18 


39 


12 


17 


4 55 


.5 55 


16 


28 


53 


84 


15 


19 


4 25 


7 00 


S 


11 




1875... 


8 00 


10 00] 17 


28 


9 


Iti 


4 40 


-Ti 55 


17 


21 


49 


76 


13 


17 


4 00 


6 50 


9 


11 




1876... 


8 50 


11 0015 


33 


8 


13 


3 75 


5 55 16 


2(1 


38 


49 


11 


13 


4 (0 


6 00 


7 


13 




1877... 


9 50 


11 2513 


24 


8 


10 


3 25 


3 75 15 


21 


41 


58 


11 


13 


4 75 


8 (010 


14 














— L. 

















LOWEST AND HIGHEST PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR FIFTY-THREE YEARS- 

1825-1877. 

(Compiled from the Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury for 18G3 and 1873, the Commercial 
and Financial Chronicle, Reports of the N. Y. Chamber of Commerce, and tne N. Y. Shippiiij; 
List and Price Current.) 

Note. — In the American Almanac and Treasury of Facts for 1878, pp. 278-9, appeared a table of prices compiled 
on the basis of the average price of eacli article in .New Yorlj, the )st of January of each year. Such a table, however 
useful, fails to give thedata which are important in forming a judgment of t lie whole range of prices for each year. 
The following table, carefully compiled from the sources indicated, takes the prices of the twelve months in each year, 
selecting the highest and lowest quotation for each article. It is to be understood, where no mention of quality is 
made, that the price quoted is for the cheapest grade of each commodity. 



Years. 


Pork, 


Mess. 


Rice. 


Sa 
Liver 


t, 
pool. 


Sugar, 
Raw. 

lb. 


Tobac- 
co, Ky. 
Leaf. 


: Wheat. 


Whiskey. 


Wool. 




Bl)l. 


100 lbs. 


Hack. 


1 


.. 


Bush. 


Ual. 


lb. 




L. 


H. 


L. 


H. 


L. 


U. 


/.. 


H. 


L. 


H. 


L. 


H. 


L. 


H. 


L. 


//. 




■$ 


% 


I 




cts. 


Cl 


-S. 


s 




C 


s. 


Cts. 




182.-) 


12 00 


14 75 


2 00 


4 00 


2 37 


3 00 


H 


w 


3 


9 


75 


1 06 


25 


31 


30 


88 


1826 


10 00 


12 00 


2 00 


3 87 


2 12 


2 60 


6 


10 


3 


8 


84 


1 02 


ro 


36 


28 


38 


1827 


11 25 


15 25 


2 50 


4 0() 


2 15 


2 35 


6 


10 


3 


6 


90 


1 25 


L'5 


35 


20 


30 


18:8 


12 00 


15 00 


2 50 


4 01) 


2 25 


3 25 


6 


10 


3 


6 


95 


1 62 


20 


26 


20 


30 


1829 ... 


11 00 


13 75 


2 60 


3 7. 


2 12 


3 00 


5 


9 


6 


7 


1 00 


1 75 


2(; 


2() 


18 


27 


1830 


11 00 


15 60 


2 00 


8 60 


1 75 


2 20 


() 


9 


3 


7 


1 00 


1 15 


21 


32 


16 


30 


1831 


12 00 


15 25 


2 50 


4 ( (: 


1 75 


2 25 


4 


/ 


3 


6 


1 06 


1 35 


27 


37 


20 


35 


1832 


12 50 


14 25 


2 75 


4 25 


1 75 


2 50 


5 


/ 


3 


6 


1 12 


1 35 


26 


35 


20 


35 


1833 


12 50 


17 00 


2 75 


3 75 


1 60 


2 00 


5 


<) 


3 


8 


1 15 


1 28 


29 


36 


27 


35 


1834 


12 75 


15 (10 


2 25 


3 62 


1 40 


1 80 


5 


8 


4 


8 


1 02 


1 li 


20 


29 


25 


35 


1835 


13 50 


18 60 


2 75 


4 50 


1 47 


2 25 


6 


{> 





11 


1 04 


1 60 


30 


38 


25 


40 


1836 


18 00 


30 00 


3 00 


4 25 


1 00 


2 r.' 


7 


11 


6 


10 


1 37 


2 12 


31 


44 


35 


50 


1.S37 


16 00 


24 .^0 


3 12 


5 00 


1 20 


2 62 


5 


8 


3 


9 


1 55 


2 10 


20 


48 


28 


60 


1838 ... 


16 50 


25 50 


3 25 


5 37 


1 62 


2 37 





h 


4 


13 


1 35 


2 Oil 


30 


43 


28 


40 


1830 


14 50 


23 51) 


3 00 


5 00 


1 44 


2 12 


6 


K 


8 


16 


1 15 


1 37 


28 


46 


37 


40 


184lt 


13 00 


16 (i(^ 


2 75 


4 00 


1 40 


1 75 


4 


8 


3 


16 


95 


1 25 


21 


311 


20 


35 


1841 


8 75 


13 5(^ 


2 87 


4 12 


1 40 


1 98 


4 


7 


4 


14 


90 


1 61' 


19 


25 


20 


30 


1842 


6 75 


10 25 


2 00 


3 31 


I 37 


2 25 


3 


7 


•> 


9 


83 


1 30 


16 


21 


18 


22 


1843 


7 50 


11 50 


1 87 


3 00 


1 35 


1 62 


3 


7 


2 


7 


84 


1 2(' 


18 


24 


17 


24 


1844 


8 50 


10 25 


2 25 


3 62 


1 25 


1 52 


5 


7 


2 


G 


82 


1 1: 


21 


29 


25 


37 


1845 


9 25 


14 12 


2 62 


4 75 


1 32 


1 47 


3 


7 


2 


7 


85 


1 4(! 


20 


28 


24 


30 


1S46 


9 62 


13 37 2 87 


4 50 


I 25 


1 50 


5 


8 


»> 


7 


80 


1 35 


18 


25 


18 


28 


1847 


10 :5 


16 00 


8 25 


13 75 


1 20 


1 65 


6 


8 


2 


8 


1 05 


1 Wh 


24 


34 


22 


30 


1848 


9 OC 


13 0(t 


7 75 


13 00 


1 25 


1 55 


10 


15 


3 


S 


95 


1 4( 


21 


27 


20 


30 


1849 


9 87 


14 25 


2 25 


3 50 


1 20 


1 40 


4 


6 


3 


9 


1 20 


1 35 


20 


28 


25 


32 


18.-)0 


10 00 


11 87 


2 25 


3 37 


1 15 


1 75 


4 


7 


5 


14 


1 09 


1 50 


23 


27 


30 


35 


1851 


12 06 


15 50 


2 75 


3 Vl 


1 02 


1 60 


4 


6 


3 


14 


93 


1 22 


20 


27 


30 


41 


1852.... 


14 62 


19 75 


2 75 


5 00 


1 05 


1 65 


3 


5 


3 


9 


1 03 


1 15 


20 


25 


26 


42 


1853 , 


13 00 


19 75 


3 37 


4 50 


1 12 


1 62 


4 


6 


4 


10 


2 22 


1 80 


22 


;>2 


38 


44 


1851 


12 12 


16 00 


4 12 


4 02 


1 47 


1 70 


3 


6 


5 


11 


1 75 


2 60 


26 


41 


25 


40 


18.^)5 


12 50 


23 00 2 50 


5 87 


90 


1 22 


4 


8 


6 


lo 


1 96 


2 80 


'6\i 


4; 


24 


34 


1856 


16 25 


21 00 


3 62 


4 87 


80 


1 05 





10 





16 


1 30 


2 17 


25 


36 


30 


38 


1857 


16 50 


25 70 


3 25 


5 37 


70 


84 


9 


11 


7 


20 


1 25 


1 95 


21 


37 


30 


44 


1858 


15 35 


19 00 


2 75 


3 75 


62 


80 


5 


8 


6 


18 


1 20 


1 50 


21 


35 


27 


32 


1859 


1 . 60 


18 12 


3 00 


4 50 


75 


1 07 


5 


8 


4 


14 


1 30 


1 ()5 


23 


L9 


34 


45 


18611 


16 12 


19 75 


3 00 


4 62 


68 


1 15 


6 


h 


3 


13 


1 35 


1 70 


19 


27 


34 


40 


1861 


12 25 


18 00 


3 00 


7 25 


50 


95 


4 


9 


3 


16 


1 20 


1 60 


15 


21 


22 


45 


1862 


11 00 


14 50 


6 62 


7 75 


85 


1 52 


7 


11 


6 


30 


1 30 


1 55 


19 


39 


40 


65 


]8(i3 


11 50 


18 25 


3 75 


8 60 


1 20 


1 70 


7 


14 


8 


36 


1 25 


2 00 


44 


78 


62 


80 


1864 


19 50 


43 25 


7 00 


15 50 


1 75 


3 50 


U 


26 


8 


55 


1 72 


2 75 


60 


2 03 


75 1 


10 


1865 


19 00 


31 50 


9 75 


14 00 


1 65 


2 50 


11 


17 


7 


45 


1 25 


1 8.S 


1 92 


2 25 


70 


77 


1866 


21 18 


33 55 


n 50 


15 25 


2 60 


4 10 


10 


16 


8 


18 


2 20 


3 45 


2 00 


2 33 


25 


27 


1867 


18 90 


24 1< 


8 50 


12 50 


2 60 


2 75 


9 


10 


9 


16 


2 30 


3 40 


2 10 


2 32 


25 


37 


1868 


21 10 


29 50 


8 25 


11 25 


2 50 


2 60 


9 


12 


8 


15 


2 05 


3 25 


91 


2 30 


34 


37 


1869 


26 50 


33 37 


7 25 


10 00 


2 60 


3 00 


9 


13 


8 


13 


1 45 


2 18 


90 


1 14 


32 


35 


1870 


20 00 


30 00 


5 50 


9 50 


2 40 


3 25 


9 


10 


7 


12 


1 40 


1 90 


82 


1 '5 


34 


45 


1871 


12 85 


23 00 


6 75 


9 75 


2 80 


3 25 


7 


10 


6 


11 


1 45 


2 00 


85 


95 


32 


63 


1872 


12 80 


h\ 00 


7 60 


9 50 


2 80 


3 25 


7 


9 


9 


16 


1 65 


2 10 


82 


91 


45 


« 7 


1873 


13 ) 


19 00 


7 00 


9 60 


3 00 


3 50 


7 


9 


9 


10 


1 55 


2 25 


86 


1 05 


35 


67 


1874 


13 85 


24 25 


6 75 


10 00 


1 10 


3 01 1 


7 


8 


7 


25 


93 


1 35 


92 


1 03 


36 


48 


1875 


18 00 


22 75 


6 50 


8 .50 


1 15 


2 ;^5 


7 


9 


9 


28 


92 


1 37 


93 


1 19 


38 


48 


1876 


15 70 


22 37 


6 00 


7 50 


1 15 


2 60 


7 


10 


7 


19 


84 


1 271 04 


1 10 


25 


43 


1877 .... 


11 75 


17 37 


5 00 


7 00 


1 10 


2 50J 


7 


10 


7 


1(5 


1 06 


1 851 04 


1 ('9 


32 


43 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 67 



NOTES ON THE GJ^OLOGY OF PITTSBURGH. 

By B. C. JILLSON, M. D., Ph. D. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, held June 3, 1879, Dr. B. C. Jillson, by special 
invitation, read a paper entitled, " Notes on the Geology of Pittsburgh." After its reading a com- 
mittee was appointed to request the paper for publication in the forthcoming work of Mr. Richard 
Edwards on " The Industries of Pittsburgh." 

It is said to be a wise provision of Nature which causes great rivers to flow near large cities ; so we fiud it also a 
wise provision of Nature wlaich, in like manner — thougli not always so evident to the casual observer — shapes the 
physical features of the country in such a way as to give great advantages to one particular spot over another. Pitts- 
burghers justly pride themselves on what they have done by tlieir industry, energy and business habits. Industry 
and energy, under intelligent guidance, will overcome all difficuliies. Our fathers peiceived tlie advantages of this 
locality wliich Nature had prepared for us, and availed lliemselves of it, and their sons have wisely followed in their 
footsteps. But have we done all we can do? Have we improved aU the advantages which Nature has poured on us 
with such a lavisli liand? Let us loolc at some of the geological advantages ol this locality. 

Starting from the Atlantic seaboard and going west, we notice a wonderful difference in the physical features of 
the country in every few miles' travel. At first we find the rocks hard and coarse, and composed of various ingredi- 
ents, bent and twisted so that tliey have no form or comeliness. Soon, however, these irregularities cliange, and we 
find the rocks aiTanged in regular layers, forming ridges or waves, wliich increase in size till the huge folds familiar to 
us as the Alleglieny mountains are reached. From the Allegheny mountains westw.ird the waves grow less and less ' 
through Johnstown, Latrobe, Irwins, hardly perceptible in Pittsburgh, and gradually disappearing in the boundless 
prairies farther west. Close examination shows that these rocks were folded by intense pressure and were accom- 
pnnied by great heat, and that the mighty engine wliich accomplished this work was far east. The effect on the coal 
illustrates this. The coal be<ls of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, estimated at 500 square miles, are pressed out of all 
shape — the maximum bed, thirteen feet in thickness, dwindlingaway in many places to a mere thread jammed into 
the hard metumorphic rock. The coal, too, has been so changed by heat that it is seldom used for fuel. Its character is 
well illustrated by tlie story of two New Euglanders who were once conversing on the destruction of the world by 
fire, when one of tliom remarked that if he were here at that time, and found the world was burning up, he would 
run and stand on the Rliode Island coal banks, lor he was sure they would be the last things to l)urn. Further west, 
in the anthracite coal region, we find the seams bent Into nearly every conceivable shape, dipping sometimes at one 
angle and sometimes at anotlier — sometimes with the strike in one direction and sometimes at another, though in gen- 
eral from the north-east to the south-west. Farther west, at the Broad-Top field, the coal is neither anthracite nor 
bituminous, but partaking of the nature of both, and, therefore, called semi-bituminous, and here in Pittsburgli we 
find, for the fii'st time, tlie coal pure bituminous, unaffected by pr,, sure or heat, with all its chemical and physic;il 
characters well preserved. Our coal is located on the eastern border of an extensive coal field, which was unaffected 
by those agents which naturally changed the coal and made such havoc with the layers of reck further east. But 
there is another aspect of this coal field which deserves our consideration, if we would realize how much Pittsburgh is 
indebted to Nature's slow and continuDus labor long ages ago. The rocks in this vicinity are nearly horizontal. 
Standing at the " Point," where the Allegheny and Monongahela unite to form the Ohio, we see, opposite. Coal Hill 
or Mt. Washington, rising abruptly, from the very brink of the river, more than 400 feet. This hill is composed of 
layers of rock arranged horizontally, with just enough difference in color and external appearance to be recognized 
at this distance. At the base we see about 100 feet of an olive or buff-colored shale, and directly above it a layer of 
sandstone 75 or 80 feet thick, of a gray color and somewhat micaceous. Resting on tliis siindstone are layers of shale 
and limestone, the whole forming a bad of about 125 feet in thickness. Three nundred feet above the river we see 
distinctly the layer of coal, like a broad, black belt, girdling the hill. Upon the layer of coal rests at least 100 feet of 
shales, sandstones and limestones. Up and down the left bank of the Monongaliela and Ohio, as ^ir as the eye can 
reach, these bells of rook can be plainly seen, undeviatingly in the order and position described. Looking now across 
the Allegheny, to the rear of Allegheny City, we see exactly the same arrangement of rock — shale corresponding to 
shale, sandstone to sandstone, limestone to limestone, to the top of tlie hill, wliile beyond and at a greater height wo 
find the coal. Looking up the Allegheny river, we see the layer of shale forming Troy Hill, while at a greater height, 
in the dim distance, we see the openings iu llie coal layer. At the Union Depot we find the 100 feet of sliale capped 
by the sandstone layer in the quarry back of the High School building, while near the top of the hill the coal makes 
its appearance. These horizontal strata which we see on every side, answering layer to layer, are silent witnesses of the 
past They show plainly that the general surface of the surrounding country was at one time about 403 feet above where 
we now stand. If the rocks which form our county had been the hard granitic and raetamorphic rocks of tlie eastern 
part of our State, our valuable coal beds would liave remained covered, and only accessible from the surface through 
more tlian 100 feet of solid rock, witli all the attendant labor and expense ; wliile all the advantages whicli Pittsburgh 
now possesses in the easy accessibilily to its coul would have been wholly lost. But tlie r.ain, tlie snow, the frost, 
have worn away and disintegrated our soft rocks, so tliat the wliole surface of our county is agreeably diversified with 
hill and dale, not only adding to the beauty of the scenery, but, what is of more practiccl value, permitting us every- 
where to enter our coal seam at the surface. Of this coal seam, the eminent geologist and celebrated traveler, Sir 
Charles Lyell, says: " I was truly astonished, now that I had entered the hydrographical basin of the Ohio, at behold- 
ing the richness of the seams of coal, which appeared everywhere on the flanks of the hills, and at the bottoms of the val- 
leys, and which are accessible in a degree I never witnessed elsewhere." Had the mighty power which folded the eastern 
rocks into huge waves extended its influence to this part of the State, our coal banks, instead of being horizontal, 
would have been upheaved at various angles, and the many faults would liave added materially to the expense of 
mining. Eiich of our large rivers, the Allegheny, the Monongahela, the Yougliiogheiiy, and the Ohio rivers, as well as 



68 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Chartier's creek, Pine creek, Gerty's run, and, in fact, all our streams, both great and small, once flowed more than 
200 feet above their present level. I have traced and mapped these ancient rivers through their various windings for 
75 miles, from beyond Perryopolis, in Fayette county, through '• White-Oak Level," back of McKcesport, through 
Swisavale, Wilkinsburg and East Liberty. From this point one branch passed through Bloomfield, Friendship Grove, 
the upper part of Allegheny cemetery, and along the top of Troy hill to Hilldale cemetery. The other branch passed 
through Shady Side, Bellefield, Oakland, and along the top of Boyd's hill and Seminary hill, Allegheny, uniting with 
the first branch at Hilldale cemetery. From this point the united braaiches passed around the hills back of Manches- 
ter, making its first appearance on the present Ohio near the mouth of Wood's run. From this point it followed the 
general direction of the present Ohio, leaving its mark on each side of the river, in some places nearly 300 feet above 
the present water level. Since that time these rivers have somewhat changed their course, though not their general 
direction, digging the deep ditch for their present bed, in which ditch Pittsburgh has since been built. Were it not 
for this benevolent action on the part of Nature ages before we were born, our coal would now be elevated from the 
mines by machinery, with its attendant trouble and expense, instead of being mined as now, above the river, and shot 
into barges by its own weight. As these rivers wore away the rocks, they several times changed their course in lim- 
ited localities. The Allegheny river at one time passed to the right of Seminary hill, its gravelly bottom forming the 
plain on which Allegheny City now stands. At a later date, it forced its way to the left of Seminary hill, making the 
channel in which it has since remained. The head of the Ohio was at one time at Hilldale cemetery, at another near 
Manchester, and at a still later date at Suke's run, at the base of Boyd's hill, a mile above its present position. 
Everywhere these ancient rivers wrote the history of their movements. 

Let us briefly note a few of the hieroglyphics they have left, more easily translated than the hieroglyphics on the 
Egyptian monuments, which so long baffled the skill of our best scholars. The deposit of sand in Perryopolis utilized 
' by the gla.ss house there, and the immense number of boulders scattered over the immediate vicinity ; Finley's Sand- 
wash in East Liberty, and the beds of sandstone, gravel and clay, and boulders deposited in that valley ; the sand in 
the upper part of Allegheny Cemetery ; the beds of clay which have proved a source of profit to the owners of Boyd's 
Hill; the top of Troy Hill, as level as a floor for two or three miles; the deposit of gravel in which the basin for the 
Allegheny water works is placed ; the immense beds of gravel near Hilldale Cemetery ; the four feet of gravel on the 
top of McKee's Rocks; the Terraces on the right bank of the Ohio on which Bellevue and other places are situated ; 
the immense quantity of boulders at Beaver and Rochester, which for scores of years have been drawn upon to pave 
the streets of our city ; the beautiful terraces which marked its flood tides and former level, notedly those in McKecs- 
port, in East Liberty Valley, the second bank in Allegheny and the four banks so plainly shown in the early settle- 
ment of our city, the largest and highest being the one on which Trinity Church and its surrounding grave- j ard now 
stands. 

Until the oil discovery a few years ago the Allegheny river was noted for its pure, clear water, while the 
Monongahela was equally well known as a muddy stream. Where they united at "the Point" the action of eacli 
river could be easily traced by the color of its waters. The Monongahela coming from the south and passing over the 
soft shales and clays and limestones of the carboniferous period, became muddy from this source, while the Allegheny 
flowing through a region of hard conglomerates and sandstones remained clear. There is another marked difference in 
the character of these two rivers. The valley traversed by the Allegheny is narrower and the force of the stream 
much greater. From Oil City to Pittsburgh, a distance of 132 miles, the fall is 277 feet, averaging 2.1 feet per mile, 
while the more sluggish current of the Monongahela may be illustrated by the fact that the diflTerence in the water 
level between Brownsville and Pittsburgh, a distance of 60 miles, is only 32 feet, averaging about .six inclies to the 
mile. The Monongahela, therefore, brings down only fine sediment, while the force of the Allegheny is sufiicient to 
move sand, gravel and fragments of rock of considerable size. It also happens that the Allegheny and Monongaliela 
rivers strike the point at different angles and that the space between them upon which Pittsburgh stands was formed 
wholly from material brought by the Allegheny from the more northern part of the State. The larger part of botli 
Pittsburgh and Allegheny are built on plains made up of porous layers of angular and rounded sand and gravel, and 
not upon a solid, impervious stratum of clay, such as the Monongahela would have produceil. This seemingly slight 
difference in the direction of these two rivers and the difference in the character of their sediment has formed in no 
slight manner the hygienic condition of our city. The early settlers built upon the plain 40 feet above low water mark. 
The porous nature of the soil and the surface drainage was then sufficient ; but the present size o. our city demands 
careful and systemaiie sewage if we would escape those zymotic diseases which result from the neglect of the most 
simple hygienic laws. With respect to drainage, few cities are more favored by nature than ours. The hillside wards 
require no blasting for sewer-pipes, the rock being easily removed with the pick, while the wards of the old city can 
be easily excavated with the spade. The reservoirs of our waterworks are of ample size, capable of supplying our 
people with an abundance of water for many years to come, while one of them is located more than 500 feet above the 
river. With such natural and artificial advantages why should not Pittsburgh be the cleanest city in the United 
States, and forever prevent a repetition of the South Side diphtheria epidemic of 1877 and the Reform School typhoid 
lever epidemic of 1875, both of which were greatly aggravated, if not directly caused, by improperly constructed and 
grossly neglected sewer pipes? Another peculiar feature of the two rivers which bound our city, is the unsymraetrical 
character of their rise and fall. Being large rivers and draining a considerable extent of country, they are like all 
large rivers subject to times of great and sudden overflow. The Allegheny rises in Southern New York, nearly 43° 
N, and the Monongahela in West Vii-ginia, about .39° N. These sources, then, being some 4° apart, are, of course, sub- 
ject to local influences of a very different character, and the tide or rise of these rivers are quite different. One river 
may be quite low and the other at flood-tide, and a little time after the reverse may be the case. The material brouglit 
down the river and the decomposing vegetable matter on its banks and on the low ground near the shores, produced 
much malarial sickness, but the settlement of the neighborhood, with the natural and necessary improvements on the 
shores, has nearly eradicated the disease. Of course, the sudden and great rise and fall of the rivers still continues, 
and is carefully watched by those whose business necessities require it. A meteorological phenomenon connected in 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 69 



some way with these rivers or with the deep gorges through which they pass, is worthy of careful consideration. 
Sometimes a rain storm will come up the Ohio and either pass up the Allegheny Valley or up the Monongahela "Valley, 
or, dividing, will not unfrequeutly pass up both. Sometimes a storm will pass across from one river to the other, con- 
fined to a very limited area. A few Sundays ago it rained hard ou Ilerron's Hill, while in the lower ward of the city 
and at Shady Side no ruin fell. A few days after it rained hard in the lower part of the city, with none at Millvale Sta- 
tion on the P. R. R. I think I never saw it rain harder than it did at the Union Depot some two years ago, but not a 
drop fell at Lawrencevillo R. R. station. Many other similar illustrations could be given. You all remember the ter- 
rible calamity which befcl our city in July, 1874, when two hundred persons lost their lives at Batcher's Run. A few 
careful observers, with the proper instruments, taking systematic and syncronous observations over the area described, 
would, in a few years, I doubt not, be able to explain the laws which govern these singular movements. 

Our rocks, as you well know, belong to the carboniferous system. The rocks forming this system are conglomer- 
ates, shales and sandstones, more rarely limestones. They occur in various alternations with an occasional bed of 
coal between them. All the coal beds taken together make not more than one-fiftieth of the whole thickness. Just 
here in Pittsburgh we have but one layer of coal in situ, though to the north we have coal beds which are geologically 
lower than our own, and to the south we have coal beds that are geologically higher than our own ; the rocks hero 
in Pittsburgh, not being exactly horizontal, but dipping slightly to the south, so that the rocks concealed from view 
below the bed of the river outcrop farther north, and the rocks which top our highest hills, extend over the whole 
country to the south of us. On the left or west bank of the Monongahela, opposite Pittsburgh, a st«ep bluff rises from 
the bank of the river 450 feet. The highest rocks are not well exposed, hut the occasional outcrops show that they 
constitute a part of the great limestone formation which shows itself in all the counties south of Pittsburgh, between 
the Chestnut Ridge and Ohio River. '-It may be traced up the Monongahela River from Pittsburgh to the Virginia 
line." It varies in thickness from a few feet to fifty or seventy-five and is often mixed with thick layers of sandstone 
and shales. It makes a most excellent lime and is extensively burned in the eastern and southern part of our coun- 
ty. While there are sever.al other layers of limestone in this vicinity geologically lower than the one under con.sid- 
eration, they are quite thin and make but poor lime, and are but little used. 

H. D. Rodgers says, "It is the most extensive and valuable deposit in the valley of the Monongahela, or anywhere 
else in the western counties of the State." Between the limestone layer just described and the Pittsburgh coal 
are layers of a yellow ferruginous shale interspersed with a gray, slaty, and in many places very micaceous sandstone, 
about 75 or SO feet thick. The Pittsburgh coal seam comes next in order. The peculiar features of the Pittsburgh 
coal are well known to you. The late Henry D. Rodgers calls it "coal of the purest kind," and J. P. Lesley says, "It 
is pure bituminous coal, yielding 40 to 45 cubic feet of gas to ten pounds of coal where best known and very free from 
sulphur." But there are some other characteristics of this bed which makes it of peculiar value to the geologist. Its 
dual character and its great extent of surface make it a landmark — the base line of carboniferous geology. This re- 
markable bed has been identified over an area of 20,000 square miles and is everywhere the same double bed. It is 
found in Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky and in other parts of our own State, and everywhere the impure slate above re- 
tains its proportionate relation to the whole mass. For example, in our eight-foot vein we have five or six feet of 
solid coal below, with about two feet of impure coal above. In the Cumberland basin where the vein is twelve or 
fourteen feet in thickness, we have nine or ten feet of coal below and three or four feet of the shaly structure above. 
At Wheeling, Virginia, with its six-foot vein, at Athens, Ohio, with its five-foot vein, at Guyandotte, West Virginia, 
with its two or three-foot vein, this peculiarity is preserved. Is it not strange that over a country as great as 
20,000 square miles the circumstances should have been so similar as first to permit and foster the growth of vege- 
table matter for a long time, and tiien to cover it so universally, over this whole area, witli sand and clay and an 
imperfect vegetation? The amount of vegetable matter necessary to form one foot of coal has been estimated to be 
about eight feet, or over 60 feet for such a bed as that of Pittsburgh. 

Below the coal there are some eight or ten layers of limestone from one to two feet thick, and separated 
from each other by layers of dark-colored shale — the whole forming a bed of about twenty-five feet in thickness. 
The shale or sandstone upon which this bed rests is about thirty-five feet thick, and in some places is composed 
almost wholly of shale, while in other localities the shale passes into very thin layers, and the sandstone expands 
into blocks sufficiently thick for building purposes. Below this we find a bed of limestone four feet thick, separated 
from another two-foot vein by 12 feet of yellowish shale. Below this last layer of limestone are 35 feet of buff shale, 
and then another layer of limestone three feet in thickness — hard, compact, and of a yellowish color. This rests on a 
stratum of shale marked with iron, sometimes passing into a coarse, slaty sandstone — the whole 10 or 12 feet thick. 
Then follows a red or mottled shale, 12 feet in thickness, sometimes wanting, but generally exposed around Pitts- 
burgh. All the layers just described wliich lie below the coal have as yet been of no great value to Pittsburgh. The 
iron is a mere trace, the shale of no practical value, and the limestone is so thin as to be of little importance as a 
source of lime for masonry or agriculture. The next layer is one of considerable value, being a sandstone 75 or 80 feet 
in thickness, and e-xtensively used for building purposes. It varies in color, quality and appearance, being generally 
of a gray color, sometimes very micaceous, with the wave and ripple marks well shown. It also varies much in dura- 
bility, sometimes remaining unchanged for years, but often weathering badly and crumbling on exposure. Great care 
should therefore be used in its selection. The court house shows the weathering action in a marked degree. Stone 
from other quarries, but belonging to the same geological layer, are in general much more durable and serve a good 
purpose. Most of the stone, however, now used for heavy masonry in our city, comes by rail from .«onie distance, 
notably from Froeport and other places up the Allegheny — from Baden and Beaver, down the Oliio — and from Ligon- 
ier, Westmoreland county, on the Pennsylvania Central Railroad. The stone from the Allegheny and Ohio belong 
to the Freeport, Butler and Mahoning groups — are geologically lower than our Rttsburgh rocks — are concealed from 
view below tlie bed of our rivers, but crop out farther north. The Ligonier sandstone is probably the same layer as 
our Pittsburgh sandstone just described, but much more durable. At the ba.se of the hills which surround our cily 
we find 100 feet of olive or buflf-colored shale, which seems universal throughout the county. The lower part of this 



70 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

bed is easily decomposed, weatliering into a stiff clay, while the upper part is of a harder structure, often containing 
thick layers of sandstone, with, in some localities, fine impression of plants. This rock is souietiiues divided very 
regularly by numerous straight, vertical planes of fracture, parallel to one another, separating it into large, angular 
blocks, giving to the rocks where it occurs a front like a fortification. On a level with the river, but generally con- 
cealed by detritus, is a layer of black slate, two feet in thicknes.s, resting on a bed of coal about one foot thick. These 
layers have been noticed in Wilkins, Versailles, Indiana, Ross and Shaler townships, in each case having about the 
same thickness, and in matiy cases the appearance and properties of can n el coal. Where it outcrops along Butcher's 
run, on each side of the Perrysville road, it is a good bituminous coal. 

Tlie rocks concealed from view below the bod of the river are not so well known ; and, although there are many 
borings in this immediate vicinity, little or no attempt is made to keep a correct account of the layers iiassed through. 
Whfn this is done, it is generally a diflicult matter for any but an experienced person to distinguish between coal and 
black slate, and the nature of the rock bored, except in hardness, color, and tlie like general characteristics. As all 
our rocks dip slightly to the south, the general character of the rocks below our city can be determined by their out- 
crop farther north. '■' * * * * « << << « << ««**#««=>«« 

Before closing, permit me to call your attention to a discovery of much interest connected with the pre-Adamic 
history of our city. At a public lecture given in the High-School building, winter before last, I had the pleasure of 
showing a fossil tooth of the Elephas primogenus, or Mammoth, and also of one of another species of elephant famil- 
iarly known as the Mastodon. The Mammoth's tooth was exhumed from the gravel while excavating for the piers of 
the Point bridge. It was in good condition, and is now in the po."session of a gentleman living on the South Side. 
The Mastodon's tooth was found in the Ohio near Sewickley. On exposure, it soon fell to pieces, but with care and 
skill it was restored. I have just learned that Prof. Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., will, this year, |>lace in the Exjxvsi- 
lion building his restoration of the large Mammoth found well preserved in tlic ice clifTs in Siberia. This restoration 
will give some idea of the first settlers of Pittsburgh, who once roamed over our hills and inhabited our valleys. 



PITTSBURGH COAL AND COKE REGION. 

The business that is done hei'e in the course of the year i.s most difficult to ascertain, as the 
railway companies do not separate their tonnajre into that carried ihrviic/h, and tiiat for local use. 
It is safe to estimate the sum total from the immediate vicinity at 5,200,000 tons. This is mainly 
forwarded to points North, South, East and West, by rail and water. The shipments of coal and 
coke by the river to points below the city last year amounted to over 2.627,750 tons. 

The coal shipped down the Ohio river from the neigiiborliood of Pitt-sburffh is obtained from 
receipts throufrh the medium of the Monongahela slack-water navigation sj^stem, and the coal car- 
ried by the Saw-mill Run Railway. The totals are as below : — 

Coal and slack from Pool No. 1 12,287,4fi5 bushels. 

Coal and slack from Pool No. 2 84.203,450 bushels. 

Coal and slack from Pool No. 3 11,33(5,100 Imshels. 

Coal and slack from Pool No. 4 12,101,2-10 bushels. 

Total Coke 6,887.000 bushels. 

(Jrand totals. Coke, Coal and Slack 76,-825,255 l)ushels. 

Saw-mill Run Railroad Coal Tonnage total in 1878 2,321,991 bush., or 88,235 net tons. 

'J'he above gives the tonnage that starts out from the several mines along tlic routes named and 
is what is known as 'river' coal. A portion is left for local consumption in Pittsburgh, Allegheny, 
etc., and tiie following is a summary" of the entire movement of coal and coke : 

Coal by slack-water 69,938,255 bushels. 

Coke by slack-water 6.887,000 bushels. 

Coal by Saw-mill Run Railroad 2,321,991 bushels. 

Total movement 79,147,246 bushels. 

Shipments down the Ohio 6.1,697,000 bushels. 

Leaving for local consumption 13,450,246 bushel.s. 

There is a large amount of coal for local use received by rail and it may be estimated at twice 

as much as the above quantity. Estimate 25 bushels to the net ton. 

Tlie first Bituminous coal district of Penns^'lvania embraces the counties of Washington, 

Westmoreland, Fayette, Green, Somerset, Bedford and nearly all of Allegheny. There were two 

hundred and forty-four mines, employing more than ten men, of which two hundred and seventeen 

were iir operation during the year 1878 : 

Number of men employed inside the mines, estimated 15,190 

Number employed outside, estimated...... 2,821 

Estimated amount of coal produced in the whole district in tons of 2,000 lbs 9,372.881 

Estimated average price paid (exclusive of nut coal) for mining per ton of 2,000 lbs 42 cents. 

Estimated number of tons mined per miner 560 

Number of accidents in 1878 93 

Number of fatal accidents 32 

Number of non-fatal accidents -. 61 

Estimated amount of coal produced for each fatal accidei.i, in tons 292,902 

Amount for each non-fatal accident 153,653 

Amount for each accident 100,801 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



71 



The coke industry in this district is a most important one. There are 3,902 ovens, with n dailj' 
capacity of 241,9^4 bushels. They are all located at Westmoreland and Fayette counties, and ran 
two-thirds time upon the average. 

In cokiny; the coal, the beeliive oven is in universal ii.se in the Connellsville region. Tliese ovens 
vary, at the different works, from 11 to 12 feet in diameter and from 5 to G feet in height. The 
working is very simple. The coal is dumped through an opening in the ci'own of the furnace and 
spread evenly on the tioor to the average depth of 2 feet for 48-hour coke and 2^ feet for 72-hour. 
The front opening tiirough which the coke is discharged, is at first nearly closed with brick, luted 
with loam. The heat of the oven from the previous coking fires the charge, and as the coking pro- 
gresses the air is more and more shut off by luting tlie openings, and finally closing the roof open- 
ings. The average charge is 100 bushels of coal at 76 lbs., and the yield in coke 120 bushels at 
40 lbs., making the percentage yield 63, or 1.6 tons of coal to 1 ton of coke. The average time of cok- 
ing is 48 hours, with 7'Z hours for that burned over Sunday. 24-houi; coke is sometimes made. 1 he 72- 
hour coke is firmer coke than either of the others, but it is questionable whether it is a better fur- 
nace coke. When the coke is thoroughly burned the door is removed and the coke is cooled by 
water thrown in from a hose, and then drawn. 

The statistics of tliis trade are surprising. The manufacture began in the winter of l8'll-2. 
According to the latest information we have, there are 8,668 oven.s in the Connellsville region, and 
nearly all are in operation. Annual output at present is about 1,500,000 tons. 

MONONGAHELA COAL REGION. 

Bj' means of its slack-water navigation, the Monongahela river is made navigable at all seasons 
of the year, and boats carrying eight hundred tons are passed down. The city of Pittsburgh is 
supplied mainly by railroad, and the larger portion of the coal by ri'er is run down the Ohio and 
Mississippi to the lower markets. The following statement of shipments by the slack-water navi- 
gation from 1845 to date, is of interest : 



YEVR. *T()NS. 

18^5 184,200 

1846 311,156 

1847 ;-{8J,805 

1818 392,774 

1849 398,340 

1850 491,918 

1851 490,850 

IHol 585,233 

1853 628,654 

1854. 693,278 

1855 889,360 

1856 353,364 



YE.1R. *TONS. 

1857 1,158,939 

1858 1,027,866 

1859 1,131,467 

1860 1,517,909 

1861 834,630 

1862 743,358 

1863 1,134,150 

1864 1,402,828 

1865 1,580,791 

1866 1,704,212 

1867 1,202,908 

1868 1,812,040 



YEAR. -TON.«!. 

1869 2,100,504 

1870 2,303,856 

1871 1,944,852 

1872 2,291,220 

1873 2,094,312 

1874 2,503,504 

187.5 2,275,265 

1876 2,495,800 

1877 2,677,460 

1878 2,797,530 

*We have estimated 25 bushels 
of 80 Ib.s. to the ton of 2,000 lbs. 



The business done by the various railroads entering or passing through this coal field, is indi- 
cated by the fact that in 1878 the Pennsylvania Railroad carried upwards of 1,429.428 tons from 
this district. In this connection, the cost of transporting coals over waterway.^, as from Pittsburgh 
to New Orlean.s, is of value. The distance is something like 2,000 miles, the rate is about 3^ cent.s 
per bushel, or $1.05 per ton of 4,240 lbs.; the ordinary time being about two weeks when all cir- 
cumstances are favorable. From Pittsburgh to Louisville, Ky., the distance is six hundred miles: 
the cost If cents per bushel, including return of empty craft; and the time five days. Coke iorms 
a considerable item in the business from this region. Some 129 000 tons were shipped last 3-ear. 
It weighs 40 11)3. to the bu.shel, and 62.} lbs. of coke represents 100 lbs. of coal, so that of the total 
product of this region in 1878, 1,548,428 tons was sent out by rail. 



SHIPMENTS OF COAL AND COKE BY THE MONONGAHELA NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

In connection with the table just given we add below the statistics of total shipments of coal 
and coke by the Monongahela Navigation Companj- from 1844. when the first shipments were 
made, to 1878, for which we are indebted to the personal courtesy of Hon. J. K. Moorhead, the 
president of the company. The shipments are given in bushels, each thousand bushels being re- 
garded as the equivalent of 38 gro.ss tons, which makes the weight of a'bushei 85.12 pounds. 



Years. 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 



Bushels. 

737,150 

4,605,185 

7,778,911 

9,645,127 

9,819,361 

9,708,.507 

12,297,967 

12,521,228 

14,630,841 



Yrars. 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 



Bu.shels. 
15,716,367 
17,331,946 
22,231,009 

8,584,095 
28,973,596 
25,696,669 
28,28,6,671 
37,947,733 
20,865,722 



Years. 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1S69 
1870 



Bushels. 
18,583,956 
26,44-4,252 
35,070,917 
39,522,792 
42,605,300 
30,072,700 
45,301,000 
52,512,600 
57,596,400 



Years. 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 



Bushels. 
48,621,300 
57, 80,500 
58,276,995 
65,881,700 
63,707,500 
68,481,000 
79,480,918 
76,825,255 



Total, 1,153,646,169 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



COAL TRADE OF THE UNION. 

We give below the tonnage for the year 1869, as per census reports made in 1870, together with 
figures for the year 1878, where available; in other cases we have made a careful estimate, based 
upon our reports of the trade in the various States : 



1869— tons.' 1878— tons. 

Penn'a Anthracite 13,866,180 17,605,262 

Penn'a Bituminous 7,798,517 13,500,000 

Illinois 2,629,563 3,500,000 

Ohio 2,527,285 6,000,000 

Maryland 1,819,824 1,679.322 

Missouri 621,930 900.000 

West Virginia 608,878 1,000,000 

Indiana 437,870 1.000,000 

Iowa 263,487 1,500,000 

Kentucky 150,582 900,000 

Tennessee 133,418 375,000 

Virginia 61,803 75,000 



Kansas , 

Oregon 

Micliigan 

California 

Rhode Island 

Alabama 

Nebraska 

Wyoming 

Washington... 

Utah 

Colorado 



1869— tons. 


1878— tons. 


32,938 


300,000 




200,000 


21,150 


30,000 




600 000 


14,000 


14,000 


11,000 


200,000 


1,425 


75,000 


50,000 


100.000 


17,844 


150,000 


5,800 


60,000 


4,500 


367,000 



Total, 



31,1 1*-', 595 49,130,584 



COAL TRAFFIC OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

District. Year 1878. Year 1877. 

Anthracite 697,704 694,180 

East Broad Top 63,068 54,13?. 

Huntingdon and Broad Top 76,826 87,905 

Cumbevland 167,t08 189,394 

Snow Shoe 29,168 42,985 

Tyrone and Clearfield 1,270,612 1,340,744 

GiiUitzin and Mountain region 200,099 184,464 

West Pennsylvania Railroad 186,308 187,345 

Coke 80,994 58,483 

Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad 25,663 39,010 

" Coke 786,805 635,990 

Westworeland region 692,586 786,039 

" Coke 78,766 64,905 

Pittsburgh region 1,429,438 1,374,396 

" Coke 128,918 107,840 

D. H. & W. Anthracite 72,440 94,685 

Lewisburg Anthracite 1,758 10,789 

Total in tons of 2,000 lbs.— coal 3,920,766 4,086,674 

Total in tx>ns of 2,000 lbs.— coke 1,085,990 867,218 



Year 1876. 
687,172 

65,999 

44,461 
147,512 

50,916 

1,190,4 8 

209,315 

173,324 

57,797 
157,150 
539,640 
896,590 

59,462 

1,310,846 

102,126 

95,434 



4,018,159 
819,125 



IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTION OF PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, 

FROM 1874 TO 1878. 
So much interest is taken in the progress of the ii'on and steel industries of Pittsburgh and 
vicinity, tliat we have annually for several years given the statistics of their production exceptional 
prominence. In the following table these statistics for the past five years are presented: 



YEARS. 


Number 

of Iron 

Rolling 

Mills. 

31 
31 
31 
31 
31 


Product of Iron Rails, 
Bar, .Angle, Bolt, Rod 
and Hoop. Net tons. 


Product of Sheet and 

Plate, except Nail 

Plate. Net tons. 


Product of 

Nails. Kegs 

of 100 lbs. 


Total Rolled Iron, 

including Kails, 

Net tons. 


1874 


194,114 1 52,361 
171,178 ' 45,773 
189,511 31,488 
208,342 i 30,254 
226 687 1 ^'^ ^^^ 


562,995 
442,359 
538,874 
597,806 
444,013 


274 625 


1875 

1876 

1877 


239.069 
247,943 
268,486 
282 333 


1878 






, . .-..• 





YEARS. 


Number 
ot Blast 
Furnaces 


Make of Pig 

Iron. 

Net tons. 


Number of 

St€el 

Works. 


Make of 

Crucible Steel. 

Net tons. 


Make of all other Steel, 
incUuling Bessemer 
Ingots. Net tons. 


Total make 
of Steel. 
Net tons 


1874 


u 
11 
11 

12 
12 


143.6(i0 
131,856 
128,555 
141,749 
217,299 


14* 
14* 
14* 

14* 


17,915 
22,942 
25,009 
24,747 
27,866 


6,000 

15,498 

54,467 

82,401 

106.948 


23 915 


1875 


38,440 
79 476 


1876 


1877 


107 148 


1878 


134814 







* Bessemer steel included; four of these works are also iron rolling mills. 



AMERICAN RAILROAD BUILDING— 1878. 



73 



The fact ia worthy of record, that during 1878, there was a greater number of miles of raihvny 
built in America, than for any year since 1873. The details are given below, and are all collated 
from the Railroad Gazette : 

Year. Miles completed. Year. Miles completed. 

1878 2,620 1874 2,025 

1877 2,281 1873 , 3,883 

1876 2,460 1872 7,340 

1875 1,561 

During the year ju.st ended, Minnesota built 338 miles; Iowa, 255; Colorado, 193, of which 86 
were of three foot guage; Pennsylvania, 182; New York, 142; Texas, 118; and at the other ex 
trerae, New Jersey, but three miles; Massachusetts, six, and Arkansas, seven. 



IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES, 1820-1878. 

Prior to the j'ear 1820, no statistics of immigration were officiallj' kept. By the act of Con- 
gress of March 2, 1819, collectors of customs were required to keep a record and make a qunrterly 
return to the Treasury of all passengers arriving in their respective districts from foreign ports; Jind 
these reports, published from time to time by the officers of the Treasury Department, constitute 
tiie sources of information as to the growth and progress of immigration. 1 lie total number of 
foreign-born passengers arriving at the ports of the United States, in the several j-ears from 1820 to 
1870, inclusive, is given below. 



Year. 



Total 
Immigration. 

1820 8,385 

1821 9,127 

1822 6,911 

1823 6,354 

1824 7,912 

1825 10,199 

1826 10,837 

1827 18,875 

1828 27,382 

1829 22,520 

18:^ 23,322 

1831 22,633 

1832 60,482 

1833 58,640 

1834 65,365 

1835 45,374 

1836 76,242 

1837 79,340 

1838 38,914 

1839 68,069 

1840 84,066 



Year. 



Total 
Immigration. 



1841 80,289 

1842 104,565 

1843 52,496 

1844 78,615 

1845 114,371 

1846 154,416 

1847 234,9(58 

1848 266,527 

1849 297,024 

1850 369,980 

1851 ■• 379,466 

1852 371,603 

1853 368,645 

1854 427,833 

1855 200,887 

1856 200,436 

1857.... 251,306 

1858 123,126 

1859 121,282 

1860 153,640 

1861 91,920 



Year. 



Total 
Immigration. 

1862 91,987 

1863 176,282 

1864 193,416 

1865 249,061 

1866 318,494 

1867 298,358 

1868 297,215 

1869 395,922 

1870 378,796 

1871 367,7^9 

1872 449,483 

1873 437,004 

1874 277,593 

1875 209,036 

1876 ]>S2.027 

1877 149,020 

1878 (6 months, Janu- 
ary to June)... 88,241 

Total 9,754,068 



Note. — ^The above figures, from 1850 to 1877, are for calendar years — January 1st to Decern l>er 31st. Other state- 
ments of immigration vary, being for fiscal years ending June 30th. Anotlier source of variation is that some tables 
give the total number of aliens arriving in the United States; others what is called tlie net iniiuigration only. As the 
latter is uot ascertainable for all the years, the figures above giveti represent the total immigration of aliens in each 
year. 



CHINESE IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR EACH CALEND.\R 
YEAR FROM 1855 TO 1876, INCLUSIVE. 



Year. Number. 

1855 3,526 

1856 4,733 

1857... 5,944 



5,128 
3,457 
5,467 
7,518 
3,633 
1863 7,214 



1858. 
1859.. 
I860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 



Year. 
1864.. 
1865.. 
1866.. 



Number. 

2,795 

2,942 

2,385 

1867 3,863 

1868 10,684 

1869 14,902 

1870 11,943 

1871 6,039 

1872...^ 10,642 



Year. Number 

1873 18,154 

1874 16,651 

1875 19,033 

1,S76 16,879 

1877 10,379 

1878 (January to June) 6,269 

Total 200,110 



NOTK.— The statement is made that nearly one-half of all the Chinese who have arrived in the United States have 
irned to their native country. 



retu 



21,183 

82,000 

20,000 

85,000 

27,000 

9,200 

17,200 

25,000 

8,000 

9,000 

21,800 

80,000 

66,685 

45,000 



Ins. Paid. 

7,183 

115,500 

G,5i)0 

27,350 

26,500 

10,040 



6,193 

7,454 

6,801 

7,650 

85,000 

7,500 

20,000 

33,245 

70,235 

11,500 

5,276 

23,210 

18,742 

78,432 

7,150 

60,000 

11,987 



« 19,183 
39,395 

7,000 
29,500 
15,000 

9,200 
17,200 
14,200 



FIEES IN FIPTEEN TEAES-LIST OF THE MOST DESTEUOTIVE FIRES IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY 
SINCE i864-QE0SS LOSS NEAELY $iO,500,00[)-INSUEANCE NEAELY $6,000>000. 

Mr. James E. Stevenson, late Fire Marshal, liaa favored us with a list of the principal losera 
by fire in Allegheny County from August 20th, 1864, to March 23d, 1879, as follows: 

Year 1864. 

Gross Loss. Ins. Paid. 

Choss, Smythe & Co $ 93,070 $ 56,925 

Year 1865. 

J. Y. McLaughlin & Co S 40,000 $ 10,200 

Reese, Graff & Dull 11,000 11,000 

R.J.Baxter 20,000 7,500 

Gregg, Alexander & Co 31,000 6,000 

Joseph L. Hezlep 20,000 11,000 

Spencer & McKay 36,425 36,425 

Huhbard & Long, et al 12,379 12,379 

Brewer. Burke & Co 13,889 13,889 

Woolridge & Atwood 22,000 22,000 

Arde.sco Oil Refinery 70,463 60,882 

Graff, Bennett & Co 47,000 17,000 

A. H. English & Co 9,439 9,439 

Wilson, Carr & Co 8,566 8,566 

John C. Lappe 60,000 26,800 

Do. other losses 33,000 8,000 

Year 1866. 

Citizen's Passenger Railway $ 24,000 $ 11,781 

Dickson, Marshall & Co 16,200 16,200 

Kauffiuan & Oppenheimer 21,897 21,897 

Fahncstock, Hazlet & Schwartz 11,124 7,700 

Olnhausen & Crawford 10,543 9,500 

John Heath et al 41,300 14,000 

Pittsburgh Forge & Iron Co 12,000 10,000 

Guthrie & Sill 31,215 21,C00 

Pittsburgh Acid Co 53,625 26,551 

Kier & Mitchell et al 12,200 11,000 

P. Weisenberger & Co 13,000 8,000 

Lafayette Hall 50,842 41,221 

Union Iron Company 14,000 9,600 

Hayes & Stewart et al 35,000 25,236 

Wormser, MversA Co 68,000 27,800 

ArdescoOilCo 35,000 18,034 

Laughlin&Co 65,000 12,875 

James Bennry 20,800 15,000 

W. & D. Rinehart 22,648 22,648 

Fleming, Torrence & Co 33,069 23,069 

Fry & Scott 28,396 27,622 

Year 1867. 

White, Berger & Co $ 16,000 $ 8,000 

Chess, Smythe & Co 47,153 45,000 

Atlas Works 18,000 13,230 

Miller, Barr & Parkin 20,231 10,000 

Lafferty & Co. et al 27,000 11,865 

Wood & Lukens 16,000 8,373 

O'Hara & Robinson 11,5-19 11,549 

Gillespie & Mitchell 77,000 6,000 

Collins & Wright 16,534 16,534 

Reese, Graff & Dull. 22,000 14,850 

W. W. Wallace 60,000 5,440 

Zug & Co 17,000 12,830 

Year 1868. 

A. H. English A Co. et al S117,563 69,853 

Stuckrath & Co 15,000 15,000 

Pittsburgh Bolt Company 50,000 37,999 

William Semple 6,300 6,300 

Fulton, Bolman & Co 119,000 92,719 

Vesta Oil Works 33,500 18,300 

J. & W. Gaskell 18,012 18,012 

Slrub & Zahringer 7,185 4,510 

Belleheld Church 18,300 14,800 

Year 1869. 

Pittsburgh Glass Company S 10,000 $ 9,7G5 

Evans, Clow, Dalzell 4 Co 30,800 19,843 

James Bown 8,913 7,032 

Hiawatha House 24,535 6,535 

Semple, Reynolds* Co 21,561 15,646 

Lii Belle Steel Works 27,187 16,689 

Forsythe Bros. & Co 220,680 71,987 

House of Refuge Shops 13,000 7,500 

John F. Wolfe et al., McK'pt 33,757 14,745 

Pennsylvania Salt Co 25,000 17,511 

Cubbage & Ferguson 15,000 8,100 

Armstrong Bros. & Co 16,134 9,506 

Fi-azierBros 28,000 9,000 



Gross Loss. 

S. J. & J. N. Large 22,183 

A. H. Childs&Co 157,088 

A. Hartupee 6,550 

Little & Baird 28 350 

Fifth Ward School, Allegheny 26,600 

George Smith & Co 16,600 

Year 1870. 

Mellinger, Estep & Co 8 11,443 

Livingston Brothers 16,000 

Douglass & Hayes 19,000 

Jackson, McEwen & Co 7,650 

Sharpsburg Bridge 45,000 

For.sythe Brothers 13,500 

Ring Oil Company 83,000 

National & Citizen's Oil Company 33,245 

H. W. C. Tweddle 73.000 

Kirkpatrick & Co 11,600 

Reese, Graff& Dull 6,300 

James Callerv et al 34,500 

Pittsburgh Tanning Co. etal 22,000 

Kennedy & Brother 109,283 

John B. Kennedy 7,150 

Jones & Nimick 157,000 

Chambers & Co _ 11,987 

Year 1871. 

Lane Brothers et al J$ 

Smith & Porter etal 

Rylay & Robin.son „... 

Howard & Son et al 

St. Bridget's R. C. Church 

Eleventh Ward School House 

Bailey, Farrell & Co 

W. D. Wood & Co 

Jacob Franz 

Sampson's Heirs 

Wm. McKoe A Co 

George G. Miller , 

McKnight & Co 

H. M. Bole „ 



Year 1872. 



.Tones & Laughlin ^69,435 

D. P. Reighard 10,000 

Waring and others 15,000 

B. L. Fahnestock 75,143 

W. B. Lupton & Co 20,900 

Hurtje. Wvlie & Co 90,604 

Jo-scph Walton 20,000 

Year 1873. 

Hamilton, Lemon & Co ...$ 38,960 

William Gratr & Co 41,000 

National Tube Works 103,372 

Arbuckle & Co 10,649 

J. K. Moorhead $44,525 

Keefer & Herchenroetheretal 51,304 

Mulen, Steen & Co 11,455 

Freeman & Burger 28,214 

George W. Jordan 10,000 

J W. Lewis 33,000 

W. Smith .k Son 13,612 

Jo'in Phillips 18,000 

Stewart, Cook .t Co „ 14,267 

G. E. Williams & Co 10,907 

Year 1874. 

Rellevue School House „..$ 11,000 

A. Garrison 10,000 

Pittsburgh Car Works 16,453 

Appe & Rogers, and others 88,350 

Allegheny Car C-ompanv 25,000 

W. Frank & Sons ." 23,330 

Great Allegheny Fire 244,709 

Standard Oil Works 40,000 

Fairview Oil Works 43,729 

Reese, OwensA Co 26,918 

Jchn Appel et al 23,882 

Oil Works, Herr's Island „ 30,700 

R. P. Burgan et al 14,000 

Wilkins Hall 10,.525 



21,800 

56',585 
13,000 

8 82,500 



51,595 
8,700 

65,000 
5,000 



$ 24,977 

' 41,000 

40,500 

10,6-19 

$ 39,525 

26,604 

9,455 

16,000 



10,162 
13,612 
12,500 
14,207 
10,907 



S 7,000 



16,453 

23,900 

14,250 

22,530 

111,824 

27,253 

43,729 

26,918 

7,632 

6,000 

14,000 

7,000 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



75 



Year 1875. 

Gross Loss. 

Whitmore, WolffA Co. et al 8 54,236 

ElkinsA Flack 18,000 

Harlin's Color Works 10,000 

County Workhouse 60,000 

Hussey, Binns & Co 18,000 

Brilliant Oil Works 75,000 

Bown A'Sons fire 107,525 

J. B. Young & Co 10,720 

Tear 187G. 

South Side Flour Mill S 42,147 

Paine, Ablett & Tripp et al 35,995 

Tarentuni Camp (iround _ 35,000 

Berger's Bucket Factory 15,000 

National Tube Works 10,500 

American Oil Works Tank 20,705 

Lindsay AMcCutcheon 30,000 

Frame Row, Mansfield 15,970 

W Fliiceus <t Sun 15,944 

La Belle Steel Works 156,500 

Year 1877. 

Fort Pitt Boiler Works S 46,495 

Mansfield it Co 20,000 

Davis, Chambers & Co 55,923 

Pittsburgh Steel Company 23,788 

Jacobus* Nimick 132,468 

John A. McRee & Sons 35,807 

A. Hartupee A Co 104,631 

McKeesport Car Works 94,145 

GilnioreA Co 16,060 

Pittsburgh Di.spatch etal 28,845 



Ins. Paid. 
« 54,236 
13,008 
10,000 
22,700 
13,314 
58,950 
90,927 
10,720 



24,337 
31,684 
7,730 
10,000 
10,500 
20,705 
27.642 
11,580 
15,944 
65,000 



8 19,045 
16,735 
45,408 
23,788 
91,570 
25,795 
84,683 
65,610 
15,779 
21,061 



Year 1878. 

Gross Loss. Ind.Paid. 
$ 29,585 



Fleming, Agnew & Co % 40,295 

Hays Coal Co., tipple 10,000 

G. McKeeetal., planing mill 11,184 

Armstrong Bros. & Co., cork facta- • . 70,900 

Lewis, Oliver & Phillips, foundiy.;.... 11,096 

Pittsburgh Wagon Works Shop 32,575 

Rcymer Bros., candy :actory 24,GG2 

Recapitnlation. 

Comparative statement of the number of fires, gross 
loss, and insurance paid from August 20, 1864, to March 
23, 1879, the year ending the fourth Monday of March in 
each case. 



8,824 

56,939 

7,098 

1,406 

24,062 





No. of 
Fires. 


Gross 
Loss. 


Insurance 
Paid. 


1805 (7 months) 


33 
64 
81 
77 
122 
127 
296 
298 
326 
198 
302 
322 
271 
362 
245 

3,124 


8 266,128 
741,225 
868,100 
815,559 
625,842 
852,.';G4 
1,349,727 
664,212 
520,298 
667,528 
809,385 
654,667 
548,944 
757,316 
324,842 


8 126,481 


1866 


336,014 
500,.n28 


1867 


1808 


311,264 


1869 


38.5.4a5 


1870 


433,092 


1871 


684,799 


1872 


355,472 


1873 


271,566 
419,097 


1874 


1875 


512,328 


1876 


490,3!;0 


1877 


347,426 


1873 


530,174 


1879 


20.'), 697 






Totals 


8 10,481,337 


8 5,909,7S7 



Statistics of THE AMERICAN IRON TRADE, and of THE PITTSBURGH IRON 

TRADE, For 1877 and 1878. 



PRODUCTS. 


United States. 

NKT TONS. 


Allegheny Co., Pa. 

XTK TOX.S. 


1877. 


1878. 

1 


1877. 


1878. 


Production of Pig Iron, 


2.314,585 
642,351 
720,531 
182,242 

4,828,918 
332,540 
432,169 


2,577,361 
574,565 i 
830,837 ! 
182,042 ; 

4,396,130 i 
322,890 i 
550,398 ; 
9 397 


141,749 

6,470 

206,171 

30,254 

597,806 

2,171 

54,685 


217,209 


Stocks of Pij: Iron unsold, Dec. 31 

Production of I)ars, aiijjles, bolts, rod.s & hoops 
Production of Plates and Sheets 


10,080 

224,248 

33,445 


Production of Nails in kegs 


444,013 


Production of Iron Rails 


2 439 


Production of Bessemer Steel Rails 


72,246 


Production of Open-hearth Steel Rails 




1'otal production of Rails 


764,709 
560,587 
40,430 
25,031 
11,924 
8,845 
47,300 


88 J, 685 ! 


.'i6.85fi 


74,685 


Production of Bessemer Steel In''ots 


732,226 73',278 
42,906 ; 24.747 


99,344 


" of Crucible Cast Steel 


27,866 


" of Open-hearth Steel Ingots 

of all other Steel 

" of Spiegeleisen (JDciadcd in pi? iron above';, 


36,126 : 

8,556 

10,674 

50,045 


800 
8,323 


1,025 
6,579 













ADDITIONAL STATISTICS. 



Value of Iron and Steel Imports, , 

Value of Iron and Steel Exports, ■ 

Miles of Railway constructed 

Number of Immigrants,, 

Production of Lake Superior Iron Ore in Gross Tons, 

Tonnage of Iron Ships built (in fiscal years), 

Net Imports of Merchandise (in fiscal years), 

Domestic E.xports of Merchandise (in "fiscal years),... 

Net Imports of Specie (in fiscal years) 

Domestic E.\ports of Specie (in fiscal years) 



United States. 



1877. 



$9,195,368 

16,659,675 

2,177 

130,503 

1,025,129 

5,927 

$4.38,518,130 

589,670,224 

27,746,915 

43,134,738 



1878. 



$8,943,043 

13,260,369 

2,747 

153,207 

1,125,231 

26,960 

$422,895,034 

680,709,258 

23,134,074 

27,061 885 



7G 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



PRICES IN DOLLARS OF AMERICAN IRON RAILS IN PHILADELPHIA, FROM 1847 TO 1879. 

Per To.v op 2,240 lbs. 



Compiled by Th« American Iron and Steel Association, from the tales books of several prominent Philadelphia 

Iron Merchants. 



1847... 
1843... 
1849.. 
1850... 
18J1... 
1852... 
18.53... 
1854 .. 
1855... 
18.")6... 
1857... 
1858... 
1859... 
18G0... 
18GI... 
1862... 
1863... 
18G4... 
1865... 
1866... 
1867... 
18G8... 
1869... 
1870... 
1871... 
1872 .. 
1873... 
1874... 
1875... 
1876... 
1877... 
1878... 
1879... 



63 
Gl 
47 
43 

46>i 

74>| 

81 

70 

62% 

65)1 

50 

48!^ 
44 

36>< 
72'^ 
94 

125% 
90 
85 
&i% 
10% 
74 
C8V 

83>i 

06 

50 

38 

333^ 

34 



ik 












3 


J3 






















6 


P. 


-1 


» 


$ 


» 


7% 


71)% 


70 


63 


C3 


63 


57X 


53% 


53% 


47>^ 


48 


49 


t45 


47% 

46>| 
77>| 


45 


46 ',4 


46% 

77% 


77>^ 


81 


81 


81 


65 


62'^ 


62% 


62>^ 
65<Z 


63% 


65 


65% 


50 


50 


50 


49V 


4934 


50% 


^sU 


48';| 


48% 


44 


44 


44 


36!^ 
69% 
lOlM 
121H 
90 


VM 


41% 
73% 


105 


111 


8t>| 


108% 
84% 


85 


m 


79 


79 


79 


76 


76 


76 


72>^ 


72>^ 


72% 
69 '4 
83% 


69 


69 


75% 


81% 


83 


83 


82 


64 


62 


60 


50 


50 


49 


43 


42% 


42 


38 


38 


33 '4 
35% 


33}^ 


8.3% 
35 



70 
63 
54% 
49 
45 

46% 
7731 
81 
60 
65 
67 
50 

50% 
48^ 
44 

41% 
7331 
120 
90>4 
8t 

82% 
79 
76 

72% 
71 

90% 
80 
60 
49 
42 
37 
33% 



<u 








s 


3 


>-> 


>-> 


$ 


5f 


70 


69% 


63 


63 


63% 


53% 


bo 


46 


48 


46 


463-^ 


4G% 
773| 


773^ 


81 


81 


58K 


59% 


65 


65 


67 


67 


50 


50 


50% 
48% 


49% 
48% 


44 


44 


41% 
78% 
127% 
84^ 
85% 


41% 
813| 
141l| 


82% 


8G>^ 


82'^ 


82'^ 


79 


79 


76 


76 


72% 


89 


90 


78 


76 


60 


60 


49 


48% 


41 


41 


m 


34% 
34 



69% 

<;i% 
533I 

4G% 

4534 

46 'I 

77>| 

81 

59% 

65 

67 

50 

!^^ 
46 

43% 

41% 

73% 

152 -I 

863I 

87 

82% 

79 

80 

7234 

71 

r^ 

58 

47 

41 

34 

34 



C7% 

Cl% 

52 

47% 

45 

47% 

7731 

81 

C4% 

65 

67 

50 

f7^ 

43 

43 

72% 
gl53!j| 
90 
87% 
82% 
79 
78% 

?/^ 

58 

46% 

40 

33 

34 



67% 
61 

513-^ 
43 
46 
51 

77% 
773I 
65 
65 

58% 
50 
48% 
47% 
363| 
46 

87% 
133i5| 
95 
85 
82% 
76 

78% 
70% 
71 

88% 
68 
52 

45% 
39% 
33 
34 



67% 

61 

51% 
+48 " 
1-16% 

61 

77% 

733I 

63 

64 

50 

50 

48% 

4G3l 

3G>?, 

46 ' 

87% 
132 

91 

85 

823-i; 

78?| 

78% 

70 

71 

85% 

66 

50 

43% 

39 

33 

34 






100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

no 

113 
145 
201 
157 
140 
138 
140 
136 
115 
112 
112 
113 
112 
114 
110 
105 
102 
100 



From 1847 to 180G from Philadelphia prices current, except for years 1850 and 1851, for which estimates were fur- 
nished by Mr. S. J. Reeves. From 1SG6 to 1879 from Bulletin of The American Iron and Steel Association, averagetl 
from weekly quotations. 

OSf Prices averaged for years to nearest eighth. * For latter part of 1857 prices were probably only nominal. 
t Uncertain. 

X Lowest month, 532%-October, 1877. jliiTgheyyeaV.^f 126^1864'. ? Highest month, $153%-»Sept. 1864. 

K^The annual premium on gold is calculated from daily quotations of gold sales in the Bankers' Magazine. 



PRICES IN DOLLARS OF AMERICAN BESSEMER STEEL RAILS, AT WORKS, FROM 1868 TO 1879. 

Pkr Ton of 2,240 lbs. 



< 


u 

3 

n 

►-5 


.0 


.a 

u 
a 


< 






3 
►-5 


3 
to 


a 

a 

a 

v 

m 


u 




a 
> 

'A 







1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 


165 

145 

110 

95 

'■;« 

67 
49 
41 
41 


s 

1G7J^ 
143>| 
110 
96 
104 
120 

65 
49 

41% 


s 

174 

135 

108% 

106 

104% 

1223^ 

115 

71 

62 

49 

41% 

43 


s 

172 
134 
107 

95 

111% 
1203^ 

98% 

69 

62 

49 

42 

42% 


s 

165 

130% 

106 

103 

110 

120 

98% 

79 

62 

47>i 

43% 


$ 
162% 
128 
109% 
104 
113 
121% 

96% 

69 

60 

46% 

43 


$ 
150 
130 
110 
103% 
11431 
121?| 

91 

69 

59 

45% 

433^ 


150 

130 

110 

104 

115% 

121% 

8934 

69 

59 

44% 

42% 


$ 
150 
130 
108% 
106 
114 
118 

78% 

69 

56 

44 

42% 


« 

150 

130% 

101% 

105% 

1133^ 

120 

78% 

67 

54 

42% 

423-1 


% 
148 
130% 
102'i 
105% 
113 
120 

75% 

66 

53 

403^ 

42 


s 

147% 
120 

98 

106% 
12U% 
120' 

75% 

65 

52 

40% 

41 


% 
l-.8% 
1323| 
100% 
IO23I 
112 
120% 
943-i 
08% 
5934 
453^ 
42% 



77 

WHOLESALE STORE PRICES IN DOLLARS OF BEST REFINED ROLLED BAR IRON IN PHILADELPUIA, 
FROM 1844 TO 1879. PER TON OF 2,240 POUNDS. 



u 










^ 


cj 








o 


o 


'A 


Q 





» 


1844 


90 no 


1845 


8^ 50 


1840 


95 00 


1847 


8o 00 


1848 


85 00 


1849 


70 00 


1850 


65 00 


1851 


55 0) 


1852 


54 00 


ia53 


90 00 


1854 


90 00 


1855 


82 50 


1850 


75 00 


18.57 


72 50 


1858 


65 00 


1859 


CO 00 


18C0 


00 00 


1861 


60 00 


1802 


02 50 


1863 


87 50 


1864 


115 00 


1805 


142 50 


18CG 


105 00 


1867 


95 00 


1868 


85 00 


1869 


82 50 


1870 


80 00 


1871 


72 50 


1872 


73 92 


1873 


90 32 


1874 


73 92 


1875 


02 72 


1876 


50 00 


1877 


48 72 


1878 


44 80 


1879 


10 32 



90 00 
87 50 
95 00 
85 00 
85 00 
70 00 
05 00 
55 00 
54 00 
90 00 
90 00 
80 00 
77 50 

72 50 
65 00 
CO 00 
57 50 
60 00 
62 50 
90 (0 

125 00 
135 00 
100 00 
92 50 
85 00 
82 50 

77 50 
75 00 

78 40 
94 OS 

73 92 
CO 48 
62 64 
47 (iO 
44 80 
42 66 



4£ 

90 00 
92 50 
90 00 
85 00 
85 00 

70 00 
05 00 
55 00 
62 50 
90 00 
90 00 
75 00 
77 50 
72 50 
65 00 
GO 00 
67 60 
CO 00 
02 60 
90 00 

130 00 
130 00 
97 50 
92 50 
85 00 
82 60 
77 50 
75 00 
87 30 
96 32 

71 03 
62 72 
62 04 
47 04 
44 80 
44 80 



90 00 
100 00 
92 50 
85 00 
85 00 

70 00 
02 60 
55 00 
52 50 
87 50 
90 00 
11 50 
77 60 
7i 50 
Ui 50 
00 00 
57 50 
60 00 
02 50 
90 00 

140 00 
110 00 
95 00 

90 00 
87 50 
82 50 
77 50 
77 60 
9t 08 

91 08 

71 68 
62 72 
52 64 
44 80 
44 80 
44 So 



90 00 
100 01) 
92 50 
85 00 
85 <iO 
70 00 
6'> lit 
65 no 
62 5 I 
85 00 
9' I 00 
70 UO 
75 00 
72 60 
62 50 
CO 00 
57 50 
CO 00 
05 (10 
90 "0 
150 oo 
100 00 
92 50 
87 50 
87 5i» 
82 60 
75 no 
75 00 
90 32 
94 03 
07 20 
C2 72 
52 01 
44 8> 
44 80 



s 


$ 


82 50 


82 50 


10<> 110 


95 00 


92 60 


95 00 


90 <iO 


90 00 


80 ) 


80 Oo 


70 00 


05 00 


57 60 


57 50 


66 00 


65 Oi> 


52 50 


52 50 


80 "0 


80 00 


92 60 


95 UO 


70 00 


70 00 


72 50 


7u 00 


72 5> 


70 00 


05 00 


02 50 


GO 00 


60 oo 


57 5o 


57 50 


60 no 


00 00 


05 00 


70 on 


87 60 


87 50 


100 to 


105 00 


92 6 t 


90 00 


95 '10 


106 (Ml 


87 50 


85 on 


87 5o 


85 on 


82 50 


82 50 


77 5> 


80 no 


77 50 


77 5' 


98 50 


103 04 


91 84 


85 12 


67 2'i 


62 72 


02 72 


02 7.' 


52 64 


62 64 


44 80 


44 80 


44 80 


44 8i) 







8 

82 50 

92 50 

92 50 

85 no 

80 no 

65 00 

57 50 

55 no 

55 no 
77 no 
95 no 

72 50 
70 00 
70 00 

GO (Ml 

CO no 

GO 00 

Oo no 

72 60 

87 6o 

170 00 

85 00 
loo 00 

82 50 

86 oo 
82 ho 
85 no 
80 00 

10-> 28 
82 88 
67 20 
60 4H 
62 04 
44 80 
44 80 



82 60 

92 60 

90 no 

87 50 

75 00 

05 00 

"7 10 

54 00 

00 no 

77 5 1 

95 UO 

72 50 

72 50 

70 00 

60 no 

GO OO 

00 OO 

02 50 

75 00 

87 hO 

100 00 

92 f>0 

100 no 
82 60 
85 OO 
80 00 
82 0(» 
82 60 

107 52 
80 04 
07 20 
60 48 
60 40 
44 8U 
44 80 



8 


8 


82 no 


82 60 


92 (jO 


9-1 00 


90 0> 


90 00 


86 00 


86 no 


76 Oo 


07 60 


05 oO 


Oi f'O 


50 UO 


50 00 


64 00 


54 OO 


70 OO 


7u no 


80 (0 


80 00 


92 nO 


90 00 


75 00 


77 hO 


72 6) 


72 6') 


70 to 


70 00 


00 00 


00 00 


GO no 


CO 00 


CO 00 


00 00 


02 'lO 


62 50 


77 60 


82 60 


90 00 


96 00 


150 00 


147 50 


95 00 


100 00 


97 f-O 


95 00 


82 60 


82 60 


85 00 


86 00 


80 00 


80 00 


80 00 


77 (0 


82 fin 


82 50 


118 72 


107 62 


70 10 


73 92 


07 20 


02 72 


60 48 


M 00 


60 40 


10 40 


44 80 


44 80 


42 AG 


42 66 




1 



82 f.0 
96 00 
85 00 

85 .0 

70 00 
05 no 
66 00 
54 no 
80 00 

86 00 
90 00 
77 '0 
72 ftO 
07 fO 
GO 00 
00 00 
CO 00 
02 10 

87 /O 
110 00 
145 00 
105 00 

95 OO 
8i OO 
8i 00 
80 00 
77 '0 
86 00 
100 80 

71 08 
02 72 
50 00 
49 21 
44 ^0 
42 hO 



$ 

85 62 
93 75 

91 ca 

86 Ot 
79 33 

67 "0 
59 64 
64 60 
58 79 
83 60 
91 33 
74 68 
73 75 
71 01 
02 29 
CO 00 

68 75 
CO 83 
70 42 
91 Ot 

140 40 
100 :^8 
98 13 

87 oa 

85 63 
81 CO 
78 98 
78 64 
97 03 
80 43 
07 9-> 
CO 85 
b-l 08 
46 65 
44 24 



The highest price in any month iti tlio abovo table was reached in August, 1801, 5>J70; tlie lo"'eat prico in any 
montli was in January, 1879, J'40.:!2. The highest average price reached in anv year was in 18G4, $I4G4G; the lowest 
average price in any year was in 1878, 8-14.24. Previous to the present era of low prices, the lowest point touched was 
852 50 in March to July, 1852 ; and the lowest average reached in any year was 8.'J4.GG in 1851. 



PRODUCTION OF ANTHRACITE COAL. 
The following figures of the production of anthracite 
coal are taken from a table prepared for the Coil Trade 
Journal by John H. Jones. The aggregate amount of an- 
thracite marketed according to this statement foots up 
over 307,000,000 tons : 



Year. Tons. 

1820 3G5 

1821 1,07.3 

1822 3,',20 

1823 6,951 

1824 11,108 

1825 34,893 

1826 48,047 

1827 03,434 

1828 77,516 

1829 112,083 

1&50 174,7:54 

la'il 17G,8 

18:52 303,271 

18;i:i- 487.749 

18:J4 37C,G:i6 

18:55 500,7.58 

18:56 034,117 

18.37 809,441 

18:58 738,G97 

18.39 818,402 

1840 80-1,379 

1841 9.59,773 

1842 1,108,412 

184:5 1,2G3,.598 

1844 1,030,8.50 

184.5 2,013,013 

1846 2,344,005 

1847 2,882,309 

1848 :',039,2:;a 

1849 3,242,960 



Year. Tons. 

1850 3,358,799 

1851. 4,418,916 

18.52 4,893,471 

1853 5,195,151 

18.54 0,202,3:54 

1855 C,C08,,5G7 

1856 6,927,550 

18.57 6,044,941 

18.58 C,8.39,:)G0 

18.59 7,808,2,55 

1800 8,51:5,123 

1861 7,9.54,204 

1862 7,809,497 

1803 9,.50G,000 

1864 10,177,475 

180.5 9,652,391 

1866 12,70:5,882 

1807 12,988,725 

1808 13,801,405 

1809 13,800,180 

1870 10 182,191 

1871 15;099,721 

1872 19,069,778 

1873 21,227,952 

1874 20,145,121 

187.5 19,712,472 

1876 rr. ]8,.501,0I1 

1877 20,828,178 

1878 17,005,202 



Bitumi- 
nous. 



c;53 

91 
SIO 



n,:soo 



015 



EXPORTS OF COAL.. 
Shipments of coal to foreign ports, lor the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1878: . ., 

" ' Anthra- 

Coun tries. cite. 

Austria 202 

Brazil 1,8.50 

Central American States 11 

Chili 1,093 

China 8,059 

D:irii.sh West Indies 1,497 

France 704 

French West Indies and French (Juiana 240 
Miquelan, Langley and St Pierre Islands 30 

French Po.sscssions, all other i.. 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Pr 

Edward Island 80,395 

Quebec, Ontario, Manit-oba and North- 
west Tonitory 268,878 

British Columbia 17 

Newfoundland and Labrador 98 

British West Indies and Honduras 1,471 

British E:ust Indies 454 

Hong Kon;; 1,359 

British Possessions in Au8trala.sia 10 

Hawaiian Islands 842 

Hayii 

Italy 2,360 

Japan 706 

Mexico 7.56 

Dutch East Indies JOl 

Peru 1,878 

Azore, Madeira and Cape Verde Islands 325 

Snn Domingo 4:54 

Cuba 17,983 

Porto Rico '. 43 

United States of Columbia _ 3,373 

Venezuela 630 



5,4,53 

214,982 
22 



1,222 



257 

713 

16 



8,144 



297 

62,613 

.32 

17,-131 

681 



Total _ 340,061 3:9,477 



78 



INDUSTRIES OF PJiNNSYLVAKIA. 



INTERNAL REVENUE, TWENTY-SECOND PA. DISTRICT. 

Tlie following tabulated statcmenta of the revenue derived from spirits, tobacco, fermented 
liquors, banks, bankers, Ac, for tlio years ondinj: June :')0, 1878, and June .'50, 1879, is compiled 
from the reports of Hon. Tliomas \V. Davis, Collector of Internal Revenue for the Twenty-second 
Pennsylvania District: 



FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1878. 



1877. 

July t 

Aufiust. ... 
Scpt'bcr... 
October ... 
November 
December 

1878. 
.lanuary... 
I''t'bruary. 
March.. .. 

April 

May 

June 



Spirits. 

30,578 54 
38,411 07 
5'2,G55 11 
7-J,008 82 
36,001 57 
91,715 U7 

67,300 81 
60,000 41 
01 240 19 
45,!t89 43 
34,417 35 
16,244 30 



Tobacco. 

26,654 71 
29,215 44 
28,202 88 
3(1 863 32 
30,617 48 
30,391 81 

30,363 32 
25,030 Oii 
29,091 24 
40,779 52 
39,944 93 
27,912 95 



Fermented 
LiquDi'u. 

$ 8,622 89 
0,791 07 
0,209 40 
7,016 74 
0,549 81 
7,570 67 

5 372 17 
5.835 15 
7,099 30 
8,841 75 
10,330 01 
7,283 21 



Blinks luid 
UanUcru. 

$44,220 2i 
::7() 15 
271 50 



Collections 
otiierwisc. 



i;95 20 



45,401 22 



100 10 



120 24 
72 33 

132 "75 



Pennltles. 

$ 27 

233 41 

19 77 

5 00 

2,801 12 

J 78 94 

86 83 

395 08 

8 58 

262 31 

19 85 
143 24 



TotaJ. 

110,070 03 
75,22.3 00 
87,418 06 

109,893 88 
70,029 98 

129,856 69 

148,524 35 
S7,80l 30 
98,859 05 
95.945 34 
84,712 14 
51,710 51 



Total $603,223 63 $309,0.7 00 $88,182 17 $90,269 19 $020 68 $4,155 00 $1,150 118 13 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1879. 



1878. 



Spirit*. 



Julv $ 10.88:? 03 

August 1(5, Ki!) 98 

Sopt'ber.... 17,179 09 

October... 31,839 40 

November 53,018 94 

December. 28,035 17 

1879. 

.lanuary ... 25,902 0(5 

K.'bruary.. 28,364 30 

March 32.4.59 98 

April 119,321 25 

May 59,490 13 

June 24,338 98 



Tobncco. 

31,797 .52 
31,821 77 
30,7(58 35 
.30,(589 42 
30,4.52 94 
27,940 56 

29,130 15 
22,777 32 
28,521 70 
40,588 5G 
44,971 34 
27,275 43 



Fermented 
Liquors. 

5 9,(543 52 
8,132 73 
7,144 54 
7,. 594 95 
0,095 41 
0,318 10 

5.771 00 
5,033 11 
0,891 35 
9,708 50 
12,271 37 
11,:535 16 



Bnnks and 
Bankers. 

$40,8(55 20 



Other 
Collections. 



3,052 33 



Penalties. 
$ 3 33 $ 



38,121 G6 108 72 



147 44 
36 91 





1 

81 


G3 
26 
64 




3 
16 


06 
79 




5 


00 



Total. 

93,192 60 

59.176 81 
55,098 61 
70,125 03 
90,248 91 
62,293 83 

99,034 19 

56.177 79 
68,037 26 

1(59,655 22 

116,732 84 

62,954 57 



$447,602 89 $376,735 06 $95,9:59 74 $78,986 86 3,;545 40 $117 71 $1,002,727 66 



YEARLY PRICES OP COAL. 

We {live below prices for Schuylkill White Ash Lump coal, on board vessels at Philadelphia, 
from 18:54 to 1878, inclusive, prepared oripinally by W. G. Neilson, and continut-d by J. M. Swank, 
bcinjj the average rates obtained from sales during the year: 



Years. 

is:u.. 

18:55.. 

ls:U).. 

ih;?7.. 

is:?s. 

I S3') 

1840.. 

1841. 

1842. 

1813., 

1844. 



Prices, 
.$1 84 
. 4 84 
. 6 (54 
. 6 72 
. 5 27 
. 5 00 
4 91 
. 5 79 
. 4 18 
. 3 27 
. 3 20 



Yoais. 

1845.. 

1846.. 

1847. 

1848. 

1849. 

1850. 

1851.. 

1852.. 

1853 

1854. 

1855.. 



Prices. 


Years. 


$3 46 


1856 


3 90 


1857 


3 80 


18.58 


3 50 


18.59 


3 62 


1860 


3 64 


1861 


3 34 


1862. 


3 46 


186:i. 


3 70 


1864. 


5 19 


1865 


4 49 


1866. 



Prices. 
.$4 11 
. 3 87 
. 3 43 
. 3 25 
. 3 40 
. 3 39 
. 4 14 
. 6 06 
.t8 :59 
. 7 86 
. 5 80 



"Lowest average for year. 



t Highest average for vear. 



Years. Prices. 

.1867 $-1 37 

1868 3 86 

1869 5 31 

1870 4 :59 

1871 4 46 

1872 3 74 

1873... 4 27 

1874 4 55 

1875 4 .39 

1876 3 87 

1877 *2 59 

1878 3 25 



CITY OF PITTSBUKGII. 



79 



THE LEGAL TON AND BUSHEL IN PENNSYLVANLV. 

Tlic Legislature of Pennsylvania have enacted in reference to what constitutes a bushel or a 
ton of Bituminous coal. 

Section 1. That from and after the passage of this act, the standing weight of Bituminous 
coal in this Commonwealth, shall be seventy-six pounds to the bushel, and two tiiousand pounds 
shall be one ton. 

Section 2. If any person or persons enga;:ed in the business of mining Bituminous coal, shall 
fix or establish any other number of pounds by agreement or contiact to be a bushel of Bituminous 
coal, than is provided for in the first section of this act, such person or persons shall be guiltj' of 
misdemeanor; and upon conviction thereof shall be sentenced to pay a fine not less than five hun- 
dred, and not exceeding one thousand dollars, and all penalties recovered under this act shall be 
paid into the treasury of tlie State. 



THE BUSINESS AND POPULATION OF PITTSBURGH. 



In the preparation of a work of this description, much difficulty is experienced in obtaining 
reliable statistics, and no doubt the larger number of fault-finders will be those who have refused to 
give our reporters information relative to their business through fear of ta.\-col lectors, revenue 
officers, or from an inexcusable stupidity or want of enterprise and i)usiness sagacity. We liave 
spared no effort or expense to make this work the most complete compendium of the business inter- 
ests of Pittsburgh and Al'egheny ever published, and all failures must be attributed to parties who 
have refused to aid us by their co-operation. We append herewith a tabulated statement of the 
number of firms and establishments engaged in the different branches of business, carefully com- 
piled from the Pittsl)urgh Directories of 18GG, 1876 and 1879. While we do not claim that the 
numlicrs given are perfectly accurate, we believe that in most branches of business they will f-how a 
f'avo'able increase; and where any decrease may appear we have no doubt it is owing to the failure 
on the part of the Directory agents to ol)tain the full information desired. The population of Pitts- 
burgh and .Allegheny, as shown by the United States Census, was, in 1840, 81,155; in 1850, l;i8,2!)0; 
in 1860, 178,8;n ; in 1870, 262,201. It is estimated now, by the most reliable judges, that, in 18K0, 
the population will amount, in round numbers, to fully i-iuO.OOO. While, at times, during the past 
decade, tiie various branches of business carried on in Pittsburgh and its environs have been tem- 
porarily affected by the general stagnation of business in all parts of the country, the indications 
are now favorable for a steady and gratifying inoren.se in all the industrial pursuits which have 
given to Pittsburgh a world-wide reputation as a great manufacturing and producing metropolis. 



BUSINESS STATISTICS OF PITTSBURGH. 



I860 

Arid Manufacturers.. 3 

Adverti.ting Agents.. 4 

Agricultural Iiupl.... C 

" Steels & Irons 1 

Air Brakes 

Air Furnaces 

Aldermen 12 

Ale, Bottled 3 

Anthracite Coal 3 

Architects 4 

Artific. Iimlj8& truss 1 

Artists 6 

" MateriulB 2 

Attorneys 91 

Auctioneers 2 

Awnings 2 

Axle& Roll Greaso.. 2 

Axles 3 

HaUers 16 

Baking Powder 1 

Bankers 11 

Banks 26 

Barbers 16 

Barge Builders 4 

Bell Hangfirs 4 

Bellows Mfrs 3 

Billiard lUKnns 2 

Bill Poster.s. 2 

Binders and Blatilc 

Book.s 5 

Blacksmiths 16 



1 
3 
7 
2 
1 
3 

78 
3 
2 

17 
2 

16 
2 
279 
8 
6 
2 
6 
108 
2 
6 

82 

75 
2 
6 
2 
7 
4 

13 
31 



1866 1876 

Rlk. Lead Crucildcs.. 2 2 

Block Makers 3 3 

Boat Stores 5 2 

Boiler Makers 6 15 

Bolls and Nuts 3 4 

Book &. lob Printers. 14 86 
Booksellers and Sta- 
tioners 10 34 

Boots and Shoes, re- 
tail 10 151 

do., wholesale 16 9 

Boot & Slioe Makers.. 10 85 

Bottlers 1 4 

Box Factories 2 10 

Brass Founders 12 14 

Brass Goods 2 2 

Brewers 11 19 

Brick J.,aycr8 & Job- 
bers '. 4 3 

Bridge Builders 2 2 

Brokers-Stock & Bill 7 20 

Broom Mfrs 2 6 

Brush Mfrs 1 7 

Butchers 12 148 

Butcher's Tools 2 2 

Canned (roods 2 4 

Car))enters & Build- 
ers.^ 8 52 

Carpet Weavers 14 12 

Carpets <t Oil Cloths 5 13 

Carriage Mfrs. 3 15 



1879 
3 
2 
2 
15 
7 
43 

;;i 



146 
10 

18 

18 

5 

26 

10 
4 

28 
5 
8 
105 
2 
7 

49 
18 
15 
20 



1866 

Cement 6 

Chain Mfrs 2 

Cheese 4 

Chemicals 6 

Chemists „ 

Children's Carriages 8 
China Queens Ware 

and Glass Ware 3 

Civil Engineers 2 

Claim Agencies 2 

Clothing— Retail 12 

" — Wholesale 6 
Cloths A Cassemcres 4 

Coal and Coke 23 

CV)l1ce lioasters 3 

Coke.. 3 

Com mis. Agencies.... 24 

Confectioners -Retail 9 

" -Wholesale 2 

Contractors 6 

Cooperages 15 

Copper Mfrs 2 

Copper Pipe Mfrs 2 

Cordage, Oakum and 

Twine 2 

Corks 1 

Corrugated Iron 1 

Cotton Mills 4 

<otton Ties 1 

(>>tton.<:Wool Waste 2 
Cracker Bakers 3 



1876 
6 
4 
4 
6 
1 
5 

11 

11 

2 

3/ 

4 

5 

89 

3 

13 

44 

26 

10 

17 

7 

2 

1 

4 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
6 



1879 
7 
3 
3 
4 
2 
6 

11 

11 

2 

41 

8 

6 

96 

5 

11 

47 

24 

10 

8 

9 

2 

2 

4 

1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
4 



80 



INDUSTPvLES OP PENNSYLVANIA. 



ISGG 

Curled Hair 1 

Cutlery 12 

Dental Depots 2 

Dentists 8 

Dining Rooms 29 

Distilleries 2 

Dress Makers CO 

Druggists 29 

Drugs— Wbolesiile.... 12 
Dry Gootis 20 

" " Wholesale 6 
Dyeing and Scouring 2 

Eating Saloons 8 

Electrotypers 

Elevators 1 

Embroideries and 

Laces 7 

Employment Offices 2 

Enamelers 1 

Engine Builders 15 

Engravers 2 

Express Companies.. 1 

Fancy Goods 

Felt Roofing 2 

File Works 2 

Fire Brick 2 

Fish 3 

Florists 1 

Flour— Wholesale.... 11 
Flour,Grain & Feed.. 13 

Flouring Mills 4 

Forges 2 

Foreign Fruits 2 

Founders 19 

FVesco Painters 2 

Furnace Builders 2 

Furniture 11 

Galv. Iron Cornice... 2 

Gas Pipe 2 

Gas & Steam Fitters 18 
Gas& Water Pipe.... 2 
Gents' Furnishing 

Goods (5 

Glass Mtrs 2G 

Glass Afoulds and 

Presses 3 

GhiSvS Stiiiners 3 

Glue Mfrs 1 

Granite Works 2 

Gravel Roofing 2 

Grist Mill Maehin'v 1 

Grocers— Retail '. 23 

" —Wholesale.. 30 

Gum Hose 4 

Gum Packing 4 

Guns and Pistols 5 

Hair Goods 5 

Hardware H 

Harness Makers 3 

Hat5, Caps and Furs.. 6 

Horse Shoers 14 

Hosiery and Gloves.. 2 

Hotels" 21 

House Furnishing 

Goods 3 

Ice Companies , 1 

Ins. Agts. & Brokers 30 

Ins. Co. 's— Fire 80 

Ins. Co.'s— Life 39 

Iron Pipe Fitters 2 

Iron Railings, Prison 

Cells, &c. 2 

Iron Fences and 

Railings 2 

Iron Roofs, Frames 

and Roofing 2 

Iron & Nail Mfrs 25 

.lapanned Ware 

Jewelers 11 

Keg Factories 2 

Kid Gloves 2 

I.Amp Chimuevs 2 

Lard Oil Mfrs.". 1 

I^ead Pipe 1 

Leather Belting and 

Hose 2 

Leather Hides, Oils 

and Tallow 2 

Leather it Findings.. 2 
Light Gray Iron 

Castings..." 2 



S7G 


1879 


3 


1 


CG 


38 


1 


2 


30 


48 


20 


20 


G 


5 


2G 


."^I 


90 


104 


9 


10 


76 


7G 


9 


7 


15 


22 


24 


17 


3 


3 


1 


2 


4 


4 


6 


6 


1 


3 


18 


31 


5 


4 


3 


3 


IG 


20 


3 


3 


3 


4 


15 


16 


5 


G 


G 


7 


4 


11 


64 


65 


5 


2 


4 


7 


4 


8 


33 


33 


3 


6 


4 


6 


39 


39 


4 


3 


5 


4 


43 


66 


5 


4 


21 


31 


44 


41 


3 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1 


4 


5 


3 


10 


2 


1 


102 


342 


22 


26 


4 


8 


4 


6 


4 


5 


17 


15 


36 


45 


32 


30 


38 


31 


83 


49 


7 


12 


•15 


33 


14 


ri 


4 


13 


50 


70 


32 


126 


23 


29 


2 


3 



2 


3 


24 


27 


2 


o 


65 


62 


2 


4 


3 


3 


1 


11 


6 


6 


1 


1 


G 


6 


9 


11 


9 


10 



ISG6 1S7G 

Lime and Cement 3 5 

Linseed Oil Mfrs 1 2 

Liquors — Wholesale. 21 

" —Retail 21 100 

Lithographers 2 4 

LiveryA Sale Stables 12 39 

Locksmiths 3 7 

Locomotives 1 2 

Looking Glasses and 

Picture Frames ... 5 11 

Lubricating Oils 2 7 

Lumber 12 48 

Machinists 24 24 

]\Iachinist's Supplies 4 7 

Maltsters 3 10 

Marbleized Mantels.. 2 4 

Marble Works 5 20 

Mercantile Agencies 2 3 

Mdse. Brokers 12 

Merchant Tailors 28 lOG 

Milliner.s 41 52 

^lillinery Goods 7 5 

Mineral "Water 2 3 

Mining Co.'s 2 10 

JIusic Teachers 10 10 

Nails and Tacks 1 

Neats Foot Oil 2 2 

Newspapers 13 SJ 

Notaries Public 3 63 

Notions C6 111 

" Wholesale... 3 12 

Novelty Works 2 3 

Nurserymen 2 5 

Oculists 1 4 

Oil Cans and Tanks.. 6 1 

Oilcloths 1 13 

Oil Dealers 27 23 

Oil Refiners 18 24 

Opticians 2 3 

Oyster Depots 2 3 

Painters 11 70 

Paper Bags 2 

Paper Box Mfrs 2 5 

Paper Mfrs 2 8 

Paper R.ngs 9 3 

Patent Medicines... 5 4 

Patent Solicitors 2 10 

Patterns and Models 1 4 

Pawn Brokers 2 10 

Photographers 7 22 

Physicians 59 247 

Pianos and Organs... 6 10 

Pictures & Franjes... 4 9 

Planing Mills 10 39 

Plow Mfrs 4 3 

Plumber's Materials 1 2 

Pork Packers 6 8 

Potteries 1 4' 

Powder Agents 1 2 

Publishers 2 10 

Publisher's Agents... 3 8 

Pumps 3 4 

Queensware 4 11 

Railroad Supplies I 5 

Real Estate 11 51 

Restaurants 11 11 

Ribbons and Silk 2 3 

Rivets 2 1 

Rolls 1 2 

Roofing Materials 2 4 

Rubber Goods 2 3 

Rubber Stamps 1 2 

Saddlerv Hardware.. 7 7 

Safe Mfrs 2 4 

Saloons 13 423 

Saltworks 2 2 

Sand and Gravel 4 5 

Sash& Door Factories 6 25 

Saw Mills 10 10 

Saw Mill Mach'y 2 2 

Scales 1 3 

Schools 19 55 

Scrap Iron 2 4 

Scroll Sawing 2 2 

Sculptors 1 2 

Seedsmen 1 5 

Sewer Pipe 2 10 

Sewing Machines 6 12 

Sheet Iron Workers.. 8 13 

Shovel Mfrs 1 2 

Showcases 2 3 



1S73 

9 

4 

24 

105 

3 

o9 



51 
33 

6 
16 

4 
18 

3 

18 

106 

77 

5 

3 
13 
10 

2 

3 
41 
95 
50 
13 

2 

4 
5 
2 
15 
24 
16 
4 
9 
65 
4 
5 



12 

6 

11 

23 

£37 

6 

11 

30 

3 

1 

9 

5 

3 

5 

4 

3 

13 

8 

52 

12 

3 

2 

3 



3 

6 
3 

46") 

li) 

19 

10 

2 

4 

55 

15 

2 

3 

5 



17 

15 

2 

4 



ISGG 187G 

Silver* Gold Plating l 3 

Slate Roofing 4 4 

Soap and Candles 3 4 

Soda Ash 3 7 

Spices 2 3 

Spikes and Rivets... 2 3 

Springs 3 6 

Stair Builders 2 8 

Staves 3 5 

Steamboat Agents 3 5 

Steamboat Joiners... 2 3 

Steam Fitters 2 4 

Steam Pumps 3 7 

Steamship Agency... 2 8 

Steel 7 8 

Steel Castings 3 

Steel Stamps 4 

Stencil Cutters 1 5 

Stencil Stock Mfrs 1 

Stenographers 1 2 

Stills 3 11 

Stone Flagging 3 5 

Stoves 13 12 

Straw Goods 2 4 

Stucco Workers 2 2 

Surveyors 1 4 

Tailor's Trimmings.. 2 6 

Tanks (Iron) 3 12 

Tanners 2 8 

Teas 4 7 

Telegraph Co.'s 2 2 

Terra Cotta AV are 1 4 

Tinners an d T i n, 

Copper and Sheet 

Iron Ware 11 93 

Tinners Stock 2 2 

Tobacco Leaf i 5 

Tobacco Mfrs 2 5 

Tobacco and Cigars 

—Retail 17 189 

Tobacco and Cigars 

—Wholesale 2 15 

Tow Boat Offices 2 50 

Toys 2 6 

Trimmings 8 22 

Trunks & Valises„... 5 4 

Trusses 3 

Undertakers 5 31 

Upholsteres 3 12 

Varnish 1 1 

Veterinary Surgeons 2 5 

Vinegar..." 5 5 

Wagon Makers 2 27 

AVall Paper 5 18 

Whip Mfrs 1 2 

White Lead 4 7 

Window Shades 2 14 

Wire Works 2 4 

Wood Carvers 2 1 

Wood Engravers 1 2 

Wood Turners 2 10 

Wood A Willow Ware 2 9 
W o o a Working 

Machinerv 1 3 

Wool .'. 3 3 

Woolen Mills 3 2 

Wrought Iron Pipe... 2 5 

Yeast'. 1 1 

LODGKS — 

Masonic 15 3G 

Odd Fellows 28 73 

A. O. U. AV 20 

Knightsof Pythias ... 36 

G. A. R 5 

L O. R. M 13 

Church KS — 

Baptist 12 12 

Catholic 19 46 

Disciples 2 

Episcopal 19 12 

Ev. Lutheran 12 

Meth. Episcopal.... 29 28 

African M. E ... 6 

Methodisi 6 10 

Presbvterian 36 24 

United Pres 17 

Re-formed Pres 4 

Cumberland Pres 1 

Reformed 7 

Jewisli Svnagogues 1 3 

Welsh Churches.... 1 3 



1879 
2 
o 
4 
10 
4 
3 
8 
7 
5 
7 
3 

8 

7 

Jl 

2 

4 

3 

2 

4 

14 

5 

12 

4 

3 

5 

5 

14 

11 

11 

2 

5 



73 
2 
5 
3 

222 

15 
62 

8 
23 

6 

4 
41 
19 

2 

h 

32 

19 
3 
7 

18 
6 
2 
3 
7 

10 

3 
3 
2 
5 
2 

32 
73 
25 
30 
8 
13 

12 

49 

2 

13 

15 

28 

7 

10 

26 

17 

4 

1 

7 

2 

3 



To THE People of Pittsburgh, 

BUSINESS MEN OF PENNSYLVANIA AND THE GREAT WEST. 



We present to our readers and business community herewith a brief historical review of the 
prominent business houses and manufacturing firms of the City of Pittsburgh. It will be interesting 
as an exhibit of the growth of the citj' for the past thirty years. The notices, as a group, embrace 
numbers of substantial and enterprising firms in every department of trade, including manj- 
specialties not to be obtained in any other market, and will be an assurance to those contemplating 
a visit for the purpose of purchasing supplies, that their every want can be more fully satisfied, on 
as favorable terms, than at any other point in the United States. 



McCONWAY, TORLEY & CO.-Eagle Malleable Iron Works, 

Cor. 2oih & Liberty Sts. 
The supremacy of Pittsburgh as an iron manufacturing centre is never so clearly demonstrated as by a detailed in- 
spection one after the other of those various firms and establishments thai by the development of this great staple in- 
dustry have secured for our municapality the well deserved title of Iron city. In making such a review the firm of 
MeConway, Torley & Co., in the particular branch of the trade with which it is identiiied, will h.Tve to be accorded the 
first place, not only on account of the magnitude of its business but also with reference to the amplitude of its facilities 
and the quality of its products. The house was originally established in 1868 under the style and by Lewis & Co., wlio 
gave place to the present proprietors some years siiice, the latter having greatly increasedthe resources as well as the 
means and appliances for a more extensive manufacture of malleable iron castings of all descriptions, especially those 
of more than ordinary size, for which their facilities are particularly comprehensive and complete. To this end the 
plant which covers about half an acre, is supplied witli one cupola and two air furnaces, four annealing furnaces, one 
powerful steam engine with 10-inch cylinder, 18-inch stroke, and other machinery of the best devices. From ."iO to GO 
operatives, most of whom are e.xpert mechanics are employed by the firm, whose trade reaches from Maine to California, 
all over the United States and is rapidly increasing. Mr." Win. MeConway is a native of Ireland, where he was born in 
18-12; upon the removal of his parentslo this country and city in 1849, he accompanied them, and when but twelve 
years of age began the acquisition of his present vocation. He belongs to the representative class of what may be called 
"self-made men." Mr. John J. Torley was horn in New York, in 18.30, and during the same year was brought to 
Pittsburgh with whose interests and vicissitudes he has been connected all his life, by the closest ties of public spirit 
and personal prosperity. These gentlemen are active partners in the house of MeConway, Torley & Co., whose opera- 
tions are conducted by these gentlemen, demonstrating in its success the wisdom of the policy upon which it is carried 
on, and achieving the esteem and confidence of the trade and the general public. 

EBERHARDT Sc O'BER— Lager Beer Brewers and Maltsters, 

Nos. 1 to 9 Try Hill Road, Allegheny. 
The business was first e.stablished by Mr. C. Eberhardt in 1852. The firm w.as changed to Eberhardt & Ober in 
1870. The business was commenced on a very small capital and has increased very largely. Mr. Eberhardt was the 
third person who commenced the brewing of Lager Beer in Allegheny County. The buildings consist of one two- 
story frame structure, 40x44, malt house, 50x85, four stories high, with a capacity of 20,000 bushels; brewery and 
boiler-house, two-story brick stru ture 40x50. The power consists of two large boilers 20 feet long by 42 inches in di- 
ameter, and two engines of 20 and 15-horse power respectively. They have three large rock vaults with a capacity of 
5,000 barrels, and are aboi.t erecting a large new ice house, 50x80, with a cellar underneath of 4,000 barrels capacity 
and a capacity of 2,000 tons of ice. Connected with their ponds and ice-houses in the country is a large steam elevator 
with a capacity of lifting 800 tons per day. They employ fifteen hands constantly and their pay-roll averages S175 per 
week. The Lager Beer manufactured is not excelled by any in Western Pennsylvania. Having been permitted a 
complete inspection of the establishment, we have no hesitation in pronouncing it one of the very best and most com- 
plete in the country. 

McKEESPORT IRON WORKS -t^. D. Woodd Co., Office, 777 Water St. 

Manufaciurers of Patent Planished Sheet Iron. Works, McKeesport, Pa. 
The McKeesport Iron Works are eligibly situated on the bank of the 
Monongahela River, eleven miles above Pittsburgh, covering an area of 
five acres, and affording employment to about 300 men. The senior part- 
ner of the firm, Mr. W. D. Wood, some thirty years ago began a series of 
experiments in the manufacture of sheet iron, the end sought after being 
to produce as durable and as finely finished an article as the "Paissia 
Iron." Many others in this country and in Europe have made similar at- 
tempts, but he alone succeeded, and the McKeesport Iron AVorks is to-day 
the only mill outside of Pvussia manufacturing this class of iron. The firm 
(composed of W. D. Wood and his sons, Richard G. and Alan W. Wood,) 
commenced manufacturing an article in imitation of Russia Iron as early 
as 1851, at the works pictured above, (then just builf). In the year 1870 
tliey made a great improvement in their process, and the product was sold 
as American Russia Sheet Iron. In 1873 further improvements were made, 
including their Patent Planishing Process, and since then the product has been sold as Patent Planished Sheet Iron. 
This iron is equal in all respects to the Imported Russia. The principal railroad lines in the United States and Canada 
have adopted the Patent Planished Iron for covering their locomotives and for mounting the stoves in the passenger 
coaches. The Company also manufacture tliree other grades of sheet iron, known to the trade as the ."smooth surfaced 
common, charcoal, and Juniata. Patent Planished Sheet Iron is made exclusively of the best hammered charcoal 
bloom iron (made at the McKeesport Iron Works) and finished under planishing hammers weighing about three tons, 
striking 300 blows per minute, with an estimated force of 20 tons to each stroke. This planishing process imparts to it 
that beautiful gloss and dappled appearance of Russi^. Iron, and closes the pores so effectually that it will resist the 
action of the atmosphere fully as long. The capacity of the works is about 30,000 packs of Planished and about 5,000 
tons of all kinds of sheet iron per annum. 

(6) 8! 




82 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



FLEMING, AGNEW & CO -Stamped & Japanned Ware, 

61, 62, 63 & 64 Third Av. 

This extensive establishment was founded in 1856 by Mr. John Fleming in a comparatively small way. He 
continued the business alone for two years, when Mr. Joseph Torrence was adiuitted as a partner, under the style of 
Fleming & Torrence. In 1865 new partners being admitted the firm became Fleming, Torrence & Co., and in 1808 
it changed to its present style of Fleming, Agnew & Co., who have ever since carried on the business. The members 
of the firm as it now stands are Mr. John Fleming, Mr. Edward Agnew and Mr. John Hamilton, all of whom are thor- 
oughly practical business men, through whose skill and experience this branch of industry has been largely developed 
and extended. They occupy as w;u-erooms and office a substantial four-story brick structure 50x60 feet, and as a manu- 
factory a similar four-story building directly opposite on the same street 60x75 feet in size, in which tliey employ sev- 
enty-five hands, with a pay-roll amounting to about §2,500 per month. In this factory they have the best and" most 
approved machinery to be found in any establishment of this kind in the United States, with one forty-horse power 
engine and boiler, the finest in the city. 

The facilities enjoyed by this liouse for turning out superior articles rapidly are not surpassed. They carry an 
average stoclc of about |60,000, and tlieir annual sales amount to not less than f^2iiO,000; their trade extending all over 
the Union. Among the various articles manufactured by this firm which have given them such a wide-spread reputa- 
tion, we may mention Japanned cake boxes, candlesticks, canisters, cash boxes, coal hods and vases, cuspadores, tea 
caddies, toilet sets in great variety, bowls and pitchers, tin toys, miner lamps, and every article in that line that may 
be required. Stamped ware, including every variety of plates, cake pans, patty pan, pot and kettle covers and bot- 
toms, dippers, milk pans, wash basins, etc. They are also extensive importers of and dealers in tinner's stock, tin 
plate metals, etc. This house stands prominent among the leading branches of industry and has contributed largely 
to the resources and reputation of tlie Iron city at home and abroad. Mr. Fleming and" Mr. Hamilton are natives of 
Pennsylvania, and Mr. Agnew was born in the county Down, Ireland, but for many years has been a resident of this 
city. 

LION 'B'R.'SI'WIESL'Y, -Corner of Vineal and Villa Sfs. 

This large and commodious establishment, the Lion Brewery, is where the f nest and Viest quality of Lager Beer is 
manufactured. The brewery was first started in 1858 by Hethelman & ( d. — changed to the Lion Brewing Co. in 1874, 
in 1878 to Lutz A Walz, and "to D. Lutz & Son in 1879. The entire estalilisliment consists of five buildings, as follows : 
One two-story frame, 28x46, one three- story brick, 54x72, one two-story brick storehouse, 30x42, one two-story frame, 
30x42, and an' ice-house, 46x72, with a capacity of 1,200 tons. They turn out about 12,000 barrels of beer annually, and 
the business amounts to the comfortable sum of $70,000 per year, with a stock on hand of S18,000. They have eighteen 
hands constantly employed and their pay-roll amounts to S220 per week. The power consists of one boiler, one en- 
gine of 26-horse power. The quality and excellence of their Lager Beer is not surpassed by any brewery in Western 
Pennsylvania and finds a ready and rapid sale in all parts of the country. Everything in and about the establishment 
is conducted in a neat and orderly manner. 

D. LUTZ & SON,— Lager Beer Brewers, Nos. 7 to 11 Spring Garden Av., Allegheny. 

The above firm is amongst the largest and most extensive brewers of Lager Beer in Western Pennsylvania. Their 
establishment, commonly known as the Allegheny Brewery, is located at Ncs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 Spring Garden ave- 
nue, Allegheny. The business was first established by Lutz & Walz in 1853 on a very small capital, which has largely 
increased and now amounts to the large and magnificent sum of $105,000 per annum, with a stock on hand of 820,000. 
The firm was dissolved in March, 1879, by the death of Mr. Walz, and Mr. Anton Lutz was admitted into partnership. 
The brewery is one of the largest and most complete in Western Pennsylvania, and turns out about 15,000 barrels of 
beer annually. The buildings consist of one tliree-story brick, 50x44, one three-story brick, 32x140, one two-story 
brick, 50x108, and one two-story brick, 25x36 feet in size, one boiler and one engine of 32-horse power. The firm has a 
wide reputation for the quality and excellence of their beer and command a large and extensive trade. Mr. I). Lutz, 
the senior member of the firm, was born in Wurtemburg in 1822 and came to Allegheny in 1848. Anton Lutz was born 
in Pittsburgh in 1853. 



D. RISHER & CO.-/. X. L. Tug Link, 62 Wood St. 

The inventor or manufacturer of every useful and ingenious device or apparatus, especially such as 
either mitigates toil or increases its efiBcacy, is not only to be regarded with consideration by the 
community to wliich he belongs, but is in reality the means of affording a new outlet for labor and 
capital, perhaps otherwise unemployed. In devising the I. X. L. Tug Link, Messrs. Daniel Risher, Jr, 
and Daniel R. McClure, as D. Risher & Co., may properly be classed among those to whom these re- 
marks apply as in the manufacture of their specialty they are not only supplying an appliance greatly 
needed, but contribute in no small degree to the comfort and ease of draft animals. The Tug Link of 
which the accompanying cut presents an admirable idea, is designed as an intermediate attachment 
between the single tree and trace on all road vehicles and agricultural implements, and its action not 
only tends to increase the durability of gear and harness by the neutralization of all shocks in start- 
ing or jars from sudden obstruction's, but lessens the racket upon the horse by softening the strains 
upon the collar. These links are warranted not to gel out of order more than an ordinary trace chain, 
and are constructed for simple and easy application with ring hook or open link ; are sold at tlie very 
moderate price of fl.75 per pair. Those ordering by mail should describe which of the above styles 
they desire. Endorsements of this effective little apparatus come from all parts of the country and 
are backed by the best houses in Pittsburgh. 

Thomas "C. Jenkins, the well known wholesale grocer, says : " They are the most complete in- 
vention yet introduced." 

C. P. Markle ct Sons, the celebrated paper manufacturers, write: "We consider your Tugs a 
greater benefit and saving than tlie springs of a buggy or wagon " 

Mr. C. S. Sedgewick, the agent of the Adams Express Co., remarks, after describing the action of 
the link at some length : " They have my hearty endorsement as avoiding concussions and protect- 
ing the shoulders of the horses. " 

These with hundreds of others, after extended trial and experiment, concur in one uniform te.sti- 
mony to the value of the I. X. L. Tug Link. They are also beginning the manufacturing of a valua- 
ble improvement of a permanent spring attachment to the end of the whiflle tree for buggies and car- 
riages, to which is a secure fastening for the traces ; advantages attained by this article are a saving to 
traces and a great comfort and ease to the rider, giving mucli more regular motion to the vehicle. 
Both members of the house are natives of this city and were born respectively in 1842 and 1846. They 
are energetic, ingenious, practical and reliable gentlemen, well known in this community and richly 
entitled to tlie signal success that has and is attending their efforts. 





CITY OF PITTSBURGH, 83 



VULCAN STEAM BOILER &; SHEET IRON WORKS, '» 

Jamp.s McNeil & £ro.. Railroad Street, betiveen 2dth & '60/h Sis. 
The general remarks elsewhere are particukuly applicable to the firm of James McNeil Sc Bro., pro- 
prietors of the Vulcan Steam Boiler and Sheet Iron Works, and manufacturers of every description of steam boilers, 
portable and stationary, oil stiils and tanks, whiskey stills, blast furnaces, silver furnaces, and all kinds of 
sheet iron work, and dealers in new and second-hand engines and machinery. This firm, which is one ot the 
representative ones of the Iron city in this particular line, was founded in 1865, at first on a comparatively 
small scale and with moderate means, but their business has since increased to such an extent that tliey have 
been compelled to consideralily enlarge their facilities, and the amount of capital now invested by tliis house is 
huge. Their trade, which extends over a great portion of the United States and Territories, amounts to many 
tliousands of dollars per annum and is steadily increasing. Their office and works are located on Railroad 
street, between 29th and 30tli, and cover an area of 100x135 feet, supplied with the most complete and perfect 
machinery, tools and appliances, to he found in any similar establishment in the West. Th<' business is sys- 
tematically conducted under two general sub-divisions, viz: boiler department and machine department, in which 
thirty-five skilled and experienced workmen are constantly employed under the immediate supervision of the mem- 
bers of the tiriu, who are lioth thoroughly practical mechanics. The various articles manufactured by this well known 
firm, a portion of which we have enumerated above, are of the best material and most thorough workmanship. The 
sec(jnd-hand machinery and engines offered by them are thoroughly overhauled, repaired and put in perfect order, 
before offering them for sale, and customers may depend upon finding them exactly as represented. Messrs. McNeil & 
Bro. have recently shipped a fine silver smelting furnace to LeadviUe, Colomdo, on the order of one of the leading 
mining companies of that section, and are e.xpecting further orders from that vicinity with the development of the im- 
mense resources of that argentiferous region. They constructed some beautiful flanges for iron firms in the city vv'hich 
were exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, and attracted much attention and very compli- 
mentary comments. While there may be other houses in the city with Itrger capital and more extensive works, we are 
safe in "saying that tliere are none with more perfect and complete machinery and facilities and none more widely and 
favorably' known for the superiority and reliability of their products. The members of the firm are conscientious and 
energetic business men, who have attained their present eminence in the business in which they are engaged by their 
own unaided efforts, industry, jierseverauce and probit)'. Mr. James jMcNeil, the senior member of the firm, is a na- 
tive of Scotland, and was born in 1837, and has resided in the United States since he was thirteen years of age. He is 
a boiler maker by trade and worked at that business many years before embarking in his present business, acquiring a 
thorough practical knowledge of the trade in all its departments, and has had charge of some large manufacturing es- 
tablishments in the East i'l that line of business. Mr. McNeil is highly respected as a citizen, and lias occupied the 
position of school director for many years. Mr. Thomas McNeil, junior member of the firm, was born in Scotland in 
1847. He is a practical machinist and has had a long experience in that branch of business. He has been a member of 
the school board and stands very high in the community in which he resides. He was elected to represent his ward in 
the City Councils, but removing from the district before the commencement of his term, r>'.signed the position to which 
he had been called by a flattering majority. Both members of the firm are gentlemen of sterling integrity and worth 
and noted for their enterprise, l)usiness qualifications and unquestionable reliability in all matters pertaining to the 
social walks of life as well as in their commercial transactions. 

THE ROCHESTER TUMBLER CO., OF PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Office, Liberty and Ninth Sts.; Worku, Roclipstcr, Pa. 

Organized by Pittsburgh capital and directed by Pittsburgh enterprise, the Rochester Tumbler Company and its 
operations are justly entitled to consideration in any work devoted to a detailed review of the industries of this city. 
From its organization, in 1872, till the present, the success that has attended the enterprise has been happily commeii- 
surafe with the capacity and resolution of those to whose direction the business was enti'usted. The works were 
located at Rochester, on the line of the P., Ft. W. and C. R. R., about 35 miles from the city, this spot being chosen 
not only for unrivalled facilities in shipping or receiving freights by railroad from all points, and the further dvan- 
tages conferred in the same direction by the Ohio river, upon whose banks the plant is situated, but mainly on accou t 
of an inexhaustible flow of natural gas from two wells upon the premises, by means of which the expense for fuel is 
greatly modified, and certain portions of the work ) erformed with more speed and perfection than attained by any 
previoHs methods. The works, when first constructed, were considered extensive, but the steadily increasing demand 
upon the resources of the Company for production required additions and enlargements of the manufactory fr in time 
to time, in order to keep pa„e with the growing trade, until, at this period of its liistory, the works a:e three times as 
large as at first constructed, with four times the pi'oductive capacity, and are, beyond question, the most extensive of 
the kind in the world. Every appliance or improved apparatus that modern ingenuity can devise or ample capital 
supply is to be found in this factory not only for the manufacture of glassware, but the construction of all the neces- 
sary pots, molds and models required in the business, the motive power for operating the machinery being furnished 
by two steam engines, having an aggregate of 35-horse power. Ten structures, of various dimensions, the largest being 
200x200 feet, constitute the plant, which covers in all an area of 2]^ acres — fire-proof buildings being used for the secu- 
rity of molds, models, &c. ; a provision found only in this establishment. The work is subdivided into seven depart- 
ments, wiiich embrace not only the constructive portions of the manufacture, but the making of boxes, jiacking, ship- 
ping, mold and model-making, clerical, &c., employing in all 300 operatives and expert artisans, at an expense of $9,000 
per month, the working year occupying 50 weeks, the fires never having been put out since the commencement of the 
enterprise. The advantages derived from the use of natural gas (before referred to), which issues continually from two 
wells upon the premises, each 1200 feet dee)), and originally sunk for oil (?), are very obvious, as cheapening production 
and making the best fuel known for annealing glass and preserving its color, luster and translucency, for which prop- 
erties the goods manufactured by the Rochester Tumbler Company have acquired a reputation that is coextensive with 
the trade of the concern, which is not confined to the United States, but reaches Great Britain, Germnny, Spain, Rus- 
sia, South Africa, South America, Cuba, Japan, Australia, British America, and, in fact, almost every available market 
in the world. The magnitude of the enterprise cannot be readily shown without the art of the illustrator, but, from 
the fact that the works are capable of turning out 25,000 dozens of Tumblers per week, some idea may lie gained of their 
extent. In the production of choice and beautiful designs in Tumblers and bar goods, this Company is unrivalled, 
continual improvements in this direction keeping it constantly in advance of the trade, and ensuring benefits to cus- 
tomers not to be duplicated by any cotemporaneous concern, entitling the Rochester Tumbler Company to the splendid 
success it has so richly deserved, and which has proved of so great an advantage in fostering the industrial thrift cf tliis 
community. 

JACOB "YOlJTXCrr-Grocenes and Produce, No. 2525 Sarah St 

This establishment was started by Mr. Young in 1875, wit ha small capital, which he has since considerably increased. 
He keeps a full and general assortment of all kinds^ goods generally found in a first-class Grocery and Provision Store, 
including Fruits and Vegetables, Choice Family Flour, Sugars, Coffees, Teas, Spices, Dried Meats, Canned Goods, &e. 
Mr. Young is always attentive and obliging to his customers. He occupies a commodious store-room, which he keeps 
filled with the freshest and best class of goods for home and family use. Mr. Young was born in this city in 1848. He 
is eminently worthy the liberal patronage he receives. 



84 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SPANG, CHALFANT & CO -Etna Rolling Mills, Office, Sandusky St, Allegh'y. 

No peneral description of the staple industries of Pittsburj:h, however carefully compiled, or even reduced to a 
statistical basis, could possibly give one, unfamiliar with this great workshop of America, any adequate idea of its real 
inagiiitude, especially with relation to tlie manufacture of Iron. By a review of each establishment engaged in this 
enterprise only, can a reasonable conception be conveyed of the ponderous interests involved by tiie trade in this city, 
or material be furnished for a proper appreciation of the development, resources and capacities of this community. To 
supply such information in detail is the object of this work, and in so doing the mills of Messrs. Spang, Chalfant"& Co. 
are entitled to more than ordinary consideration. Tliese works were established, originally, in 1828 by H. S. Spang, and 
are outranked in age by not more than one or two similar concerns in Western Pennsylvania or the entire West, and 
may be catalogued in the same class with reference to size and importance. When first constructed, the mills, though 
dependent on water power and employing not more than 50 operatives in all, wcie considered for that period remarka- 
bly extensive, and for nearly 10 years, under the original management, pursued a successful and useful career. In 1837 
C. F. Spang, James McAuley and Joseph Long assumed control of tlie business under the style of Spang & Co., a title 
which remained unchanged ui.til 1858, though the last named partner was associated with thecnterprise but 12 months. 
The latter date marks the period when the existing firm, composed of Messrs. C. H. Spang, J. W. Chalfant, C. B. Her- 
ron and Geo. A. Chalfant, succeeded to the business, and from that time to the present the history of the enterprise is 
distinguished by a series of enlargements, improvements and a vast increase in production, as well as greater perfec- 
tion in the methods employed and general results. 

The scope of manufacture has also been widely extended. Originally confined to the product of Merchant Bar 
and Blooms, the output of the mills now consists of Bar Iron, Nails, Boiler Plate and Wrought Iron, lap welded Tubes 
for boilers and Steam Pipe. In this latter branch of manufacture the firm is the pioneer west of the Alleghenies, and 
was the first to engage in this department of the trade, obtaining from the outset a celebrity for work of this descrip- 
tion that has been sedulously maintained and enhanced by the application of every modern appliance likeiy to increase 
tlie excellence of this jiroduct. The mills are located at Etna, a point about 5 miles above tlie city proper, on the North 
Side of the Allegheny River. In an article in the New York Times of March 27, 1877, upon the iron interests of Pitts- 
burgh, considerable space is devoted to a description of these mills, from the fact that the fuel employed for all the 
operations, involved by the working of iron and machinery, consists of natural gas conveyed by a line of pipe 18 miles 
long from the oil regions in Butler County. In the adaptation of puddling and heating furnaces, and for the use of 
this gas, material changes were required, and obstacles to be overcome that taxed both the ingenuity and capital of the 
firm to no meagre extent. All difficulties, however, were finally removed, and, for the first time in the history of tho 
iron industry, gas was used alone, without the adjunct of any other fuel, for the purpose of manufacturing iron suc- 
ces.sfully in every process to which it is subjected, requiring heat. 

The plant at Etna consists of two rolling mills and two pipe mills, in which are employed about 450 operatives, 
whose earnings average from $20,000 to S;25,000 per month, nine batteries of boilers and ten steam engines being 
necessary for the supply of motive power, much of the machinery being of the heaviest construction. Part of the 
apparatus consists of 22 puddling furnaces, 9 heating furnaces, 6 trains of rolls, 22 nail and spike machines and other 
appliances, some of which belong exclusively to the firm under letters patent, especially such as pertain to the rapid 
and perfect construction of sockets and couplings for wrought iron pipes, the capacity of the mills being not less than 
12,000 tons per annum. It is hardly necessary to say that the house of Spang, Chalfant & Co. occupies a position among 
its cotemporaries devoid of blemish. The impetus given to the industries of this community by the capital and en- 
terprise of the firm is not unrecognized, and the general consideration with which it is regarded is the natural out- 
growth of a career, which for more than half a century has embodied the highest principles of commercial integrity 
and personal honor. 

PEOPLES SAVINGS BANK OF PITTSBURGH -57 Fourth Av. 

The marked success attendant upon the career and operations of the Peoples Savings Bank of Pittsburgh i,s of such 
a pronounced and obvious character as to demand more than ordinary attention in making a careful review of the fidu- 
ciary institutions of this city. This bank was established in the Fall of 1866, its chief executive officer being the late 
lamented Henry Lloyd ; William Kea, Esq., Vice President , Mr. S. F. von Bonnhorst occupving the positions of Sec- 
letary and Treasurer, trusts which he still holds. The charter autliorized a capital stock of $300,000, but the report of 
the Treasurer for the first year of its existence shows that while $100,000 in stock had been .subscribed, but $.34,920 had 
been actually paid in, the installment system for making payments being adopted, to encourage the investment of those 
of small means. From that time every annual report shows a marked increase in deposits, assets and general useful- 
ness. In 1872 the capital was increased to the full extent of its charter limit, which now gives the bank the largest 
capital of any similar institution in the State. Upon the 30th of Julv, 1867, the total assets of the concern were 
$102,388.75, and on the 30th of July, 1878, they had reached the prodigious aggregate of Si ,314,176.08, including a con- 
tingent or surplus fund of $80,000, a showing that reflects the highest credit upon the skill and integritv that contribu- 
ted to such a splendid result. The present officers of the bank are as follows: — Wm. Rea and Thomas Wightman. Pres- 
ident, Vice President and also Trustees ; Messrs. E. P. Jones, Att'y at Law , Edward Gregg, of Logan, Gregg * Co., 
hardware ; Hon. J. K. Moorhead, Geo. Wilson, Esq., Ex-mayor of the city ; Hon. Edwin H. Stowe, president judge of 
Common Pleas Court ; Jno. A. Caughey, of Caughey & Robinson, metal dealers; and David McK. Lloyd, 1st National 
Bank of Altoona, trustees ; S. F. von Bonnhorst, Secretary and Treasurer, and N. G. von Bonnhorst, Teller and Book- 
keeper. Such being the management, the success of the enterpri.se was a foregone conclusion, und the high position it 
occupie,s among the financial concerns of this city, is a sufficient guarantee that its course has been directed by a wise 
and honorable policy. 

KEYSTONE GAS LIGHT CO. (Limited) ,-C#c5. 44 Ninth St. 

Since Pittsburgh became the commercial center of the oil-producing regions of Pennsylvania, many attempts have 
been made here and elsewhere, with a greater or less share of success, to rapidly convert the lighter products evolved 
in the process of distillation or refining into gas for illuminating purposes. In April, 1878, was incorporated the Key- 
stone Gas Light Co. (limited), with a capital of $6,500, having for its object the manufacture of a device that should 
greatly improve upon all previous methods of producing gas from oil or its products and providing a cheap, brilliant 
and safe illuminator, thoroughly applicable to every purpose for which coal gas is now used. The success of the en- 
terprise so far has been commensurate with the undoubted advantages obtained by the process to which it claims ex- 
clusive title. The principle upon which the apparatus is constructed is simple but ingenious and consists of the "ame 
being utilized to manufacture the gas consumed by it. A tank containing naphtha is placed above a Belden burner 
and so connected with it that the contents in transit are re-distilled and issue from the burner carbureted hydrogen. 
The whole arrangement is economic and efficacious, the estimated cost of one burner being stated at about one mill an 
hour. Since its organization the stock has been increased to $8,000, the officers being, IT. S. A. Stewart, President, 
H. Campbell, Secretary and Treasurer. Managers — Henry Holdship, H. S. A. Stewart, II. Campbell, Lewis Irwin, 
and Harry C. Campbell, all of whom^are intimately associated with the oil trade and recognized as practical and thor- 
oughly responsible gentlemen in every respect. By addressing the company at the above address, those at a distance 
will be placed in possession of the details of the enterprise. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 85 



HUSSEY, HOWE & CO -Mfrs. of Steel; Office d Works, J7th St & Penn Av. 

There have been certain epochs in the history of the American Iron trade so vital in import and of such over- 
whelming signilicance with regard lo the future of all mechanic and most industrial arts, as to arrest at once the 
profound atteution of all who trace tlie records of the development and elaboration of our material resources. Tlie 
inauguration of the manufacture of crucible cast and open hearth steel, marks an era of this description, the full force 
of which, with reference to the gi'owth and prosperity of Pittsburgh, will only be fully realized by the historian of a 
remote subsequent period, who will then be able to observe with unclouded vision the moiuontous consequences that 
hinge upon it. To the house of Hussey, Howe & Co. is justly ascribed the merit of first producing steel tliat should 
compete with the best imported English brands, and finally effecting an entire revolution of the trade, not only in 
this country, but in England. This jesult, however, was only achieved by years of unremitting endeavor, and the 
expenditure of nearly half a million of money before the efforts of the firm in this direction were crowned by a com- 
plete and signal success. The obstacles and discouragements to which the projectors of this enterprise were subjected 
required, in the highest degree, courage, tenacity of purpose and resolution to overcome. It was asserted on tlie part 
of the forei,t;n manufacturers that the texture, quality and properties of American ore and iron were unsuited to the 
proper nianufuclure of steel, and that even the characteristics of our coke and coal were unfitted for this purpose. 
When these allegations had been entirely confuted by the actual product of steel that would compare favorably with 
any made iu the world, it became dilHcult to induce American consumers to even give it afair trial, so entirely preju- 
diced liad they become by the arguments of British importers and producers. Every obstruction, however, finally 
disappeared before tlie unrivalled excellence of the steel, and the determination of its manufacturers. 

The firm was originally established in 1858, the plant being located on the corner of 17th st. and Penn ave., cover- 
ing an area of about one acre, and considered at that time prodigious in extent. The work of production was com- 
menced in April, 1859, and was regarded as an undertaking that was certain 1o culminate in the same disaster that had 
overwhelmed every previous attempt, in a similar direction, made in this country up to that time. Proceeding, how- 
ever, with the greatest circumspection, for nearly a year the efforts of the firm can hardly be said to have been more 
than a series of .skillful and cautious experiments. Every grade of American iron was tested, and the results of each 
operation closely scrutinized. During the first three months but 10 tons of steel were produced, and afier the lapse of 
15 months the total product had reached but 280 tons. New methods were employed, and it was demonstrated that the 
English system of roasting the iron between layers of charcoal before the final" crucible carbonization, could be dis- 
pensed with entirely, and the whole operation confined to the crucible alone. This was a discovery of ])aramount im- 
portance, and is properly attrii)Uted to this firm, as being the first to devise and carry it to asucccKsful issue. The intro- 
duction of tool steel to tlie American trade had from the first a considerable effect upon the price of the imported arti- 
cle, and as it gradually became better known and was found to answer perfectly every requisite, the demand rapidly 
increased, necessitating enlarged facilities, which were promptly supplied. Additional works were erected, which now 
occupy an area of over four acres, and are equipped with, the most perfect apparatus and machinery known to the 
trade. These appliances consist in jiart of eight trains of rolls, eight steam engines, with several batteries of boilers, 
twenty in all, nine steam hammers, five toll hammers, one hundred and two coke melting furnaces, four twenty-four 
pot Siemen furnaces for melting by gas, Siemen's Martin open hearth furnace, besides steam shears, hydranlic presses, 
Ac. The product consists in all descriptions of the finest quality of tool steel, and all kinds of agricultural and other 
steels. Tiiey have also lately introduced a very superior article of structural steel, which is used for building bridges 
and for armor and ship plates, out of which they have furnished in the last few months some 1,500 tons to build a 
bridge across the Missouri River at Glasgow, Mo., on the Chicago and Alton R. R. This is the first bridge built entirely 
of sieel in the United States, and, perhaps, in the world. It was completed in Ai)ril last, and has given the most com- 
plete satisfaction. As to the quality, Mr. Ames, of the Chicopee Ames Manufacturing Company of Massachusetts, 
testified before a congressional committee, that in the conversion to sabres of 200 tons of this material, a loss was su.s- 
tiiined of less than two per cent, in defective metal, a result never equalled by the use of the best English steel. The 
members of this firm are gentlemen too well known in tliis city to require mention of a personal character. Commenc- 
ing operations with a capacity of about 300 tons of steel i)or annum, the resources of the enterprise have been so 
enlarged as to be capable of producing at present from 10,000 to 12,000 tons yearly. As promotive of the general indus- 
trial welfare, the firm of Hussey, Howe ct Co. perform a work of great magnitude in this direction, employing from 
500 to 600 skilled workmen, at an average outlay of from $28,000 to 830,000 per month, and conducting a business that 
reaches almost every State of the Union, and Increases with a steady and prosperous development. The most exten- 
sive enterprise of the kind upon this continent, its history is closely identified with the most important Interests of 
Pittsburgh and the community at large. Since its inception the importation of English steel has fallen away to less 
than one-tenth of its former bulk, and there is every appearance that under existing conditions It may terminate alto- 
gether, and to all intents and purposes is no.v a dead letter. While enterprising and honorable, the business policy of 
the firm is liberal, and in this respect has few compeers in this city, no house having achieved so remarkable a success, 
and at the same time retained the high consideration of the trade, and the cordial esteem of the public, whose advantage 
has been fostered so materially by its operations. 

PARK, SCOTT & CO. -Copper. Office, 122 Second Av. 

As one of the only two houses in Pittsburgh engaged in the smelting and rolling of copper, the firm of Park, Scott 
& Co. is not properly to escape mention in this work. The history of this house and its predecessors carefully pre- 
sented In detail, would involve so much of the commercial career and growth of Pittsburgh as to occupy more space 
than could be accorded, even if the necessary facts were at hand to supply the material. In brief, however, the origi- 
nal founder of the firm was Mr. James Park, Sr., who establislied himself in 1813 as a wholesale dealer in groceries and 
metals, a combination at that time by no means uncommon. For thirty years, during what may be designated in local 
history as the pack saddle, mule train and canal epoch, Mr. Park pursued his avocations with uniform success, laying 
tlie basis for a substantial fortune, and upon his demise in 1843 resigning the business to his sons D. E. and .T. Park, 
Jr., who under the stylo of James Park & Sons continued the trade, confining themselves, however, exclusively to 
transactions in metals In 1846 the house became Park, McCurdy & Co. and finally in 1877 assumed its present status 
and title. From the inception of the firm to this day, during the few changes that have taken place in its management 
and composition, it has never failed to occupy a prominent place among tlie institutions of the Iron city, or exert an 
active Influence in the promotion of every measure that seemed likely to redound to the general advantage. The pro- 
ducts of the firm consist of rolled lake superior copper, refined sheets, bars and ingots, or special shapes made to order. 
The plant is an extensive one, the machinery and appliances being of the best modern description, employing the labor 
of numerous skilled mechanics and ordinary workmen. In its business policy and charteristics tin? firm is liberal, en- 
terprising and honorable, commanding the respect of the community and inspiring a degree of confidence that few 
houses are ever so fortunate as to acquire. 

J. E. "LTSBY, -Dentist. No. 4309 Butler St. 

Dr. J. E. Llbby, Dentist, has his OflSce and Dental Rooms at No. 4309 Butler St., where his skill and abilities are 
rapidly making success. The Doctor was born in Carroll county, Ohio. He learned his profession under the tuition 
ol Dr."Templeton, of this city— a dentist of higli- abilities and culture. He afterwards attended the Pennsylvania 
College of Dental Surgery, in Philadelphia, completing his education and fully graduating him for the successful prac- 
tice of Dentistry. He began the practice of his profession in this city, and afterwards, in 1877, removed to Lawrence- 
ville. 



86 INDUSTKIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

WILLIAM HASLAGE,— £/(?(^6^r and Retailer in Groceries, Provisions, &c. 

No. 18 Dininoncl Square. 

A striking example of progress, and of what energy, knowledge of business and fair dealing may accoiuidish, is af- 
forded by the history of this well-known house, which has become one of the business landmarks of the city. Mr. 
Haslage was born in "Germany in 1827, and came to this city in 1845. After being engaged about two years as a clerk, 
he started business for himself on the South Side in an extremely small way, having a capital of but $29. By atten- 
tion to his business it graduallj^ gi'ew, and he removed to tlie Diamond. From the small beginning above men- 
tioned, his business has grown to be tlie largest in the retail grocery line in the city, the stock usually being 
valued at about 875,000, and sales amounting to $200,000 yearly. The extensive building, erected for the purposes 
of Mr. Haslage's extensive business, is a hive of industry and activity. The store room has a front of 30 feet, 
and a depth of 150 feet. There are four floors, connected by elevators operated by steam power. The upper floors are 
used for storing goods, and also for roasting coffee and grinding and packing coffee, spices, etc. The carrying on of 
tliese operations in the building under the direct supervision of the proprietor, enables the house to guarantee the 
purity and good quality of all the packed goods they put upon the market, and has given to their coffees and spices a 
reputation second to none. The sauje care and attention have been given to every other department and have made it 
one of the most noteworthy of our flourishing business houses. Some idea of the extent of its business may be gained 
from the fact that it gives employment to about 25 persons in various capacities, and its pay-roll amounts to about 
$1,000 per month. In addition to "Groceries and Family Supplies in general, the first specialty of the house is in deal- 
ing in fine Teas, in which line a larger quantity is sold by Wm. Haslage, at retail, than by any two jobbers in tlie city 
together, at wholesale. The secret of the immense tea trade of this house, which reaches over 50,000 pounds yearly, 
lies in the advantages afforded customers in procuring here the same mixtures as can be obtained in any part of Europe, 
the same which has given London, Belfast and other European cities such a reputation as tea centers. These, with 
other fine groceries, are imported direct by Mr. Haslage, and he is the exclusive dealer in this city for these choice 
goods. The second specialty of the house is the importation of pure Brandies and AVines for medical purposes ; also 
of domestic wines, principa:l]y of Mr. Haslage's own production. The entire business of this house is transacted 
strictly upon a cash basis, and no deviation is made from the established prices of goods. Its trade is extended in 
every direction from the city within a radius of 150 miles. Mr. Haslage's business qualifications have been called into 
requisition in several corporations. He has filled the office of Director in the Artisans Insurance Company since its 
organization, and for the past four years has been a Director in the German National Bank. 

S. B. HEDGES Sl CO»-Oom. Mer. for Cattle, Hogs d Sheep. Central Stock Yards. 

Among the tens of thousands of producers this work will reach, showing the various industries and avocations of 
the Iron City, there will be a large number who are interested in the raising, buying and shipping of cattle, hogs and 
sheep, and as tlie advantages here presented will directly interest them, we append a brief notice of one of the most 
enterprising and worthy firms connected with the stock yards of this city. Messrs. S. B. Hedges & Co. are successors 
to the lirm of Hedges & Taylor, who started in this business in 1867. Mr. Taylor retiring from the firm, Mr. S. B. 
Hedges continued tlie business in connection with others whose names are not essential to this sketch, and after some 
few changes, the present reliable company was established, consisting of Messrs. S. B. Hedges, the head and senior 
member of the Company, who was, in connection with Mr. Taylor, the original founder of this important business en- 
terprise, and H. B. Pepper and Mr. F. Hedges, a brother of Mr. S. B. Hedges, each of whom is thoroughly conversant 
with the business in all its details, thus forming one of the most prompt and reliable firms operating in this line of 
business in Pittsburgh. They control a cash capital of $40,000 and transact a very large and lucrative business, al- 
tliough, on account of discriminations in freight and general depression in business of all kinds, this branch has been 
largely reduced from former years, when the business was more than $1,000,000 annually. This brief statement will 
convey to producers and dealers throughout the country the ample facilities enjoyed by this firm and insure entire 
confidence in tiieir transactions. S. B. Hedges & Co. are Commission Merchants for the sale of Hogs, Cattle and Sheeji, 
with their office located at the Central Stock Yards, where all communications may be addressed. They employ one 
book-keeper and a thorough!}' competent salesman, besides giving their personal attention to the details of their ex- 
teasive business. Mr. S. 15. Hedges was born in Ohio in 1829. Mr. F. Hedges was also born in that State in 183-t, and 
Mr. H. B. Pepper was born in Chester County, this State, in 1851. This firm enjoys a high and honorable reputation 
in the city and country. 

HOLBSHIF & ISCWTN, -American Oil Works, Office, 49 Fifth Avenue. 

One of the first refineries erected in Pittsburgh after the production of petroleum in' Pennsylvania, was the Wood- 
ville Oil Works, built by Henry and George Holdship in 1859-60. Purchasing the American Works (formerly called 
the "Forsyth Oil Works"), in 1870, the Woodville Works were removed to the same site and merged into one con- 
cern. At that time these works were the [largest in capacity in the State, and even at this time are exceeded in these 
respects by but three or four refineries in this section. In 1864 Mr. George Holdship retired from the business and 
was succeeded by Mr. Lewis Irwin. The works are located near Sharpsburg Station, within the limits of the city, and 
cover an area of about seven acres. When in full operation the produce 5,000 barrels of refined oil per week, fifty men 
being required to conduct the various processes, whose earnings are about $2,500 per month. There are .some facts in re- 
gard to the career of this firm and its operations that single it out from all others and entitle it to more than usual consid- 
eration, and while we are debarred by the character of this work from any further comment on this subject, it must 
be proper to say that the evidences given by this firm of a high standard of personal and commercial lienor and spot- 
less integrity, are such as to place it in a position peculiarly its own. Both members of the firm are natives of Pitts- 
burgh, widely known to the community at large and in no small degree aiding in various ways its development and 
prosperity. 

ERNEST G. "KREH. AN, -Interpreter for the Courts, Alderman, Conveyancer, etc. 

1101 Bingham St., South Side. 
The career of Alderman Krehan has been one of such eminent usefulness as to entile him to brief recognition in 
these pages. A native of Weimar, Germany, where he was born Oct. 30, 1835, at the early age of eighteen, impelled 
by the most laudable youthful jispirations, he emigrated to this country, and after residing at Buifalo, N. Y., for one 
year, came to Pittsburgh in 1854, and for a quarter of a century has identified himself with the best interests of the 
community. Soon after his arrival in this city he applied himself to the drug business, in which he .shortly became 
an adept, comencing operations for himself in 1860, quitting the same in 1866, since which time he has continued, in 
spite of other pressing demands upon his time, to occupy a high positi(m in the profession. Under the administration 
of Presidents lancoln and Johnson he was appointed Postmaster of Birmingham, which was not at that time annexed 
to Pittsburgh by consolidation, and in 1867 was created oflScial Interpreter of the Allegheny County Courts by Gov. 
Geary, whose action was confirmed by the Senate of Pennsylvania, and in 1876 he was reappointed by Gov. Hart- 
ranft for a term of three years. As Alderman of the 29th ward, 'Squire Krehan was elected in 1870, a choice which 
liroved so satisfactory to his constituents that be was again elected to the same office in 1875, bis term in this capacity 
not expiring till March, 1880. Expert as a linguist, clement, but just, as an alderman, and reliable in his profession 
and all relations with others, 'Squire Krehan deserves the esteem which he has achieved and the friendship which his 
uniform course has inspired. 



CITY OP PITTSBURGH, 87 



DUQUESNE BOILER WOIfKS-James Thorn&Co., Diiquesne Way&2dSt. 

Fainilirtr with the constitution, manufacture and capabilities of iron in all its forms, from the crude ore to the 
finished plate, the skilled mechanics and enterprising manufacturers of Pittsburgh find no obstacles in the construc- 
tion of anything of which iron is the material or forms a component part, from the smallest tack requiring thousands to 
make a pound, to an ocean steamship of the most magnificent proportions. In everybranch of industry pertaining to 
the various specialties of iron-working are representative houses whose names have become familiar not only through- 
out our own country, but in every quarter of the globe. Few manufacturing establishments, if any, have contributed 
more largely to spread the fame and reputation of Pittsburgh, as the grea^ industrial center of the western hemisphere, 
than that of Messrs. James Thorn & Co., proprietors of the Duquesne Boiler Works and manuiacturers of Steam Boil- 
ers, Oil Stills and Tanks, Agitators, Salt Pans, and every description of Wrought and Sheet-Iron Work, including Steel 
and Iron Hulls for vessels, steamboats, barges, &c. This business was established by Thos. McCtolloster & Esche- 
bann, in 1S40, and others, and, after various changes in style of firm and management, came into possession of the 
present proprietors in 18G1. The premises occuj)ied by this firm are on the corner of Second St. and Duquesne Way, 
covering an area of 150x200 feet, with spacious and conveniently-arranged buildings for the prosecution of their busi- 
ness in all its departments, and the most perfect and complete machinery and tools to be found in any similar estab- 
lishment in the country, including a steam engine of 25 horse-power. Thirty-five skilled hands are constantly 
employed at these extensive work.s, with a monthly pay-roll aggregating about $1,800. Their trade is principally 
derived from the two cities, the oil regions and the steamboat interests of our own and western rivers, iron mills, etc., 
although they are rapidly acquiring not only a national but a world-wide celebrity. During the year 1873 this firm 
constructed for an English company a steel steamship hull, for use in South American waters, which not only gave the 
most perfect satisfaction, but surpa.s.sed their utmost expectations, drawing only 22 inches of water, whereas those of 
English build which had previously been constructed for the same purpose were found to be utterly impracticable and 
unserviceable in the shallow waters of the Magdalene river, drawing more than four feet of water. This hull was man- 
ufactured and completed entirely in Pittsburgh, and then taken apart and shipped in sections by rail to New York, 
thence to South America, where it was put together again by men sent from this establishment for'tbat purpose. The 
wood work for this steamship was also built in this city by Messrs. Slack & Sholes, a description of wliich will be found 
in this work under the article devoted to that firm, ^lpssrs Thorn & Co. are now negotiating for the construction of 
two other large hulls for New York parties, and are making arrangements to con.siderably enlarge their works and 
increase their facilities. Both members of this firm are thorough, practical mechanics. Mr. James Thorn is a l)lack- 
smith, and during the war of the rebellion was in the employ of the United States government, in the construction of 
government gunboats. He is an energetic, enterprising business man, and thoroughly conversant with all the details 
of the business in which he is engaged. Mr. James Reese, the other partner, is a practical machinist, and, in connec- 
tion with his interest in this business, carries on extensive machine and engine works at the corner of Fourth St. and 
Duquesne Way. It is to the enterprise, ability and skill of such gentlemen as these that our city is largely indebted 
for the proud position she occupies to-day among the manufacturing cities of the world. 

M ACKEO WN, THOMPSON & OO, -Oldest Wholesale Drug House in the city. 

195 Liberty Street. 
As the Oldest Wholesale Drug House in the city, conspicuous for the general extent of its business and resources, 
the firm of McKeown, Thompson & Co. is entitled to most favorable consideration in a work designed to exhibit in 
detail the Industries of Pittsburgh. Mr. John Hanlon, the pioneer druggist of this city, was the founder of tiiis house 
in 1825, with very limited capital and in an extremely small way. With the natural growth of the city the trade grew 
in proportion until it became a marked feature, and passing into the hands of the present firm many years ago, was 
considerably augmented and a new impetus given to the concern. The premisesof the house are most eligible, situ- 
ated at 195 Liberty street, and consist of one large four-story brick edifice with finished basement, 22.K110 feet, con- 
taining a carefully selected assortment to the value of from $40,000 to $50,000, forming the basis lor an annual trade of 
$120,000 to $150,000, exclusively at wholesale. In connection with the drug business, embracing all and singular com- 
plete supplies in this branch, this house is recognized as general headquarters for Paints of all kinds, Spirits of 'tur- 
pentine. Resin and Pine Tar, Sperm, Whale, Fish, Lard, Engine and Lubricating Oils, etc. In these articles they 
deal very largely, sales of Pure Lead alone amounting to one hundred tons per annum. Twelve hands are employed 
in the various departments of the trade, which has gradually extended over Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and 
West Virginia, and is increasing yearly under the liberal and enterprising policy of the firm. All the members of 
this firm are natives of this city, to the prosperity of which their thrift and enterprise has largely contributed. In 
those particular lines in which Messrs. MacKeown, Thompson & Co. are engaged, they are heartily couimeuded as 
being reliable and agreeable people to deal with, having facilities for the supply of the trade which cannot be dupli- 
cated in Pittsburgh and which are certain toaftbrd buyers every advantage in price, quality and circumstance. 

ARTISANS DEPOSIT BANK ,-^orw^r of Third Av. and Wood St 

The financial institutions of Pittsburgh, though numerous, are yet, as a rule, characterized by a fair and hopeful 
degree of prosperity and a general management safe and conservative, though enterprising. These remarks are as ap- 
plicable to the Artisans Deposit Bank as any similar concern in this city, of which it forms part of the fiduciary sys- 
tem. The Ijank was organized in 1870 and incorporated under the State law, with a paid-up capital of $180,000, with 
the privilege of increasing it to half a million. Conducting a legitimate banking business in loans, discounts, deposits, 
collections and exchange, some idea of the ability of its management may be derived from the fact that since its estab- 
lishment it has paid from its earnings as dividends to tlie stockholders about $100,000. Such success is of course 
owing to the fidelity with which the officers have administered their trusts, and without any fortuitous conditions of 
finance or trade daring the period of the existence of the institution. From its inception to" the present time Messrs. 
Wm H. Smith and J. F. Stark have respectively occupied the positions of president and cashier, the former being also 
president of the Artisans Insurance Co. The directors are, besides the chief executive, Messrs. John Dunlap, manufac- 
turer of tinware ; J. P. Barr, editor and proprietor of the Daily and Weekly Post; James McGinnis; W. S. Jackson, 
Id le wood Hotel ; J. T. Colvin, of Colvin, Atwell & Co., wholesale grocers; F.M.Hutchinson, secretary and treasurer 
of the Fort Wayne Railway Co ; .lohu J. Pettit, of .1. J. Pettit & Co., produce, and L Glesenkamp, of L. Glesenkamp 
A Co , carriage manufacturers. The cashier's staff is now composed of James P. Gelston, teller and book-keeper, and 
Wra. F. Miller, Messenger. The success of the Artisans Deposit Bank under such control is equal to that of any insti- 
tution started under similar conditions and auspices, and the consideration in which it is held speaks strongly in its 
fuvor as a solid and popular institution. 

A. G. CRONER,-/"//?, Copper and Sneet-lron Ware, St. Clair St., Mt Washington. 

This business, purchased from his predecessor, Mr. Reigle, has been carried on by Mr. Croner since the Spring of 
1878, having then started with a good capital, which he has since increased. He has an extended custom and trade for 
many miles around, carrying a fair stock on hand of Tin, Copper and Sheet-Iron Ware, variety of Stoves, Hardware 
and House-furnishing Goods. Stoves exchanged and repaired, Tin-Roofing and Job Work of all kinds promptly 
attended to. All work warranted to give satisfaction. Mr. i^roncr was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 
1851, and began business here in this city in 1878, and is well deserving of public patronage. 



88 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

TRADESMENS NATIONAL BANK -Cor. Wood St & Fourth Av. 

The Tiadcsniens National Bunk is another of tho financial institutions of Pittsburgh, the wisclom of whose nianajie- 
nient has been cndoiHed by success, as well us by the high position it enjoys in the esteem and consideration of the 
comnuinity. This bank was orgijnized upon its present basis January 1st, 1865, with a capital of $400,000, and was 
shortly afterwards appointed as a United States depository for this district. The officers are prominent in the various 
industries of this city and are as follows : — A. Bradley, Esq., President, and seniormember of the firm of A. Bradlev & 
Co., stove founders, "has occupied this position since the establishment of the bank. Wm. Vankirk, Esq., Vice Presi- 
dent, associated with the same firm, and iMr. Cyrus Clarke, Jr., for twelve years performing the duties of cashier with 
recognized ability. Tlie directors besides tlie President and Vice President, are Messrs. John Dunlap, Jas. M. Schoon- 
maker, Jno. F. Dravo, W. Dewes Wood, Oliver P. Scaife, Sullivan Johnson and John C. Risher ; gentlemen so well 
known as successful merchants, manufacturers and producers, as to require no personal mention. The staff of the 
cashier is composed of Messrs. Ross W. Drum, teller ; E. L. (lOff, ass't. teller ; A. J. Lawrence, General bookkeeper; 
J. B. Van Wagener, individual bookkeeper; B. M. Davis, discount and loan clerk; J. K. Crawford, corresponding 
clerk, and Samuel Story, messenger. That the operations of the bank have been ably conducted requires no other 
demonstration than that up to January 1, 1879, 1528,000 had been paid the stockholders as dividends and a surplus ac- 
cumulated of over $100,000. Very few banks in this city have done better, or more deservedly enjoy the confidence 
and respect of the public. 

ARMSTRONG, BRO. & CO -Mfrs. of Corks and Bungs, 24fh & Railroad Sts. 

The manufacture of Corks and Bungs is extensively carried on at the corner of Twentyfourth and Railroad 
streets, by the firm of Armstrong, Bro. & Co. Tlie business was originated in this city, in 18-54, by Mr. Harry Overing- 
ton. on a compai'atively small scale, and with moderate means, on Smithfield street. He was succeeded by the firm 
of John D. Glass & Co., and they in turn by Armstrong, Bro. & Co., who considerably increased the facilities and 
enlarged the business. In 1862 they removed to Third street, now Third avenue, where they re-modeled and enlarged 
the spacious three-story brick structure, which had been previously occupied by Lewis, Oliver & Phillips. They 
remained in this location for six years, when they were compelled to seek more commodious quarters, and removed to 
the large double warehouse, Nos. 44 and 46 Fir.st avenue. In 1878 the entire establishment was destroyed by fire, and 
the firm immediately proceeded to erect tlieir present commodious and spacious manufactory, which is four" stories in 
height, and built in the form of an " L," with a frontage of two hundred feet on TwentyfouVth street, and one hun- 
dred and twenty feet on Railroad street, and supplied with the most perfect and complete machinery. The trade of 
this bouse extends over every portion of the United States, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific slope. They 
employ on an average about one" hundred and seventy-five hands, with a weekly pay-roll aggregating about $1,200, 
They import the raw material directly from the cork forests of sunny Spain, and manufacture every description of 
Corks, from the most diminutive sizes to the largest known to the trade, and cut cork to any desired shape and style, 
such as life preservers, &c. Shavings from the factory are largely used for the manufacture of beds and mattresses, 
and are higlily commended for that purpose by all who have tliem. In addition to the manufacture of Corks this firm 
has a large factory in Warsaw, Indiana, where they produce an immense number of compressed wooden bungs for 
barrels, which meet with a ready sale for a variety of purposes. 

Mr. T. M. Armstrong is a native of New York City, and was born in 1836. Ho has resided in Pittsburgh since he was 
ten years of age, and since 1860 has been identified with the cork business, having been a member of the firm of Jno. 
D. Glass & Co. Mr. A. J. Armstrong was born in Allegheny City in 1847, and "has been a life-long resident of this 
county. Mr. Wm. L. Standish is a native of West Virginia and has resided in Pittsburgh since 1864, and connected 
witVi this establishment during the entire period. Mr. R. D. Armstrong, who was for many years the financial mana- 
ger of the house, was born in New York city in 1837, and came to this city at the age of three years and entered the 
firm at its organization. He was a genial, affable and highly respected gentleman in all the walks of life and univer- 
.sally esteemed and respected; he died in October 1878. At the time of his decease he was a member of the board of 
directors of the United Slates bank and had for many years been regarded as one of the most noble, conscientious and 
honorable individuals in tlie ranks of Pittsburgh's representative men. The surviving members of the firm are enter- 
prising, able and energetic gentlemen of the highest standing and of unsullied reputation. 

J. W. McFARLAND & CO -Carpets, No. 101 Fifth Av. 

Among the several firms in Pittsburgh engaged in the Carpet trade, perhaps none will bear a favorable comparison, 
■with reference to extent, general appointments and magnitude, as well as variety of stock, with the enterprise of 
Messrs. J. W. McFarland & Co. This widely-known house was established in 1803, under the style of JfcFarland, 
Collins & Co., the senior partner — J. W. IMcFarland — being, in reality, the sole manager and active worker of the con- 
cern, and in 1877 the title of the firm became as at present, the Company being nominal e.Kcept in i^o far as represent- 
ing some interests vested in tlie business by members of the family of Mr. McFarland. The premises occupied by the 
house are situated most eligibly on Fifth Av., the main thoroughfare of the city, next door to the Post Office — the 
building, an ornate, wire-front structure, being one of tlie handsomest in Pittsburgh. Three floors of this edifice, each 
being 30x120 feet in dimensions, are engrossed by the firm and fitted up for the rapid and convenient transaction of 
business, in a manner worthy of the character and standing of the concern. Two patent elevators conduce to the 
pleasant avoidance of stairways, while the general furnishing is all that could be desired — the shelving on one floor 
alone, wliich is sustained by iron rods and braces from the ceiliu'^s, costing over $1000. The first floor is occupied as 
the main salesroom, and is not only admirably lighted, but is laid with South Carolina yellow pine of unusually fine 
quality, and has an altitude of 20 feet, which, with other advantages in the way of decoration, &c., makes it, perhaps, 
the most elegant and spacious business aiiartinent in the city. The second andthird floors are used as store, stock and 
work-rooms in the upholstery department, which branch of the trade is carried on very extensively, the whole force of 
employees being five salesmen, two clerks, two porters, one driver, four upliolsterers, six sewing girls — making a .^itaff 
of 19 assistants in all ; besides which, a team of horses and two wagons are required for the delivery of gowls through 
the cities and to .steamboats, railways, &c. The stock embraces Carpets of every grade, make and quality, imported 
and domestic. Window Shades and Fixtures in great variety. Curtains, Cornices, Floor and Table Cloths. Mattings, 
Rugs, Druggets, Oil Cloths and every species of floor covering^ having an average value of from $1.5,000 to $20.000 — the 
annual business amounting to $40,000 and upwards. Mr. RIcFarland is a native of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, 
!x)rii in 1833. He became a resident of this city when 20 years of age, and, for more than a quarter of a century, has 
exerted a marked influence in liis vocation, to the benefit of the general public, by whom, he is justly esteemed as the 
oldest as well as the most widely experienced representative of the business in Pitt.sburgh. Mr. McFarland is a 
remarkably rapid and decisive thinker and a plea.singly fluent speaker. In his thorough and detailed knowledge of 
everything pertaining to or contingent upon his occupation he has few compeers; nor are his attainments limited to 
the channels of trade and commerce. Proinpt, reliable, liberal, with an activity and industry that knows no pause, 
be has made bis housea favorite one for those who have once appreciated the advantages to be derived there in prices; 
and, more than all, that considerate and honest advice which no one is better able or more willing to offer than Mr. 
ISIeFarland. With these facilities, natural and acquired, it is no matter of surprise that the trade of this firm has 
embraced not only western Pennsylvania, but a large part of West Virginia and Ohio — orders having been received 
even from Iowa and Mis.souri, as the result of a business policy based upon principles that none may successfully 
ignore. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



89 



WILSON, WAIiKER & CO -Union Forge and Iron Mill, 29th & Railroad Sis. 

It is only by a careful review in detail of the industries of Pittsburgh that any adequate idea can be pained in re- 
gard to the real magnitude of those interests which are of such vital importance, not only to this comnuiuity, but llio 
American public at large. It being the main object of this work to present such facts, t)ricf descriptions of the prin- 
cipal manufacturing enterprises arc not only proper but essential, and in this connection the firm of Messrs. Wilson, 
Walker & Co. is entitled to more than passing notice. Tlie Union Forge and Iron Mill was established in 1801, by 
Messrs. Kloraan & Pliipps, who were succeeded by Messrs. Carnegie, Kloman & Co. in 1866, and carried on the busi- 
ness until 1873, when the present firm was organized, being composed individually of John T. & James R. Wilson and 
John Walker as general partners, and Andrew Carnegie, of New York, as special partner. Under this management the 
Rcope of the mill was greatly incre.ised and its facilities in all departments much enlarged. The main mill now 
covers an area of 90x300 feet, the blacksmith shop 72.n:2,')0 feet and the forge and machine shop 72x200 feet, which, to- 
gether with other buildings of smaller dimensions, occupy an area of about two acres. To operate the powerful and in 
many instances intricate machinery with which the works are thoroughly equipped, requires ten steam engines of 
various powers and ten boilers, the apparatus consisting in part of fifteen single puddling furnaces, six heating furna- 
ces, nine steam hammers, five trains of rolls, one 18, one 15 and one 10 inch and two universal plate trains. With these 
and other appliances and facilities, the products of the mill are of the finest grades known, and consist of all descriptions 
of railroad car and locomotive forgings, bar iron, universal mill plates, bridge irons and special shapes of all kinds to 
order, shafting, splice bars, &c., and for the manufacture of these specialties the works are said to be the best furnished 
and most extensive in the United States. Besides the ordinary machinery usually found in such establishments and 
generally known to the trade, Mr. J. T. Wilson, who is a practical iron worker and mechanician, has devised and in- 
vented numerous pieces of mechanism for special purposes, labor and time saving, that are only to be found in this mill 
and will greatly add to the general efficacy of the work, the total productive capacity being about 12,000 tons per an- 
num. The operatives employed at these works range from 175 to 350 and average about 350, which represents the main- 
tenance of two thousand individuals, and conveys an idea of the usefulness of the firm in the promotion of the indus- 
trial welfare of the community. The plant being located upon the line of the Allegheny Valley K. B. with connect- 
ing sidings, possesses certain advantages in making direct shipments upon all roads centering in Pittsburgh not easily 
duplicated, and the introduction of the wires of the Western Union Telegraph Co. into the oflSce adds still further to 
the facility for transacting a business which ranges over the entire United States and Canadian Provinces. As a firm 
it is not going too far to say that the house of Wilson, Walker & Co. has achieved a position and success acquired by 
few of its cotcmporaries, and enjoys the high esteem of the trade and the consideration of the general pul)lic, which 
derives such marked advantages from its enterprise and capacity. 

PETER SOTTJ^'L-Boofs and Shoes. Sycamore St., 8 2d Ward. 

Among the industries of the City of Pittsburgh to which this work is devoted, there is .scarcely any one class outside 
of the great Iron and Glass trade which deserves more liberal notice than that of the general Boot and .Shoe trade. So 
great is the competition, that greater energy and enterprise are essential to success, and in this connection we desire to 
call attention to the excellent store and stock of Mr. I'eter Sofl'el, located on Sycamore street in the 32d Ward. This 
business was started by the present proprietor in ISGl, with comparatively small capital, but which has been very 
materially increased by the liberal patronage he has constantly leceived since that time. He carries a stock ranging 
from $2,500 to $4,000, embracing the most desirable and reliable goods for Blen, Women, Boys, Misses or Children, and 
his prices are lower than his competitors. The length of time Mr. Sofi'el has been in i)usiness has enabled him to estab- 
lish an envialile reputation for fair and .square dealing, and given liim great popularity in his ward. lie was twice a 
member of the Borough Council, also School Director previous to this part of the city being incorporated in the city 
limits. Mr. Sofl'el was born in Gernumy in 18:i8, and caiue to tins city in 1S54, where he enjoys a flourishing trade and 
the esteem and confidence of a large circle of friends and patrous. 



ADAMS & CO -Table Glassware: Office & Works, Wth & Williams Sts., South Side. 

In making a detailed review of the 
glass trade, as having a powerful influ- 
ence upon the industries of Pittsburgh, 
the well-known house ot Adams & Co., 
manufacturers of Crystal Glass-ware, 
should not be overlooked. This firm 
was originated in 1851 by and under 
the style of Adams, Macklin & Co., 
who commenced operations uiuler many 
disadvantages and with a capital that 
would now be con.sidered altogether 
inadequate. The business prospered, 
however, under a shrewd and practical 
management, and became an established 
success after several years of unremit- 
ting exertion on the part of its project- 
ors. In 18t)l a change in the firm took 
place, the title becoming as at present, 
the members of the house now being 
John Adams, Esq., Geo. F. Easton, 
Godfried Miller, A. A. Adams, .las. 
Dalzell, and W. Adams — all of whom take an active interest in the work, i he plant is located, as above, in Willmms 
St., South Side, and has been greatly enlarged and improved since the .succession of the CM'^tmg firm It (on'-ists ot 
five large buildings, covering in all an area of about two acres, and containing two factories and two furn.ice^, h.iMnt;, 
in all, 23 pots, one engine and boiler, besides all the necessary machinery and appliances for conducting o[)erations 
upon the largest scale. 

Here are employed about 200 expert artisans, to pay whom a weekly disbursement is entailed upon the firm of 
$2,000, the total annual business transacted amounting to between $175,000" and $200,000, and extending throughout the 
United States, Canada, Cuba and South America. The products of the firm are widely known for superior excellence, 
in finish and design; they consist mainly of Table Glassware, Lamp Chimneys, Lamps and Jelly Tumblers, greatly 
improved, upon which the firm holds several patents, the right to manufacture being exclusively confined to this 
house. Of the several members of the firm, all are natives of Allegheny county except Mr. Miller, who was born in 
Germany. Mr. John Adams, the senior partner, is closely identified with the industrial development of this city, 
being connected with many institutions prominent for their uscfulno&s. As a late member of the city councils, his 
influence was always directed to the support of those measures which seemed best calculated to promote the general 
good ; and, as a director of the Iron and Glass Dollar Savings Bank, street railway companies, and tlie Flint Glass Asso- 
ciation, Mr. Adams has done no little to foster tlje resources of this city. The firm, of which he is the esteemed head, 
occupies a high position in the trade and cmnniands the respect of thccommunity. Its business operations are*a.sed 
upon a i)nlicy of honorable as well as liberal dealing, and can offer advantages to the trade that make it a most demrablo 
house with which to establish relations. 




90 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

PITTSBURGH BANK FOR SAVINGS -yi/^. 61 Fourth Av. 

This favorite financial institution was incorporated under a special ctiarter by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
April 11, 18(i2, as tlie "Dime Savings Institution of Pittsburgli," a title wlaich gave place, however, subsequently to 
that at present employed, which conveys very clearly the main object <jf its organization. That the design of its 
founders has been realized to a marked degree, may be readily inferred from some figures taken from the Thirty-lir;^t 
Semi-annual Attested Report, which shows the available assets of the concern to be $lJ7o,332.04, and a contingent or 
surplus fund of $91,745.77 — or %\&,H5.11 more than the capital. •stock. Such results are of course almost entirely due to 
the conservative and conscientious manner in which the affairs of the bank have been managed, and necessarily re- 
dound to the credit of those to whom the business has been entrusted. Among these it may lie natural to expect to 
find some of the most prominent names in the city — an anticipation by no means defeated, as proved by the following 
list of officers and directors : — Geo. A. Berry, Esq., President — also President of Citizens' National Bank, Director of 
Moiiongahela Insurance Co., and connected with numerous other institutions ; John Scott, Esq., and James Park, Jr., 
Vice Pi-esidents, the former being President of the Allegheny Valley R. R., also President of the P. V. & C. R. R., Di- 
rector of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' National Bank, and largely interested in the manufacturing interests of 
the community. The latter is of the firm of Park Bro's. & Co., proprietors of the Black Diamond Steel Works and in- 
timately Identified with the development of the natural resources of Pittsburgh ; Mr. Chas. G. Mllnor, Treasurer and 
Secretary, well known for an extended banking experience prior to his connection with this institution ; Mr. David 
W. Jones, Teller and Book-keeper, also an expert in his department of the business. The Board of Managers, while, 
including the president and vice-presidents heretofore named, consists also of the following gentlemen :— A. Bradley, 
Esq., President of the Tradesmen's National Bank and senior partner in the house of A. Bradley & Co., stove found- 
ers; R. C. Schmirtz, Esq., President of the Allemania Insurance Co. and largely engaged in the glass trade. Hon. 
James L. Graham, influentially allied to numerous important organizations; Frank Rahm, Esq., President of the 
Woodruff Sleeping Car Co. and L. M. Plumer, Esq., Attorney at Law, Solicitor. Under the management and direction 
of such officers and managers, the signal success that has attended the career of the Pittsburgh Bank for Savings be- 
comes readily accounted for, and a future of equal prosperity and usefulness seems as certainly assured. 

JULIUS VOETTER,-/1^5Z«; York Hog Trade Stock Yards. East End. 

About two-thirds of the stock disposed of are sold in the New York market and the other third here, in Philadel- 
phia and other points. In handling hogs for the New York trade, Mr. Julius Voetter does a yearly business of over 
half a million dollars. He commenced here in 1856 in a small way, with a capital of only $200 or S300, but under his 
judicious management it has increased until it now reaches, if it does not exceed $15,000. He occupies an office at the 
stock yards and may also be communicated with at J. D. Huffman's butcher shop. He employs ten men, with a 
monthly pay-roll of $800. His business is conducted under two separate departments, in the tirstof which he has as- 
sociated with him Mr. J. G. Struble in the butchering department and Mr. J. D. Huffman. At this place on Penn 
avenue they use one engine boiler, two meat choppers and lard tanks. Mr. Voetter is a native of Germany, born at 
Wurtemburg Nov. 15, 1836. He came to Pittsburgh in 18-56, and to the stock yards in 1864. He commenced business 
in 1854 at Salem, Ohio, and has been actively engaged in the stock trade ever since. 

JACOB RUCH & "BRO. -Carriage Manufacturers, 804 & 306 5th Av. 

The gentlemen composing this firm are both natives of this city and were i)orn on the very street where now 
stands the factory they operate. Established in 1876, on a capital of about $4,000, which has since been augmented, 
it may now safely be placed at $12,000. They carry a stock of $9,000 and transact an annual business of from $10,000 to 
$12,000. Their factory is two stories high and 50x100 feet in size, and is divided into four departments, viz.: Wood- 
working, Blacksmithing, Trimming and Painting. Ten hands are employed, with a pay-roll amounting to $110 per 
week. The work turned out embraces Barouches, Doctors Phaetons, Jaggers and Buck Wagons, etc. This concern is 
noted for the excellence of their work, employing none but the best mechanics and using only the best material. 
Coach work made to order is one of the specialties of this house. The success attending this establishment is evidence 
of its appreciation by the citizens. Jacob Ruch was born in 1840 and Fred. Ruch in 1838. 

JOHN lSLUS^i:E:R.,-Meat Market, 127 Beaver Av., Allegheny. 

This is one of the old established and successful business houses of the city, having been established more than 
forty years ago by the present proprietor. Mr, Mussler is a native of Germany, but he has resided in Allegheny since 
1837, and been engaged in his present line of business since 1839. His extensive establishment is located at No. 127 
Beaver avenue, and consists of a three-story brick building 20x55, occupied as a meat market with three smaller build- 
ings in the rear. He is assisted by his son and does his own .slaughtering ; customers may be assured of procuring at 
all times the choicest and freshest meats in the market. Beef, pork, mutton, lamb, veal, &c., replenished daily and 
all kinds of pickled and smoked meats, sausages, &c. ; his annual sales will reach at least $15,000. Mr. Mussler's estab- 
lishment is desirably located and his surroundings are such that he enjoys the patronage of many of the principal 
families of the city. 

J AS. W. I^'RAJP^,— Auctioneer, Real Estate and Insurance, 7 J2 Federal St., Allegheny. 

This well-known knight of the hammer and master of "going going, gone !" began business in 1872, and has con- 
ducted it with marked success. The business transacted ranges from $150,000 to $200,000 yearly, with gradual increase. 
The business of such a man is multifarious, special attention being given to buying and selling Stocks, and ne- 
gotiating Mortgages, and acts as Notary Public, House Agent, Appraiser, Broker, etc. Mr. Drape employs three 
hands. His business is chiefly in Allegheny County, hut extends on occasions into various parts of Ohio. He was 
l)orn in Scotland in 1837 and came to this city in 1866. He began in Pittsburgh in 1868 a general jobbing business in 
nails, hardware, etc., and in this line did a very large business. He is enterprising and has a great personal and pro- 
fessional popularity. 

W. W. HECHELMAN, M. I},-65 Madison Av., Cor. Washington St., Allegheny. 

This well-known Physician and Surgeon commenced his professional career in Allegheny City in 1871. He gradu- 
ated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1R69, and also resided as a medical student for sometime at Munich, 
Germany, and graduated in 1870 at that jilace. In the Franco-Prussian War he was engaged as surgeon and profited 
greatly in a professional way by the opportunities afforded him. Dr. Hechelman gives special attention to diseases of 
the eye and ear. His treatment of such cases is said to be eminently successful. For the treatment of these delicate 
organs he has the latest and most improved instruments. The doctor has a large and growing practice in Allegheny 
City, Pittsburgh, Birmingham and througliout the county generally. He was born in Germany in 1848, and came to 
this citv in 1S60, and is an honor to the profession. 

is) 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 91 



E. & G. H. ZACHARIAS,-^/;§-ar Manufacturers, 723 Perm Av. 

Among the proiuinent houses engaged in the manufacture of Hgars in this city, we would make mention of E. & 
G. H. Zacliai'ias, proprietors of factory No. 118, located at No. 723 Peiin avenue, and also proprietors of the cigar store 
on Sinithfield street in the Central Hotel building. This house was established in 1862 by the present proprietors, at 
first in a small way as a retail cigar store, but their business rapidly increased and they engaged in the manufacture of 
cigars, which they now carry on extensively, employing a number of hands, making both hand and mould work, rang- 
ing in price from'^l.T to $70 per thousand. The celebrated " Champion " brand is their specialty, it is a five cent cigar 
whicli meets witli popular favor. Their factory on Penn avenue is a three-story brick structure 14xG0 feet in .size. 
Their Smitlifield street establisliment under the Central Hotel is tilled with a choice slock of foreign and domestic ci- 
gars and manufactured tobacco of the finest brands. Their business at both places is both wholesale and retail, carry- 
ing an average stock of about 60,000 cigars, principally of their own manufacture with trade all over this and other 
Statrs. Mr. E. Zacharias has charge of the factory and store at 723 Penn avenue, from which the wliolesale and retail 
trade is principally supplied ; Mr. G. H. Zacharias attends to the management of the Smithfield street establishment. 
Botli brothers are natives of Maryland, but have resided in Pittsburgh for over twenty years. 

A. ANDRIESSEN ,— Z?^^/^r in Wines and Liquors, 178 Federal St., Allegheny. 

Was formerly engaged in business at Nos. 40 and 42 Ohio street, and removed to his present place of business in 
the new and elegant buildings adjoining the Franklin Savings Bank. Was born at Detroit, Mich, in 1849, and came 
to Alleglieny in 1872. He keeps constantly on hand a choice assortment of foreign and domestic wines and liquors, 
and is also a large and extensive dealer in the far famed wines and brandies of California, the " Golden State." Start- 
ing in business with the limited capital of §4,000, he has increased it to about S8,000. His stock of liquors amounts to 
$10,000, and his sales foot up annually to $20,000. Parties in want of good pure liquors for medical or other use can be 
suited, both as regards price and quality, by calling on him. All brands of pure, unadulterated Manongahela Eye 
Whiskey, from one to ten years old, are kept constantly on hand, and warranted superior to any in the city. Remem- 
ber No. 173 Federal street, Allegheny, Pa. 

F. TIC'H.T'B'L -Grocer, 75 Carson St. 

Mr. Fichtel, who established his present business in 1877, is among the best known dealers in Groceries on the 
South Side. His stock, which amounts to $15,000, comprises everything usually found in a first-class establishment of 
the kind. The store, which is 32x60 feet in size, is one of the most commodious business structures in that sectioii of 
the city. The annual sales amount to $20,000 and are steadily increasing. The success that has attended this gentle- 
man since he has been engaged in his present business is an evidence tiiat his establishment will always be ranked 
among the leading concerns of the kind in the city. 

WM. A. Sm'LI'NG.-Bufcher, HI Beaver Av. 

The business now conducted by Mr. Seiling was originally established by Mr. Hugh Murphy. Mr. Seiling became 
proprietor in 1877, and under his management the business has steadily increased. He occupies the two-story brick 
building, 18x40, at No. 141 Beaver avenue, with a stock averaging in value about $300, and transacts a yearly business 
of not less than $8,000. He keeps a choice variety of fresh Meats, Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb, Mutton, &c., and all kinds 
of smoked and pickled meats for family use. His prices are as low as the lowest. Mr. Seiling was born in Allegheny 
City, where he has a large and extensive acquaintance. 

T. B. STEWART & SO'N,- Dealers in Coal, cor. 43d St. & A. V. R. R. 

The office and yards of this firm are located at the corner of 43rd st. and A. V. R. R., where the business was 
started by Mr. Stewart 22 years ago. They have two large coal yards, with convenient sidings and tracks, one being 
70x150 feet, and the other 50.xl60 feet, from which the very superior coal of the N. Y. & Cleveland Gas and Coke 
Co. is delivered to their customers. They are now delivering from 30,000 to 40,000 bushels of Coal per month, 
mainly to private families. Mr. Stewart was born in Pittsburgh, in 1824, and has lived there ever since. He learned 
the carpenter trade, working at it for a muuber of years, afterwards engaging in his present business. Mr. Stewart 
has been connected with the public affairs of his ward for many years, and is prominently identified with the public 
schools, being still a member of the school board of his ward. 

JOSEPH 'Dl'EBO'LD,— Groceries & Provisions, Cor. 11 th and Bradford Sts. 

This is one of the oldest Grocery stores in this part of the city, having been originally started by ^fr. John Trig- 
esser about 30 years ago. In 1870 it came into the hands of Mr. Diebold, and by his excellent bu-^iness manage- 
ment has worked up an established trade that will compare well with similar stores in this part of the city. He keeps 
a general assortment of first-class Groceries and Provisions, such as are demanded by every home, and sells at very 
low figures. He occupies a two-story brick structure, 40x40 feet in size, and gives his personal attention to the busi- 
ness assisted by members of his own" family. He was born in this city in 1839, and is at present a member of the Coun- 
cil from the 29th Ward. Occupying a prominent position, he wields a sttong influence in his section of the city. 

J. S. HOUjINGER— Merchants' Dining Rooms, 46 South Diamond St., Allegheny. 

This excellent caterer and enterprising man of business opened his rooms in 1876 and since that time has fur- 
nished thousands of "square" meals in the highest style of modern cookery, at the most reasonable rates. His rooms 
are models of taste and cleanliness and nothing is wanting on his tables to satisfy the most fastidious epicure. Mr. Hol- 
linger occupies a building adapted to his business in all respects, and the stand being in the Diamond is most eligible. 
His building is 20x45 feet. He employs eight as.sistants, supplying the choicest delicacies of the season. Mr. Hollin- 
ger was born in Fayette County, Pa., in 1833 and came to this city in 1836. He is a man of worth and respectability. 

JAMES HJJSSm'L'Ly-Boots and Shoes, No. 92 Federal St.. Allegheny. 

This enterprising shoe dealer succeeded the firm of Russel & Kahn in 1869 with a large capital. The amount of his 
present stock may be placed at $25,000, and his annual sales do not fail short of $35,000. These figures will serve to 
show the extent of the trade, which is both wholesale and retail. Five salesmen are employed, with a weekly pay-roll 
of $40. The trade embraces both cities, countyTind adjacent regions. Mr. Russell was born in Philadelphia in 1828 and 
came to this city in 1854. He began business here in 1870 with his son-in-law, Mr. Kahn, who died in 1877. Mr. 
Russell is an excellent man of business, intelligent and enterprising. 

(/) _^ 



92 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THIRD NATIONAL BANK,-/1^05. 146 d 148 Wood St. 

Justly ranked among the most solid fiduciary institutions of Pittsburgh, the Third National Bank takes a promi- 
nent phice, and exerts an active influence upon the financial condition of this community. This bank was organized 
in 186-1, with a capital of S300,000, whit'h has subsequently increased to 8500,000 as at present. The management from its 
inception has undergone but comparatively few changes. The President, W. E. Schmertz, Esq., has tilled that posi- 
tion with distinction for about 14 years. Mr. Wm. Steinmeyer has occupied the office of Cashier for more than eiglit 
years, and though the board of directors, from death and other causes, has been subject to the greatest mutations, yet 
the policy upon which the institution was first conducted, has never changed, and its wisdom has been amply demon- 
strated by a success that is remarkable even among the successful. As an evidence of this it is but necessary to slate 
that the profits of the bank, as paid to stockholders in dividends, amount to nearly fSOO,000 in all since its establish- 
ment, leaving a present surplus of $145,000. The directors, of which the following is a list, are more than usually 
prominent in their various vocations or professions, and represent not only a vast amount of wealth, but the solid 
and conservative element of the community : W. E. Schmertz, Chas. Meyran, Geo. D. McGrew, Henry Dallmeyer, 
Peter Keil, Chas. F. Wells, JnQ. Daub, A. C. Draro, and Jno. M. Kennedy. With such a management the Third Na- 
tional Bank is a favorite institution, and while achieving success in all legitimate banking operations, has at the same 
time retained the respect and consideration of the community. 

UNION NATIONAL BANK -^or. 4th Av. & Market St. 

The success that has attended the career of this well known financial institution has been a matter of frequent re- 
mark and in reviewing the monetary organizations in this city, a rank must be accorded it among the first cotempora- 
neous concerns in Pittsburgh. The Union National Bank commenced business under the National Bank act of the 
general government, Febrdary 1st, 1865, with a capital of $250,000, and its surplus at tlie present time is over $200,000, 
and undivided profits $35,558 : a pretty healthy commentary upon the ability with which the institution is managed 
and the acumen that directs its affairs. Mr. John B. McCune, a gentleman whose active interest in every measure 
promotive of the general good, has been displayed on many occasions, occupies the position of chief executive officer of 
the bank, and Mr. B. S. Smith, assisted by C. F. Dean, performs the duties of cashier with tact and discrimination. 
The busine.ss of the Union National Bank is very extensive, the deposits averaging considerably over half a million 
dollars, the loans and discounts at the last statement being $712,727. General banking operations are transacted, col- 
lections made on all points and exchanges effected in Europe or the East. Conducted upon a policy that involves the 
highest commercial code, the Union National Bank is justly entitled to a prosperity achieved, while conserving at the 
same time the public confidence, esteem and consideration. 

PH. HAMBURGER,-/?;/^ and Bourbon Whiskies, 29 & SO Diamond Square, 

Mr. Hamburger commenced busine.ss in 1870, with a comparatively small capital, which has since increased about 
600 per cent. He occupies the entire three-story brick building, fronting on Diamond Square 24 feet, and extending 
back 120 feet, carrying a stock of fine old Monongahela Bye and Bourbon Whiskies, Wines, Liquors, Brandies, Bums, 
Gins, &c., of both foreign and domestic manufacture, valued at not less than $25,000. He transacts a large and con- 
stantly increasing business througliout the two cities. Western Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, amounting 
to $100,000 or $100,2.50 per annum. Mr. Hamburger gives his personal attention to the business and employs five assist- 
ants in the various departments of his establishment. This house is noted for the pure and unadulterated old Whi.s- 
kies always on liand, and the uniform reliability of all goods kept in stock. Mr. Hamburger is a native of Germany, 
but has for many years resided in this city, and been actively engaged in business here. 

R. DIETZ & 'BR.O,-Boot and Shoe Manufacturers, 243 Federal St., Allegheny. 

At 243 Federal street, west side, above the parks, and adjoining Geo. Bitter's, is the boot and shoe store of Messrs. 
E. Dietz & Bro., who were born in Germany, and emigrated to this country and settled in Allegheny in 18G0. Their 
business is carried on in a large three-story brick building, 20x60 feet in size. Messrs. Dietz & Bro. both being first- 
class workmen, they command a large custom trade, and have had a gradual increase in trade. Their stock of fine 
French calf-skin boots cannot be surpassed by any house in the city. They warrant good stock and neat fits, and do 
what they agree. 

A. ARMOR,— Druggist, 57 Taylor Av., Allegheny. 

The establishment of A. Armor is on the corner of Taylor ave. and Monterey street, on the line of the Pleasant 
Valley Passenger Bailway. The building is a large and commodious two-story brick structure. Mr. Armor keeps a 
choice assortment of pure drugs and perfumeries which will be sold at bottom figures. He has increased his business 
largely, now doing a trade of $5,000 per year, with a stock on hand of $4,000. Mr. Armor was born in Guernsey Co., 
Ohio, in 1851, came to Allegheny in 1870, and engaged as clerk with Jos. Park, Esq., until 1873, when he engaged in 
business at 50 Taylor ave., firm of Eamsey & Armor. The firm was dissolved in 1875 by the withdrawal of Mr. Bam- 
sey. In March, 1878, Mr. Armor removed to this present location. 

G. F. 'SA.UER,— Looking Glasses, Picture Frames, etc., 87 Beaver Av., Allegheny. 

Every description of Looking Glasses, from the finest French Plate to the more common and less expensive grades, 
may be fouml in great variety at the establishment of Mr. G. F. Bauer, No 87 Beaver avenue. He also keeps a fine 
assortment of I Uiin and colored Engravings, Lithographs, Chromes and other works of art and manufactures Picture 
and Looking Glass Frames in gilt, walnut or any material desired. He also keeps in stock a full line of frames suitable 
for any kind of picture. The average stock carried by him is valued at about $500. He does a flourishing business, 
which is steadily increasing, and with light expense can offer rare inducements. 

JACOB FTl'EL— Groceries and Provisions, No. 1111 Bradford St. 

The Grocery and Provision business is of interest to every family, and to the citizens of the South Side, we direct 
attention in this work to the House of Mr. Jacob Pfiel at No. 1111 Bradford street. You will find here a desirable 
assortment of Groceries and Provisions, embracing Teas, Coffees, Sugars, Spices, Canned Goods, Soaps, Coal Oil and a 
hundred other articles suited to house and table, and can buy of him on reasonable terms. He occupies a three story 
brick building, 18x30 feet in size, and you will find it a pleasant trading place. lie started in business in 1875 with a 
limited capital, and has met with a very good trade. He was born in Butler Co. Pa., in 1848 and came to this city in 
his youth. 

(«) 



CITY OP PITTSBURGH. 93 



KEVSTOXE AXLE WORKS-Ahlborn & Neckeman. Thirty-third St. 

The importance of a work of tins character can hardly be overrated in its compilation of the business industries of 
this city, especially when we remember that in many obscure streets great manuractones are in operation, turning out 
valualil'e and curious articles of which even our own citizens are entirely ignorant. The manufacture of iron axles for 
buggies, carriages and every description of vehicles is extensively carried on in this city by the firm of Ahlborn &. 
Neckerman at the KeystoneAxle Works on Thirty-third St. In 1864 the members of the firm were engaged in the 
manufacture of tools lor oil wi-lls and in the following year founded the present company with a capital invested of 
824,000. This was the first establishment of its kind started in I'ittsburgh, and ever sinceits inception, its business has 
been such as to fully realize the most sanguine expectations of the tirm. Their factory buildings cover an area of 78xr.;0 
feet and are furnisiied with the most complete and perfect machinery of every description required in this line of busi- 
ness, including a patent taper lathe for turning axles, the invention of Mr. Neckerman, and used by no other establish- 
ment in the world. Twenty skilled hands are constantly employed in the various departments of the business, at a 
monthly expense of about SI, 000, and one tliirty horse-power engine furnishes the motive power Their trade is 
throughout the West, extending to the Pacific Coast with a not inconsiderable demand from many of the Eastern 
States. The articles manufactured are of a superior quality, both as regards material used, style of workmanship and 
finish. The inenihcrs of the firm are thorough practical mechanics, fully conversant witli all the details and require- 
ments of the business in which they are engaged. Mr. A H. Ahlborn and Mr. Neckerman are both natives of Germany 
and have been identified with Pittsburgh, the former since 1832 and Mr. Neckerman since 1840. Mr. Ahlborn in 1842 
and J84:i assisted in the construction of the Vvon Ship, Michigan, the first iron vessel ever built in Pittsburgh. This was 
shipped in pieces to Lake Erie and there put together. Mr. Neckerman held the position of master raeciianic of Alle- 
gheny Arsenal until the formation of the partnership in which he is now interested. Both members of the firm are 
gentlemen of unimpeachable integrity, and stand deservedly high in the esteem and confidence of the community. 
They have both held positions of honor and trust to the entire satisfaction of their constituency, and as members of the 
city government have always been conspicuous in their efforts to develop the resources and increase the prosperity and 
welfare of the municipality. They are both justly entitled to a prominent position among the representative self-made 
men of the L'on City. 

BALSLEY & IaJJTTOTH,- Notions, Druggist Sundries, Field & Parlor Games, 

(tad Children's Carriages, No, I'iS Federal tit., Alle<jlifiiy. 

Perhaps no firm in either city is more entitled to notice in the particular line of their business than the House of 
Messrs. Balsley & Lutton. With an extensive stock embracing all the varieties of Notions and Druggist Sundries, Field 
and Parlor Games, Children's Carriages, besides many other articles in the way of Tiys, Wooden and Wicker ware, and 
all those countless articles included under the nameof Fancy Goods, this firm, as jobbers, can well otter to the tradesuch 
facilities in selection, and advantages in prices as can not be duplicated by any house in the city. The premises 
occupied by the firm at No. 128 Federal St.. are most eligibly located and of sufficient dimensions to accommodate a 
stock ranging from $15,000 to $20,000, and att'urd scope for a rapidly increasing trade, that already extends over a large 
part of I hree States. The building is a substantial three story brick, 20x110 feet, supplied with all the requisite appoint- 
ments for conducting the business, 10 assistants being engaged in the various branches of the wholesale and retail de- 
partments. Of the individual members of the firm, Mr. Chas. C. Balsley is the senior partner, he was born in Pitta- 
burgh in 1836, and has not only been closely identified with the industrial interests of the city, but has acquired an 
experiejice of the most comprehensive character, the benefits of which he is ever ready to place at the disposal of those 
with whom he has relations. Mr. Albert l^utton is also a native of this city, and though 13 years younger than jMr. 
Balsley, has obtained a thorough knowledge of the business, having been engaged in the same, during the past five 
years. The firm was established in 1874, and has achieved an unexpected measure of success, leading to many improve- 
ments and the general extension of its resources, and added capacities for the transaction of a flourishing trade. 
Widely known and respected it is not too much to assert that the house of Balsley & Lutton is not only able to conijieie 
in its line with any cotemporaneous concern in the West, but has a repute for enterprise and probity that makes it a 
most desirable one, with which to establish pleasant and permanent relations. 

E. W. REIXECKE'S EAGLE PHARMACY, 1930 Carson St.. S.S. 

This very competent Druggist has but recently commenced business, but in a way that plainly indicates his in- 
tention of remaining in it. He began with a capital of S2,000 and this was invested in the very best drugs and such as 
were especially adapted to the demands of the trade. His stock at present amounts to $3,000, and this is in constant 
process of prudent enlargement. The building occupied is a three-story brick structure 18x70 feet in size. It is com- 
plete in all details of arrangements, and evinces in every part the taste and culture of the proprietor. The increasing 
business of Mr. Reinecke has rendered necessary an assistant, while the business essential to a Drug Store is most 
carefully attended to. Prescriptions are made a specialty in the fullest sense of that term, besides a great variety of 
articles of taste and luxury, such as toilet articles, etc., are found on the shelves and in the handsome cases of the es- 
tablishment. The business, for the most part, is local, and yet extends even beyond this particular locality. Mr. 
Reinecke was born in this city and has received an education which fits him for the profession he has chosen, being a 
gr.iduate of the class of '77-'78 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. He possesses that thorough knowledge of his busi- 
ness which is .so indispensable to an accurate and reliable druggist. 

SAMUEL MAHOOD,— 7>a.j and Groceries, Collins Av. & Station St., East End. 

Mr. Mahood was formerly a member of the firm of Voigt & Mahood, Wholesale Com. Merchants on Liberty Street, 
Pittsburgh. In January, 1878, he established the " Golden Canister Tea Emporium " at the location above given, where 
he may now be found with a full assortiuent of choice family Groceries, Extra Family Flour, Teas, Sugars, Coffees, 
Spices and in fact every article usually found in a first class metropolitan grocery store. He occupies a store room 
3 '.X.60, employing two assistants, carrying a stock of about S2,000to $3,000 and transacting a flourishing business ot about 
$10,000 to §12, 000 per annum. He numbers among his regular customers many of the first families of the East End. 
Mr. Mahood was born in Ireland in 1839, but has for many years been a resident of Pittsburgh. 

WM. H. STEWART, M. T}.,-Butler St., opp. CemeryGate. 

Dr. Stewart has his oflice on Butler St , opposite the cemetery gate, where he has been in successful practice for a 
considerable time, having removed to that location from Allegheny City, where he had previously been engaged in 
practice. He was born in Alleghany, Co. Md., in 1847 and came to Pittsburgh 10 years ago. lie studied Medicine with 
J)r. O. A. Nicholson of .Mlegheny City and graduated at the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, after which 
lie began practice with his preceptor. Dr. Nicholson, in Allegheny City, removing from there to his present location 
after the death of the latter. The Dr. gained his education and qualified himself for his profession by his own unaided 
effort, lie is a gentleman of the highest standing among the medical fraternity, enjoying the confidence and esteem of 
the public and is building up a prosperous practice. 
{d) 



94 



I^"DJ8T^vIES OF PEXXSYLYAXIA. 



SOUTH PITTSBURGH PLANING MILL CO. 

Cor. Third & Chrstnut Sts., Sout?i Sirle. 

An establishment so extensive and promoting to such a considerable degree the industrial welfare of the commu- 
nity, as that of the South Pittsburs^h Planing Mill Co., is lu'operly a subject for more than passing mention in tliis 
work. Tlie Company was organized in 1S71 by Joseph Orr, and incoporated under the laws of Penn'a with a capital 
of $50,000. The plant is located at the coruor of Third and Chestnut streets, the premises consisting of more than one 
acre, most of which is covered by the buildings, the business being divided into three departnients,"viz : Box factory, 
sash and door factory and lumber yard. The capital stock of the Company is now increased to SS6,000 and the trade 
last year was $60,000 or over. Thirty to forty men are employed by the Company, whose earnings average weekly 
S2T5. Tlie machinery is the best for the purposes and is operated by one eiglity-horse power engine. In the manu- 
facture of flooring, weather-boarding, frames, doors, sash, shutters, mantles, stairs, mouldings and glass boxes this 
Company excel, and also deal in framing lumber, shingles and laths, and execute to order scroll sawing and turning, 
besides dealing generally in lumber of all descriptions. The immediate management of the business rests with A. L. 
Sheatler, President and Treasurer ; James 8haw, Secretary ; a board of six directors exercising a general supervision 
at stated times. Tliat the career of the Comjiany has been eminently successful, is owing in no small degree to the 
ability with which its operative and linancial atlairs are conducted, and the reliable and enterprising policy that char- 
acterizes its ))usiness. The Company is oue of tlie favorite institutions upon the south side. 

BOYLE & CO -Granite and Marble Works, 295 & 297 Penn Av. 

Messrs. Boyle ife Co. are importers and manufacturers of Granite and Marble Work of every description, making 
a specialty of tine Cemetery Work, Monuments, Grave Stones, Tablets, Statuary, &c. The house was founded in 1S72 
by Mr. John Wilkins, Jr., who was succeeded by the present proprietors Jan. 1, 1S78, under whose judicious manage- 
ment the business lias considerably increased. They occupy the spacious and centrally located premises, 45x90, at 
Nos. 295 and 297 Penn avenue, with suitable buildings for manufacturing purposes, sales-room and office, carrying a 
large and judiciously selected stock of manufactured articles and material in tlie rough, consisting of native and for- 
eign granites, marbles, etc., of the various shades and qualities, turning out some elegant specimens of artistic work 
pertaining to this line of business. Seven skilled workmen are regularly employed, their semi-monthly pay-roll ag- 
gregating about S-loO. Their trade, which is principally located in the city and' suburbs, amounts to not less than 
S9,000 per annum, and is steadily increasing. Fine Gi^anite and Marble work is the specialty for which this house is 
noted, although every description of stone work is promptly and carefully supplied for building and other purposes. 
This establishment is fast gaining an enviable reputation for the artistic and elegant workmanship of their various 
products, and for their reasonable charges. Some beautiful specimens of Mr. Boyle's skill are on exhiliition at his 
ware-rooms. Mr. P. Boyle was born in Ireland, in 1835, and has resided in Pittsburgh for the past thirteen or fourteen 
years. He is a practical" stone cutter, and learned his trade in Baltimore, Md. He has worked at it continuously for 
the past twenty years, and is thoroughly conversant with every detail of the business. 

W. G. STAHJL.-Grain and Provision Broker, 293 Liberty St. 

Mr. Stahl commenced business in this city more than two years ago as a Grain and General Provision Broker, con- 
ducting his business in tlie same manner as similar dealers have donesuccessfully in the great grain centres of Cliicago 
Milwaukee and other large cities. His business during that period has steadily increased, and his ventures have been 
universally successful and uniformly acceptal)le to his numerous customers. Some idea of the extent and magnitude 
of his business may be gained from the fact that during the mouth of April, 1879, his books show that in grain alone 
his transactions amounted to the purchase and sale of over one million one hundred and sixty thousand tmshels. He 
also does a large brokerage business in the staudaidand staple articles of provisions of every description. His rela- 
tions and facilities are such that he can purchase or sell any given quantity of grain or provisions at short noiice and 
on the most satisfactory margins. His office is located on the same floor with that of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, and he is all times in direct communication with the Board of Trade, Chambers of Commerce and heaviest 
operators in Milwaukee, Chicago and the great grain centres of the country. His business is principally derived from 
local demands and from parties desirous of speculating in grain and provisions, and exceeds by far that of any other 
similar establishment in the city. Mr. Stahl is an enterprising wide awake and energetic young man, a native of 
Pennsylvania and born in 1850. In the line of business in which he is engaged he stands preeniinently at the headand 
his prospects for the future are most encouraging. 



CENTRAL BANK,-yi^o. 47 Fifth Av. 



Among the many cotempovaneous financial institutions in this city the Central Bank has, since its establishment 
in ISijo, maintained a position of undoubted consideration. Incorporated under the State laws, with a capital of $100,- 
OOO, from its organization Thomas Fawcett, Esq., has filled the position of chief executive officer. This gentleman is 
largely engaged in the coal trade, in connection with the firm of Thos. Fawcett & Sons, and is associated with other 
important enterprises. Mr. Madison Bailey, Vice President, is also extensively interested in the coal business, and is 
of the firm of Whigham, Bailey A Co. March Hunnings, Esq., Cashier, has been connected with the bank from the 
date of its organization, with a prior experience in banking of many years. Messrs. A. Kramer, Teller, and M. Y. 
Robertson, Bookkeeper, are also adepts in their respective departments. The operations of the Bank are mainly in the 
line of general loans, discounts, deposits, exehatige, Ac, and are of consideiable magnitude. The management is 
marked by a safe and conservative policy, which has greatly aided the strength and standing of the institution. Alto- 
gether the Central Bank is conceded to be one of the most desirable monetary concerns in Pittsburgh with which to 
estaldish relations. 



J. SCHNEIDER,-Z?/7 Goods, Gents' Furnishing Goods, &c., 1785 Carson St., S. S. 

Mr. Schneider commenced business with a small capital, but has been so succes.'ful in the pursuit of legitimate 
gain that his stock on hand m^yr amounts to S15,000, and his annual sales range from S25,000 to S35,000. His store con- 
sists of a three-story brick building 20x60 feet, besides a rear building connected with the store, filled with Dry 
Goods, Trimmings, Gents' Furnishing Goods, Ac., in which he enjoys a flourishing trade and general popularity. He 
was born in Germany in 1830, and came to this city in 1864. 



JOHN W. 'K.'EM.JJER.-Watches, Clocks, etc., 1823 Carson St. 

Mr. Kemler, who is located at No. 1823 Carson st., near 19th st., commenced business in 1861, without capital. He 
has succeeded in building up a trade which now reaches about 85,000 per annum, and carries a stock of Watches, 
Clocks, Spectacles, Jewelry and especially Opera Glasses in large variety. His store occupies a building 20x55 feet, 
filled with neat and desirable goods. He was born in Germany, in 1837, and came to this city in 1844. He has long 
represented his ward in the citv council, and has a large influence in that part of the city. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 95 



WASHINGTON BILCK -Mfr. of Glass Moulds, Machinery 

for Pressing and Working Glass, 56, 58 <fc 60 Sixteenth St., South Side. 
Among tlie many ingenious and expert mechanicians that liave foiiiul ample scope for their abilities in tliis city, 
Mr. Wasliington Beck, especially in that particular branch of bis trade which relates to the manufacture of glass moulds 
and presses, luacbinery for pressing and working glass, is said to have no compeer. This reputation has been justly 
earned by twenty years of constant application, labor and invention. The bu.siness having been estaldishcd in 18.59 
ufio" a linjited scale, has increased gradually under the influence of more prosperous conditions to its present n)agni- 
tude. Tlie premises occupied by Mr. Beck at present are certainly in great contrast with the original slioji, and con- 
sist of one large two-story building 60x80 feet, thoroughly equipi>ed with the best machinery known to the trade, 
much of it being entirely new in device and invented by the proprietor to accomplish certain given objects. Hero are 
employed twenty skilled mechanics whose weekly earnings average from $200 to 82.'50 ; a ten-hoise power engine being 
retiuired to supply the motive forc<^. As an illustration of the special character of the bulk of the work it may be 
stated that since Jan. 1, 1879, or within six months, Mr. Beck has been awarded no less than nine patents for machi- 
nery appliances and devices lelating to the improved manipulation and manufacture of glass, and the main part of the 
business consists in a constant succession of new designs and inventions tending to the more perfect and rapid handling 
of this material in all its various forms. Mr. Beck is a native of Pittsburgh and was born on the south side in 18o!). 
The reputation be has established is not confined to this country, but leads to a business in Europe, Canada and 
Japan, wbicli aggregaies from $20,000 to S2."), 000 annually. With the largest establishment of the kind in the Unitivl 
States and facilities that are unapproached anywhere, Mr. Beck's enterprise is universally appreciated by the glass 
trade. 

DELAWARE MUTUAL SAFETY INS. CO. of Philadelphia, 

p. A. Mndcira, Agent, Uranch Office, 08 Fourth Av. 

Tlie Delaware commenced business in 183.5 with a guarantee cai)ital of $100,000, subscription notes, twenty-five per 
cent, paid in in cash. In 1848 the assets of tlie Comjiany amounted to $223,0.5:5.00 ; in 1858 by resolution of the board of 
directors the guarantee capital was discontinued and a cash capital of $300,000 substituted, made up of seventy-five per 
cent, in the scrip of the Company and twenty-five per cent, in cash. In 18.58 the assets of the Company amounted to 
$698,801.70, they are now over $2,000,000. The Delaware is the oldest and most successful Company in America, com- 
bining a cash capital with the mutual jjrinciple whereby the assured participates in the profits, without incurring any 
liability whatever Ijeyond the premium paid. As to the conditions on which scrip is issued refer to published stalc- 
inents of the Coiniiany. In 1844 an agency for the Company was established fn this city, and five years later Mr. P. A. 
i^ladeira became its representative, and for thirty years the relations he then bore to the concern have remained in 
every material jioint unchanged, a circumstance as unusual as it is satisfactory. Tbn Delaware is no fair weather craft, 
calculated to navigate only in calm and placid waters, but has bulfetted the fiery billows for nearly forty-lour years, 
with what success a reference to the present condition of the Company will show. 

J, C. BUFFUM & CO. -Manufacturers and Bottlers, 89 d 41 Market St. 

For more than thirty years the name of Mr. BufTum has been identified in this city with the manufacture of Soda 
Water, Syrups, Root Beer and Ginger Ale, and with the bottling business which has become one of considerable mag- 
nitude and importance. Starting in 1845 witii moderate means the bu.siness of this house has steadily increased until 
at the present time thirty-five to forty hands are employed with a weekly pay-roll aggregating more than $300, and 
nine wagons are engaged in delivering goods to customers in the two cities and to the various railroad dejiots, to supply 
their country customers. An average stock of not less than $30,000 to $40,000 is carried by this firm, and their annual 
s lies will reach $50,000. Messrs. Butfuin & Co. manufacture a superior article of Soda Water and choice fruit syrups 
of every flavor, Weiss Beer, Ginger Ale and Root Beer, and bottle immense quantities of Ale, Cider, Lager Beer, Por- 
ter, &.C., making a specialty of the best grades of Cincinnati and Milwaukee Lager Beer for table and family use. They 
import direct large invoices of the stamlard articles of English and Scotch Ales, Brown Stout and London Porter in 
the wooil and bottle for the trade, hotels and families. Their Weiss Beer has attained a very high reputation and is 
liighly recommended for its superior quality and general excellence. They have one engine and all the necessary 
machinery recjuisite in their extensive estahlisliment, which is located in the spacious double three-story warehouse 
40x100 feet with cellars, at Nos. 39 to 41 Market street. This is one of the oldest, most extensive and best known es- 
tablishments of the kind in the West, and the high estimation in which the house is held has been secured by the 
energy, enterprise and reliability of the firm and the superior quality of all goods manufactured and sold by them. 

SPEER Sc MORGAN,— r/w, d Copperware, etc., 75 Frankstown near Station. 

These gentlemen commenced business on a moderate capital, which their increasing trade has enabled them to 
augment considerably. They carry a full stock of Stoves, Ranges, (irate Fronts and House Furnishing Goods, and 
manufacture Tin, Cojiper and Sheet Iron ware, giving special attention to roofing and spouting ; their annual sales are 
from $3,0tK) to $t,000. The store occupied by them, and well filled with attractive and substantial wares, is 18x.50 feet 
in size. The firm consists of Jolin Spoer and Oliver Morgan, young and energetic merchants. Their business prom- 
ises to take a front rank in tlie East Eml. Both gentlemen are natives of this city, Mr. Speer having been born in 1848 
and Mr. Morgan in 1847. Mr. Speer served with honor throughout the rebellion in the 5th Fenn'a heavy artillery; 
both genlleuien stand deservedly high in the community. 

CRUIKSHANK ^HOS.-Grocers, Cor. Monterey St. and Taylor Av., Allegheny. 

These two young and enterprising merchants opened this establishment early in the present year with from $2,000 
to $2, .500 worth of well selected stock, eml)racing every variety of Groceries, Canned Fruits and Vegetables, and an 
excellent assortment of all articles found in a first-class grocery and produce house. They occupy a well located 
brick building, and employ one hand in addition to their own services, which they give exclusively to the business. 
George L. CruikshanI; was" born in Allegheny, in 1856, and his brother, John F., in 1869. They are both thoroughly 
acquainted with all the details and requirements of the grocery trade, and are both persevering and progressive busi- 
ness men, and do a trade of about $25,000 per annum. They are courteous and polite to everyone, and popular with 
all who have dealings with them. 

MRS. J. A.'R^OTJ}, -Books, Stationery & Fancy Goods, 98 Federal St., Allegheny. 

TMrs. Arnold commenced business, at her present location, in March, I860. She occupies a throe-story brick 
building, 20x60, with a finely selected assortment of Books in great variety. Stationery, Toys and Fancy Articles. 
, Here may be found the most elegant and recherche styles, and large variety for children and grown people. Mrs. 
J Arnold was born in Ireland, Jan. 6, 1827, and has resided in Allegheny City since 1834. 



96 LNDUSTRLES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

CITY INSURANCX: CO. of the City of Pittsburgh -Office. 64 Fourth Av. 

Incorporated April 1870, as a Fire, Mariue and Inland Insurance Company, this institution comitienced business 
December 15, 1870, and through nil tlie commercially disastrous periods since, has continued yearly to augment and 
increase its operations and its usefulness, until it is now regarded as one of the substantial associations of the Iron city. 
Robert J. Anderson, Esij., President, is well known throughout the country as a steel manufacturer of unsurpassed 
energy and public enterprise, whose works in extent and capacity will rank with tlie most extensive in the world. 
Capt. R. J. Grace, the Vice President and General Agent, is known'as an able underwriter ; the Treasurer, Mr. Wilson 
Cunningham, is one of tlie solid men of our city, having been at the head of the glass manufacturing business for a 
number of years, and adds strength and stability to the organization ; and Jolin R. Gloninger, Esq., Secretary ; all 
being well and favorably known to the public. It is in no small degree owing to tlieir exertions that the City Insur- 
ance Company has made so admirable a reputation as a reliable and healthy institution; With a paid up cash capital 
of $100,000 and assets that reach nearly double that sum, the business of the Company has been uniformly prosper- 
ous, doing a moderate agency business with conservatism and prudence, and lias been equally successful in this branch; 
one of the most active and successful agencies being conducted by Messrs. Wm. L. Tete & Co., whose office is located 
at 129 Soutb 4th street, Philadolpliia. Managed by so proficient a corps, to whose prpbity and discernment is added 
the advice of a board of directors, who are eliosen from among the leading citizens in various pursuits, who have made 
its career so brilliant in the past; a more favorable condition of general finance and trade must redound to its benefit 
to a marked degree, and insure a growth and importance commensurate with the ability of its management and liberal 
policy. 

McCORD & CO.~Wholesale & Retail Hats, Gaps, Furs, &c.. 131 Wood St. 

The origin of this house dates back to 1798, when the business was established by Mr. Robert Peeples and con- 
ducted by hiin for about eighteen years, when he withdrew, after a career of 20 years, in favor of McKee & Graham, 
who in turn were succceeded by McLain, King& McCord in 1833. This firm continued for some time, changing finally 
to McCord & King, and at last to the present style and status which lias remained practically unaltered for many 
ye:irs ; the several members of the house being Jolin D., James S., James E. and Andrew McCord. The premises oc- 
cupied are situated as above and consist of one extensive five-story building stocked to the value of $50,000, with every 
variety of Hats, Caps, Furs and Straw Goods, pertaining to a thoroughly managed concern in this line. It is not the 
province of this work to deal in fulsome laudation, but in this case it is sate to assert that while no concern in the 
city occupies a more respectable position, none has been conducted upon a more conservative, safe and honorable pol- 
icy, and this statement is due as much to its predecessors as the present firm. With such characteristics and a career 
extending over four-fifths of a century, it is a natural sequence that the business of the house should be as extensive 
as it is in this respect reaching for its trade not only throughout Penn'a, but the adjacent States, and in every way 
standing at the head of its cotemporaries, both in the advantages offered to buyers and the general range and quality 
of goods. 

DIAMOND NATIONAL BANK -^or. 5th Av. & Liberty St. 

Originally organized as the Diamond Savings Bank in 1870 — the scope and Increasing prosperity of its first years 
led to its re-construction in 1875 as a National Bank, since which time the success of the insf-itution has been so pro- 
liouiieed as to rank it among the first financial concerns in the Iron City. The management is placed in the hands of 
Mr. A. Garrison, of the firm of A. Garrison & Co., as PresidciS*; Wm. M. Hersh, Esq., Vice President, and Mr. John 
H. SouUy, Cashier; with a board of directors composed of men prominent and esteemed in their respective vocations. 
With a capital stock of 1200,000 and deposits to the amount of $327,224.44, loans and discounts $332,470.69, surplus and 
undivided profits $7,310.23, it may readily be seen that the Diamond National Bank is governed by a rigid conserva- 
tive policy — so much so that no customer is allowed to borrow more than $5,000 upon the same endorsements. Under 
tiiese circumstances the bank is regarded upon a par with many of its cotemporaries who perhaps seek to occupy a 
more conspicuous position. 

HENRY jyAVB-Fashiomble Merchant Tailor, Cor. 38th & Butler Sts. 

Mr. Daub began business in 1861 in partnership with Henry Cappel, under the firm name of Daub &. Cappel ; at 
that time they were located at No. 185 Smithfield street. In 1805 Mr. Cappel retired from the firm and the business 
was continued by Mr. Daub until 1871, when he removed to the large three-story brick building on the corner of 38th 
and Butler streets ; he carries $4,500 worth of stock and does a local business of about $12,000, in good times more. Mr. 
D.iub was born in Germany in the year 1830, came to the United States in 1849. He has figured considerably in the 
local politics of the city — lie was a member of the City Council in 18G8-9, was also a member of the School Board at the 
same time and still is, from the loth ward. Mr. Daub is and has been for several years a Director of the Metropolitan 
National Bank of the 17th Ward ; is President of the Enterprise Insurance Company of this city. 

JOHN H. "DJlhlX -Groceries & Flour, 91 Rebecca St., Allegheny. 

Desirably located in a populous section of the beautiful city of Allegheny, the Grocery, Flour and Produce House 
of Mr. .Tohii H. Dean is worthy of notice in a work devoted to the business interests of the two cities. This house was 
established in 1874 by the present proprietor with moderate means and in a comparatively small way, but during the 
p ist five years liis trade has steadily increased and he now transacts an annual business "of not less than $30,000. He 
occupies the two-story brick building 18x45 at No. 91 Rebecca street, carrying a stock of about $3,500 comprising a full 
line <)f choice family groceries, fruits, sugars, coffees, teas, spices and extra brands of fiour. Mr. Dean gives hispersonal 
attention to the business and employs two assistants. His trade is of the better class and is steadily increasing from 
year to year. Mr. Dean is a nativi of Pittsburgh, and was born in 1853. He is an energetic and reliable business man 
thoroughly conversant wit.li the business in which he is engaged. 

ELWOOD & McCRACKEN,-^ra>? Merchants, 365 Liberty St. 

The firm of El wood & McCracken have a standing in the grain and feed trade and extensive business that gives them 
a prominence entitled to due consideration. Established with a fair capital by R. D. Elwoodaud B. McCracken under 
the above style, in 1873, the firm with a comprehensive knowledge and experience in the business, devoted itself par- 
ticularly to handling Hour, feed, grain, seeds and wool, making a specialty of rye. Their excellent business capacity 
has enabled them to reach the sum of $150,000 annually. The business premises are capacious and consist of one large 
three-story brick edifice 25x110 feet. Mr. Elwood is a Pennsylvanian, and came to Pittsburgh in 1872; Mr. McCracken 
has been a resident of this city for 20 years, and l)Oth liave had art active and successful career. Referring to the Second 
National Bank, and Allen, Kirkpatrick & Co., this city, and James Steel & Co., Philadelphia, the firm is esteemed for 
its thorough reliability. 

(a) 



CITY OP PITTSBUEGH. 97 



A. & T. M.'K.H'N'NA-Brass Founders, No. 122 Third Ave. 

Every description of fine Brass-work is manufactured by this well known house, which was established in 1856, by A. 
& J. M'Kenna, who were succeeded in 1875 by the present proprietors. The capital invested in the business is 818,000 and 
their annual sales reach about 835,000. They occupy three floors, each 30x85, at 122 Third Ave., and their business is 
confined exclusively to brass work, of which they manufacture and carry in stock a large assortment, consisting in part 
of Ale and Beer Cocks, Foot Rails, Counter Rails, Back Rails, Window Guards, Door Pulls, &c. They are also exclusive 
manufacturers of M'Kenua's Patent Combination Pump and Ventilating Faucet for drawing and preserving Ale and 
Beer. These articles are made with great care and specially adapted for the Saloon and Liquor trade. This Faucet 
was patented by Mr. M'Kenna, and is no longer an experiment, as over seven thousand are now in use all over the 
United States, and in every instance they give perfect satisfaction. This firm also make a specialty of fitting up Show 
Windows with movable and stationary Rails, Brackets, &c., such as are used by Tailors, Furnishing stores. Millineries, 
Hatters and Variety stores. They employ fifteen skilled workmen in their manufacturing department, with a weekly 
pay roll amounting to about $200. One eight horse-power Engine furnishes the motive power for their machinery, 
which is of the best and most approved pattern. The trade of this house is in more than thirty states, and the superior 
quality of their goods have given them a national reputation. They sell more goods at present in St. Louis than in 
any other city. Mr. A. M'Kenna was born in Ireland in 1832, but he has resided iu Pittsburgh since he was two years 
of age. Mr. 1". M'Kenna is a native and lifelong resident of Pittsburgh, where he was born in 1836. 

C. p. CAMB'BELL—lf^surance Agent, No. 46 Wood St. 

Mr. Campbell has been engaged in the Insurance business in Pittsburgh since 1875, and now represents some of the 
leading Companies of Europe and America, among which we may mention The North German of Hamburgh, Germany, 
with a capital of $1,125,000. The New York City of New York, cash capital 1300,000. The Clinton of New York, cash 
capital $250,000. The Trade of New Jersey, capital $200,000. The Merchants, and Mechanics of Virginia, capital 
$250,000, and others equally reliable. His business, which is principally in Pittsburgh and Allegheny, amounts to 
about $22,000 per annum in premiums. Mr. Campbell was born in Pittsburgh in 1852, and is a lifelong resident of the 
city. His business will compare favorably with that of any other agent in the city. 

H. HOLTZMAX, (formerly Holtzman & Wiederhold,) Practical Decorotive upholsterer, 74 Wood St. 

The reputation of Mr. Holtzman, as a practical Upholsterer, during twenty years experience in Pittsburgh, has be- 
come so well established, that it would be a work of supererogation to comment upon it, in a work of this description. 
The house of Holtzman and Wiederhold was established in 1859, and for twenty years it has sustained the reputation of 
being the leading Upholstery Establishment of Pittsburgh. In January 1879, Mr. Wiederhold retired from the firm, 
and the business is now conducted by Mr. Holtzman, who occupies four floors of the building. No. 74 Wood St., each 
14x55, carrying a stock of about $8,000, comprising every description of Window Decorations, Lace Curtains and Lam- 
brequins, Cornices and Cornice Poles of the Queen Anne and Eastlake Styles, and new and elegant designs in Walnut, 
Ebony, Ash, Gilt and Brass, Spring Beds and Mattresses of all kinds. Comforts, Pillows, &c. He pays special attention 
to fitting and putting down carpets, cleansing lace curtains, &c. His yearly trade amounts to about $30,000 to $50,000, 
and he gives employment to fourteen hands in his two departments of Upholstery, Cornice and Drapery rooms, which 
latter department is the specialty of this house. Mr. Holtzman was born in Alsace, then a portion of France, in 1835. 
He came to this country in 1855, and to Pittsburgh the same year, where he has since resided. 

JOHN* THOMA -Leather and Shoe Findings, 74 Smithfield St. 

The trade in Leather and Shoe Findings, and the manufacture of Boot, Shoe and Gaiter Uppers is carried on to a 
considerable extent in Pittsburgh, and forms no inconsiderable item of her annual trade and commerce. One of the 
principal merchants engaged in this line of business, is Mr. John Thoma, who occupies three floors of the building, 
20x55 feet, situated at 74 Smithfield St., giving steady employment to two experienced hands, and carrying an average 
stock amounting in value to about $10,000, Mr. Thoma was born in Germany in 1825. He arrived in America in the 
year 1852 and located in Pittsburgh in 1855. In 1865 he commenced business for himself and now transacts an annual 
business of $18,000 to $20,000, which compares favorably with that of any similar establishment in the Iron City. His 
trade is principally local, and the manufacture of Uppers is one of the specialties of this House. 

SNIVELY & RA'DCUTT'E.-Wall Paper, 173 Smithfield Street. 

One of the leading houses engaged in the Wall Paper business in Pittsburgh is that of Snively and Radcliffe, whole- 
sale and retail dealers in Wall Paper, Window Shades, Shade Cloth, Oil Cloths, Ac, at No. 173 Smithfield street. This 
house was established in 1876, by the present proprietors, Mr. John S. Snively and Mr. Wm. Radcliffe, both natives of 
Allegheny county and residents of Pittsburgh since childhood. They carry a stock of goods pertaining to their line 
valued at about $6,000, and transact a yearly business, principally of a local nature, amounting to about $15,000. The 
size of their salesroom Is 19x60 feet, and the specialty of this house is Wall Paper, of which they keep aiull line of all 
the latest styles and most desirable patterns. 

A. A. HUTCHINSON & BRO.-^oj/ and Coke, No. 94 Fifth Avenue. 

The superiority of the celebrated Connellsville Coke, for foundries, blast furnaces, breweries and other large manu- 
facturing establishments, is well known in almost every section of the United States, and the manufacture and ship- 
ment of the same constitutes a very important item of the business interests of the Smoky City. One of the largest 
concerns engaged in this branch of business is that of A. A. Hutchinson & Bro., the members of the firm being Messrs. 
A. A. & T. B. Hutchinson. The firm was established by its present members in 1872, and their office is now located at 
No. 94 Fifth Av. They are very extensively engaged in the mining of the well known Connellsville Coal and the manu- 
facture of a superior article of Coke therefrom, for which they were awarded a diploma and medal at the late Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia. Their mines, which are known as the "Globe" and "Standard" Mines, are located in the 
line of theMt. Pleasant R. R., near Broadford, Fayette co., Pennsylvania, one tract measuring one hundred and seventy- 
five acres, and another one hundred and fifty acres, from which a very superior article of coal is obtained, capacity 
350 tons Coke per day. They employ at their mines two hundred hands and their monthly pay-roll aggregates about 
$8,000. The demand for their Coke is principally west and in the various manufacturing towns and cities on the Ohio 
River, although they ship to all parts of the United States, both East and West, from the cities of the Seaboard to Salt 
Lake City. The amount of capital invested by this^irm is over $150,000 and their annual trade varies from $150,000 to 
$200,000. Mr. A. A. Hutchinson was born in Ireland in 1844, and Mr. T. B. Hutchinson two years later. They 
arrived in this country in 1850 and came to Pittsburgh the same year and have resided in the city ever since. 

1 (7) 



98 ENDUSTRIES OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

JAMES MILLIKEN & CO -Furniture, No. 89 Smith field St. 

So much pride is now taken in the ornamentation of our homes, that Fine Furniture has become an indispensable 
article to all who desire to keep up with the progressive spirit of the ago. 

Prominent among the business houses of the Iron City engaged in this line of trade is that of James Millikcn & Co., 
at No. 89 Sniithfield Street, (Howard Block). This firm was established in 1875 by the present proprietors, Messrs. James 
and A. Millikin. Both gentlemen are natives of Ireland. The senior partner came to the United States in 1856 and set- 
tled in Pittsburgh, and the junior member of the firm ten years later. They occupy four stories and the basement 18 by 
60, and their large and elegant stock is selected with great care, — beauty of design, durability and general excellence 
being the desideratum always in view. The members of the firm give their personal attention to the business, and 
three assistants are required in their sales department. This business, which is that of general Furniture dealers, is 
largely local, although they have quite an extensive trade in Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia. 
Notwithstanding the general depression in business and the unprecedented competition in their particular line, their 
sales during the past year have been large, and all the indications for the future are very flattering. 

M. W. 'RK'N'KTN— Wholesale Grocer & Commission Merchant, No. 10 Smifhfield St. 

Mr. Rankin, who occupies the four-story warehouse 21x76, at No. 10 Smithfield street, (opposite the Monongahela 
House,) is a native of Ohio, having been born in the "Buckeye State" in 1826. He came to Pittsburgh in 1845, and ten 
years later founded the business in which he is now engaged. He carries a stock ranging from $12,000 to $15,000, and 
transacts a yearlj' business of from $75,000 to $100,000, employing four hands. His trade is principally in Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania, and in addition to the line of goods directly pertaining to the Grocery business, he deals extensively in Provi- 
sions, Cheese, Carbon and Lard Oils, etc., etc. 



W. J. CASHHir, -Groceries, Provisions, &c., No. 25 Smithfield St. 

There are in Pittsburgh a large number of business houses, whose principal trade is connected with tne River in- 
terests, furnishing supplies to the vast fleet of steamboats, which make Pittsburgh their headquarters. Prominent 
among the establishments making this branch of trade a specialty, is the house of Mr. W. J. Caskey, located at No. 25 
Smithfield street, in convenient proximity to the Monongahela Wharf, which is the general rendezvous of steamboat 
and river men. 

Mr. Caskey was born in Pittsburgh in 1843, and having always resided here, has a very large acquaintance among 
the business men of his native city. In 1874 he commenced business for himself, and his career since that time has been 
marked by a degree of success which has been truly encouraging. He occupies three entire floors of the spacious ware- 
house, 20x85 feet, at the number above mentioned, where with a stock averaging from $8,000 to $10,000, his annual sales 
reach from $40,000 to $50,000. Mr. Caskey employs four assistants, and his local trade, in addition to that derived from 
the River, is large and steadily increasing. 

MELLOR & HENRICKS,-A'^«05 and Organs, No. 79 Fifth Avenue. 

For nearly half a century the name of "Mellor" has been familiar to the musical portion of the community of this 
section of the country, for in 1831 Mr. John H. Mellor established himself in the Smoky City as a dealer in Pianos and 
Musical ISIerchandise, since which time the business has continued in tlie family name with but few variations in the 
style of the firm. In 1878 Mr. Charles C. Mellor, at that time sole proprietor of the establishment, disposed ot his inter- 
est in the sheet music and smaller instrument department to Mr. Geo. Kappel, and associated with himself Mr. J. R. 
Henricks for the purpose of dealing exclusively in Pianos and Organs. 

These gentlemen occupy four floors of the elegant warehouse 60x240 feet, at No. 79 Fifth Avenue, carrying a stock 
of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty Pianos and Organs, employing seven assistants at this point and having 
agencies all through the country. Their annual business amounts to more than $100,000, which is not confined to any 
particular section, although largely distributed through Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. The line of instruments prin- 
cipally represented by this firm are the celebrated Weber and Hazelton Pianos and the Mason & Hamlin, and Palace 
Organs, although in their extensive stock may be found instruments of almost every manufacture known. Mr. C. C. 
Mellor was born in Pittsburgh in 1836 and has since his youthful days been identified with the music trade of his native 
city. Both members of the firm are gentlemen thoroughly conversant with the business in which they" are engaged, and 
all "representations made by either may be implicitly relied upon. 

LANGENHEIM &; SHEP ARD -f /^wr & Groceries, 52 & 54 Seventh Ave. 

This house was established fifteen years ago by Schomaker & Langenheim, who were succeeded by the present firm 
in 1877. Mr. G Langenheim was born in Germany in 1834 and has been a resident of Pittsburgh for the past twenty- 
four years. Mr. Otis Sbepard, his partner, is a native of Pittsburgh, where he was born in 1835. He is a lifelong resi- 
dent of the Iron City. They occupy the large double warehouse at Nos. 52 & 54 Seventh ave., caiTying a stock of $40,000 
to $65,000. Their trade, which is principally in the states of Pennsylvania and Ohio, amounts from about half a million 
to a million dollars annually and compares favorably with that of any other house engaged in the same line of business 
West of the Mountains. They handle immense quantities of Flour and a general line of Groceries, Provisions, &c. This 
is one of the representative business houses of Pittsburgh in point of size, amount of business transacted, mercantile 
integrity and unquestioned reliability. 

WOLFF, LANE & CO -Hardware and Cutlery, No. 50 Wood St. 

Conspicuous among the representative business houses of Pittsburgh, that of Wolfi", Lane & Co., importers and deal- 
ers in every description of Hardware and Cutlery, may be mentioned. This house was founded in 1836 as Whitmore & 
Wolflf. It subsequently became Whitmore, Wolft', Lane & Co., and in 1877 the present firm succeded, the individual 
members of which are, C. H. AVolfl", Thos. H. Lane, John D. Cherry, G. M. T. Taylor and Horace G. Darsie. They 
occupy the spacious ware-rooms at No. 50 Wood St., 20x120 feet, the entire four floors and basement, being filled with 
every variety of Goods pertaining to this line of business. These ware-rooms are undoubtedly the best arranged and 
most completely fitted up of any in the United States, for conveniently carrying on such an extensive business. Their 
trade, which extends throughout the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Virginia, amounts in round 
numbers to not less than $200,000 per annum. In addition to the members of the firm, who give their personal atten- 
tion to the business, twelve salesmen and clerks are employed, and the business of the house will compare favorably 
with that of any similar establishment in the West. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 99 



ALPH. J. POTZER,— //af5. Caps & Furnishing Goods, 884 Liberty St. 

Mr. Potzer was born in Salem, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in 1847, but has been a resident of Pittsburgh 
since 1852. The present establishment was started by him in 1877. He occupies the store No. 334 Liberty Street, 20x60, 
with a stock of goods valued at about $6,000, consisting of Hats, Caps and Gent's Furnishing Goods in great variety. 
His sales, which amount to from 18,000 to $10,000 per year, are principally to residents of the Smoky City and customers 
living along the line of the Pennsylvania Pailroad. Mr. Potzer has a complete and well selected assortment of all arti- 
cles pertaining to gentlemen's head wear, and furnishing goods, and his prices are uniformly low. 

J. FULLERTON & ^OlSl^-Tobacco and Cigars, No. 882 Liberty St. 

This house, which was established in 1837 by Mr. Fullerton senior, is the oldest in the city with but a single exception, 
engaged in this line of trade. Mr. John Fullerton was born in Ireland in 1810, and came to the United States in 1823, 
settling in Pittsburgh the same year. In 1837 he established the business of manufacturer and dealer in Cigars, which 
was continued under his name until 1870, when by the admission of his son, Mr. W. W. Fullerton, as a partner, the 
firm name became as above. Mr. Fullerton junior, was born in Pittsburgh in 1845, and has since resided in the city. 
They occupy the large and spacious ware rooms, 20x65, at No. 332 Liberty street, where they carry on a jobbing trade 
in all varieties of manufactured Tobacco and Cigars, amounting to not less than $100,000 to $125,000 per annum, and 
carrying a stock estimated at about $14,000. Their trade is principally in Pennsylvania and Ohio, although they fre- 
quently fill large orders from other States. They sell a larger quantity of Cigars than any other house in the city,' their 
sales last year exceeding $3,000,000 of the various grades and qualities. Their stock embraces all lines of goods pertain- 
ing to the trade, but the specialty of this house is Cigars, of which they have forty-two brands of their own, which 
have a widespread and well deserved popularity, and are sold in almost every State in the Union. 

THOMAS McANDREW,-Z/i;^ry and Sale Stable. No. 117 Third Ave. 

The premises occupied by Mr. McAndrew at No. 117 Third avenue, opposite St. Charles Hotel, are 20x100 feet in 
size and conveniently arranged for the business in which he is engaged. He commenced at this location during the 
present year, and has already secured a satisfactory business. He now has four fine horses and carriages to hire, and 
will undoubtedly soon largely increase his facilities. Mr. McAndrew was born in Ireland in 1834, came to the United 
States in 1860 and to Pittsburgh in 1865. 

C. HOTING & SONS -Grain, Hay, Straw & Mill Feed, 119 Water St, d 156 First Av. 

The four story warehouse, 20x180 feet, at No 119 Water street and extending through to First avenue, is occupied 
by the above named firm as a Grain, Hay and Feed Store. The house was established in 1875 as Irven and Hoting. In 
1876 the present firm succeeded to the business, which now amounts to about $22,000 per annum. The amount of capi- 
tal invested in the business is $8,000, and they carry a stock of from $1,000 to $1,500, giving employment to three 
assistants. This trade is principally local and along the lines of the B. A O., and the P. V. & C, Railroads. Mr. C. 
Hoting was born in Germany in 1825, he came to the United States in 1850 and settled in Pittsburgh the same year. 
Mr. G. C. Hoting was born in Allegheny City in 1859, and Mr. R. C. Hoting in the same place in 1853. They are active 
and energetic business men and stand well in the mercantile community. 

CUNNINGHAMS & CO, -Pittsburgh City Glass Works, No. 109 Water St. 

With Pittsburgh as the acknowledged Headquarters of the Glass trade of the United States, it is eminently fitting 
that she should also contain within her corporate limits the largest glass manufactory in this country. The Pitts- 
burgh City Glass Works were founded In 1849 by Mr. Cunningham, two other brothers and Mr. George Duncan. In 
1865 the firm became Cunninghams & Ihmsen, and continued under that style until 1878, when it was dissolved by the 
pui'chase of the interest of Dominick Ihmsen by the remaining partners, and the firm name became Cunninghams & Co. 
The business was started in a comparatively small way with but one factory. They now have three extensive factor- 
ies, making these works the largest in the United States. The capital invested by this firm is $2.50,000, and the average 
stock carried by them is from $60,000 to $80,000. Their annual business is correspondingly large. Their w^rks are lo- 
cated on 26th Street, south side, and with all the buildings cover two entire blocks. They have one oflice at the works 
and another at their ware rooms, No. 109 Water street, at their factories they employ from 250 to 300 workmen at a 
weekly expense of about $2,000. Their trade extends all over the United States and' from Canada to Mexico. They 
manufacture all kinds of Glass ware. Window Glass and Bottles. Mr. Wilson Cunningham was born in 1812. Mr. 
Eol>ert Cunningham in 1817 and Mr. D. O. Cunningham, son of the senior member of the firm, in 1834. They are all 
natives of Allegheny county and highly respected as public spirited citizens and reliable energetic business men. 

KAUFMAN, OPPENHEIMER & CO, -Wholesale Clothiers,288 Liberty St. 

As Jobbers and Dealers in Clothing, Piece Goods and Tailors' Trimmings of all descriptions, and Manufacturers, the 
above house is not to be omitted in any just record of the history of the industries of Pittsburgh, and has had no small 
bearing upon the general welfare of the community. 

Established as a retail concern in 1851, under the titleof Klee & Kaufman, in Allegheny, the business was removed to 
Pittsburgh in 1860, and from that period has been devoted exclusively to the wholesale trade. In 1865 Mr. Klee with- 
drew, and Mr. M. Oppenheimer and his brother became partners in this house under the above style, which has not 
been changed, though the junior partner retired some time ago, leaving the "Co." merely nominal. 

From the commencement to the present time success has attended the operations of this concern. Started with a capi- 
tal of the most limited character, the business has constantly increa.sed and the resources augmented proportionately. 

From a comparatively unimportant foundation the business has grown to the dimensions of not less than $250,000 per 
annum and still enlarges. 

The premises occupied by the firm at the present time are of the most ample and complete dimensions, consisting of 
one large foui-story stone front brick building 20x240 feet, running from Liberty through to Penn avenue. This firm 
manufacture all the clothing sold by them. They employ constantly 150 men and women in the manufacturing of 
Men's, Youths' and Boys' Clothing, besides their hands in the store, counting-house and salesrooms. The present part- 
nership has existed 14 years, and prior to that time Mr. Kaufman was connected with Mr. Klee for a like period. 

In all, for 28 years, the senior partner of this house has been identified with the industries, progress and develop- 
ment of this city, adding no little to its reputation as^a cimuneicial centre. 

Not only in Pennsylvania, but in the contiguous States, this house has prosecuted a successful trade, to such a de- 
gree that the establishment is now justly regarded as taking rank among the first of its kind in the community, and is 
well entitled to the consideration in which it is universally held. 



100 INDUSTEIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

J. S. DILWORTH & CQ -Wholesale Grocers, Nos. 130 & 132 Second Ave. 

Among the representative business houses of Pittsburgh the name of Dilworth has for mnny years occupied high 
and honorable positions, and in the wholesale grocery trade the firm of J. S. Dilworth & Co., has for nearly forty years 
been recognized as the leading one of the Iron City. This house was established in 1840 by John S. and Joseph Dil- 
worth, and became as at present in 1847, since which time the business has been conducted under the same name and 
style, although Mr. J. S. Dilworth the founder of tlie house is no longer living. The present partners are VV . P. Dilworth 
(who was born in Pittsburgh in 1844), De Witt Dilworth (born in Pittsburgh in 185.S), and James W. Houston (born in 
Ireland in 1852, but for many years a resident of Pittsburgh). The capital invested in the business is $60,000. The 
amount of stock carried by the firm ranges from $35,000 to $40,000 and their annual sales exceed $550,000. They occupy 
the spacious warehouse, 40x85 feet, three stories and basement, at Nos. 130 & 132 Second avenue, and employ ten sales- 
men and assistants. Their trade, which will compare favorably with any house in the city, is principally within a 
radius of 150 miles of Pittsburgh, in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. While they keep a full line of all arti- 
cles pertaining to the Grocery trade, the specialty of this house is in New Orleans Sugars, Syrups and Molasses. 

VOIGT, MAHOOD & CO,,— Commission and Produce, Merchants, 257 Liberty St. 

As a very important branch of the commercial industries of Pittsburg, the Commission Produce busincsss is enti- 
tled to a large share of consideration, in which connection it would be impossible to overlook the house of "Voigt, 
Mahood & Co., occupying, as it does, perhaps the most conspicuous position of any concern in that line of mercantile 
enterprise. 

Established in 18G1, by L. H. Voigt, Esq., with a capital of but $500, the concern seemed at once to achieve a signal 
success, the business of the first year being over jf40,000, increasing during the latter part of the war to the enormous 
sum of half a million dollars per annum; and, even now, at the reduction in the price of all produce and commodities, 
the business runs up into many thousands annually. 

With so little capital to start upon, the inference is that there must have been some compensating balance for this 
lack in the energy and natural aptitude and capacity of its founder to have produced with such limited means such 
considerable results. Such au assumption does but simple justice to the firm whose relations extend, not alone over the 
entire United States, but include every conceivable line of produce merchandise and Pittsburgh manufactured goods. 

The firm is composed, under the above title, of L. H. Voigt and A. M. Voigt. They occupy as business premises 
No. 257 Liberty street — an ample three-story brick house, 22x110, with basement — employ 10 hands, and one five-horse 
power engine for hoisting. It is regarded as the largest commission house in the city, and has a standing and repute 
commensurate with the extent and solidity of its business. 

PRENTICE & 'H.KC'K.'BTT -Cement, Lime, etc., Nos. 46. 48 & 50 Ninth St. 

The house of Prentice & Hackett was established in 1877 and is the only one in the city importing the genuine 
Portland Cement direct from foreign countries. They are also sole agents for the celebrated Buckeye Cement, and deal 
largely in Rosendale, Louisville and other American Cements, White Lime, Calcined and Land Plaster, White Sand, 
Marble Dust, Whiting, Kalsomine, Sewer Pipe, Stove Pipes, Chimney Tops, Flue Linings, Tena Cotta Ware, Fire 
Brick, Grate Tile, Fire Clay and Fertilizers. They occupy the extensive premises at the number named, employing 
five hands, and transacting a large and flourishing trade in the articles named, extending over Western Pennsylvania, 
Eastern Ohio and Western Virginia. This House, with its large facilities, is always prepared to take large contracts in 
their line. The Lake Erie and Pittsburgh railroad line was furnished by this firm with the hydraulic cement in the ma- 
sonry work of that road. The Government also selected this well-known firm to furnish it with supplies on their work 
in Western Virginia, as did also the Navigation Company. The Westmoreland and Indiana County Works received 
their supplies from this energetic firm. Both members of the firm are natives of the State and have had many years 
practical experience in their business. 

J. P, HTJG'EL'ES— Cigar Manufacturer, No. 27 Fourth Avenue. 

There is a large number of cigar manufacturies in the Smoky City, and the annual production of this class of goods 
constitutes no insignificant item in the general aggregate of her commercial importance. Mr. J. P. Hughes, whose place 
of business is now located at No. 27 Fourth Avenue, is one of the prominent cigar manufacturers and dealers of Pitts- 
burgh, turning out annually about 700,000 of the various brands and grades. Mr. Hughes was born in Pittsburgh in 
1837, is a practical cigar "maker himself, and employs in his establishment six experienced hands regularly, at a 
■weekly expense of about $50. He has been engaged in business in his own name for about six years, and many of the 
brands manufactured by him have acquired a national reputation and well deserved popularity. He occupies as sales- 
room and manufactory the four-story brick building, 25x60, at No. 27 Fourth Avenue, where he carries an average stock 
of from 80,000 to 100,000 cigars of various grades, valued at about $2,000, and transacts an annual business of over $10,000. 
His retail trade is principally local and his wholesale business extends throughout many of the towns of Western Penn- 
sylvania. Among the leading brands mauufactured by Mr. Hughes we may mention "High Life," "Excelsior," 
" Jewel," and " Prefacto. " He is also exclusive proprietor of ten or a dozen other favorite brands, ranging in price from 
$10 to $60 per thousand. The tobaccos used by Mr. Hughes are Kentucky and Ohio for stogies, and for the other brands, 
Havana, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Connecticut. He also keeps constantly on hand a fuU line of manufactured 
Tobacco, SnufFand Smokers' Articles. 

JAMES BO WN & SON -Enterprise Gun Works, 136 and 138 Wood Street. 

For more than thirty years the name of Mr. Bown has been identified with the gun business in the Iron City, the 
Enterprise Gun Works having been established in 1848 by Bown & Tetley. In 1862, Mr. James Bown became sole pro- 
prietor, and in 1871, Mr. Wm. H. Bown, his son, was admitted and the firm name became James Bown & Son, under 
which style it has continued to the present day. They occupy three floors of the large double store, 30x60, at Nos. 136 
and 138 Wood street, employing twenty-six skilled workmen, and their weekly pay-roll amounts to about $275. Their 
stock, which is full and complete in every variety of Guns, Rifles, Revolvers, Fishing Tackle, Sportsmen's Articles in 
General, Razors, Scissors, Pocket and Table Cutlery, is estimated at from $20,000 to $25,000, and their annual trade is now 
about $70,000, extending over the greater portion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. While they 
are large manufacturer.? of Rifles, Rifle-barrels, Shot Guns, etc. , they also deal extensively in the best articles of foreign and 
American make, doing a large wholesale as well as retail business. They carry the finest lines of Cutlery to be found in 
the West, and the motto of the firm for more than a quarter of a century has been "Quick Sales and Small Profits." 

Mr. James Bown was born in England in 1828, and at the age of ten years came to this country with his parents, and 
in 1843 became a resident of Pittsburgh. Mr. Wm. H. Bown was born in the Iron City in 1847 and has never lived in any 
other place. 

Both these gentlemen are thoroughly conversant with every detail of the business in which they are engaged and the 
requirements of the trade in this locality. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 101 



THOS* A. CKTN,— Fine Boots and Shoes, Fifth Avenue and Market Street 

Prominent among the retail houses of the Smoky City, in the Boot and Shoe Line, is that of Thos. A. Cain. It was at 
first founded forty years ago by H. P. Cain, and continued by him twenty-two years. At the expiration of that time he 
was succeeded by T. A. Cain, the present proprietor. The house was originally started in a small way, but through the 
tact and high business qualifications of the founder, as well as his son, the present proprietor, his trade has largely in- 
creased, and he enjoys to-day the patronage of most of the leading families and merchant princes of Pittsburgh, trans- 
acting the largest retail business of any house in this line. Mr. Cain occupies the entire three-story brick building, 18x 
40, at the corner of Fifth Avenue and Market street, employing nine assistants, and carrying the most complete and 
varied stock of fine goods to be found in the city. His trade is largely in the cities of Pittsburgh and Allegheny, but he 
numbers among his regular customers many of the leading citizens of the principal towns within a radius of two hun- 
dred miles. ]\[r. Cain was born in Pittsburgh in October, 1839, and has been a life-long resident of the city, and for 
many years identified with the boot and shoe trade of his native place. 



J. D. SS.A.W— Taxidermist, 285 Penn Avenue. 



The Art of Taxidermy is one that must commend itself to all persons of refinement and culture. As we observe the 
bright-winged inhabitants of the air flitting joyously by, we cannot fail to admire, and admiring, we wish for some 
means to preserve and perpetuate their beauties when Death shall have claimed them for his own and they otherwise 
would have mouldered away into nothingness. Those of our citizens who have visited our Expositions must have been 
attracted by the magnificent collection of birds and animals exhibited by that artist in his profession, Mr. J. D. Shaw. 
Mr. Shaw has been engaged jn business for thirteen years, and at his present location for the past five years. Mr. Shaw 
can stuff anything on sea or land, from the tiny jeweled humming-bird that glances by like a thing of "light, to the pon- 
derous elephant from his native jungles in the East. All are alike to him, and so perfect and life-like are his specimens 
that we almost expect to hear the birds warble their sweetest songs. Mr. Shaw was born in England in 1S27, and came 
to this country in 1852. His trade is scattered all over this section of country. He is the only person exclusively en- 
gaged in this business in the city. Mr. Shaw's work is all done to order. He preserves specimens of the feathered and 
animal tribes in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. He received a silver medal for stuffed birds and animals at the first 
Pittsburgh Industrial Exposition, at present located at 25 8th Street. 

JACOB B. HUBLEY & CO -No. 195 Penn Ave. 

This House is undoubtedly the "Delamonico" of Pittsburgh and was established in the year 1824 by Mr. Rob't. Knox, 
with one barrel of flour given to him by a well-known steamboat man, on condition that said Knox ^lould build an oven 
and furnish for each barrel of flour one barrel of crackers for the use of said steamboat man. The oSer was accepted, and 
from that small beginning has the present well-known house grown. This house was first established on what is now 
known as First Avenue, near Wood Street. In 1831 the store was removed to more spacious rooms on account of increas- 
ing business. The present senior member of the house, Jacob B. Huhley, entered the old house at the age of nine years, 
and was a faithful assistant from 1834 until the death of Rob't. Knox, at which time he took charge of the business in his 
own interest. Alex. F. Hay, a prominent young business man, is the Co. In Dec. 1870, the business still growing and 
a more central location desired, the store was moved to its present place, the Library Hall Building, on Penn Avenue. 
This house is liberally patronized by the elite of the city, on account of its unsurpassed cusine department. This 
spacious establishment is arranged in the most convenient manner, affording ample facilities for conducting business 
in a style and elegance equal to the most refined and modern to be found in this country, and also giving more satisfac- 
tion to the customers of the house. No expense has been spared in fitting up the rooms with rich and costly furniture 
and other appointments, to make the place both elegant and attractive. Their stock has been selected with much care, 
embracing every variety of confectionary and dainties. 

We have also noticed that this house is always prepared to furnish promptly, on short notice, everything necessary 
for Weddings, Parties, Banciuets, etc. Ice Creams and Ices, in exquisitely designed moulds, Jellies and Fancy Cakes, and 
ornamented Pyramids, of different kinds, of the most artistic finish known to the trade. They have superior provision 
made for supplying Breakfast, Dinner and Supper to Ladies, Gentlemen and Families, to order, of everything the mar- 
ket afibrds, in season. Their spacious Dining Parlor has a capacity for seating as high as 150 persons at once. 

This popular establishment employs 20 hands, to assist in transacting the business. The furniture of the rooms i.-^ 
composed of black walnut, ground glass and marble, and the floor is laid in handsome mosaic. 

Mr. Hubly is a native of Pittsburgh and has followed his business for upwards of forty years. 

WALTER E. la.A.OVE.-Gold, Stiver and Nickel Plater, 188 Wood St. 

Mr. Hague was bom in Sheffield, England, in 1841. He came to this country in 1864 and located in Pittsburgh in 
1870, where he succeeded Mr. A. R. Nininger, who had then been engaged in the business for about one year, under the 
name and style of the "Pittsburgh Gold, Silver and Nickel Plating Works." 

This line of business was at that time comparatively in its infancy, but, during the past nine years, Mr. Hague, by 
close attention to business, has succeeded in building up a trade which is second to none in the West. His factory, 
which is located on Virgin Alley, above Wood Street, is 30x120 feet in dimensions, and he gives employment to ten 
workmen, with an average pay roll of about $100 per week. His office is at No. 138 Wood Street, and he does the largest 
jobbing business of any similar establishment outside of New York or Philadelphia. His trade is principally in Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and West Virginia. Mr. Hague is the inventor and originator of a peculiar process of electro-bronzing, 
which is understood by no other parties in the United States. He makes a specialty of Fire Iron Stands of elegant de- 
signs and superior workmanship, besides doing every description of work pertaining to his line. The quality of work 
turned out by Mr. Hague is fullly equal, if not superior to that of any similar concern in this country or Europe. 

FRANK ARMSTRONG,-(?0(7/ Dealer, Cor. Fourth Avenue and Try Street. 

Energy and enterprise characterize the business ot Mr. Frank Armstrong, successor to the Pittsburgh National Coal 
and Coke Co., situated at cor. Fourth Avenue and Try Street. It was commenced by the said comiiany in 1864, and 
passed into the skillful management of Mr. Armstrong in 1876. 

Fifteen men are employed at office and yard and another yard in the Sixteenth Ward requires eighteen to twenty 
men, with a weekly pay roll of 51,500. 

Mr. Armstrong deals in Pan Handle Coal, mined by the Consolidated Coal Mining Company, of Cincinnati, O. He 
also deals in Pittsburgh Coke, and keeps always on^and an abundant supply of Nut Coal and Slack. His yearly sales 
aggregate fully $80,000. 

Mr. Armstrong was born in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, in 1845, and came from thence direct to Pittsburgh in 
1864. As a business man, he is considered among the foremost in our city. In social circles he is universally esteemed. 



102 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



W. H. MIDG'LEY'— Groceries and Confectionery, No. 227 PennAve. 

The building now occupied by Mr. Midgley is one of the old familiar landmarks of the Smoky City, having been 
known as ii Grocery corner for more than tiiirty years. It is located on what has been called the Connolly property for 
nearly half a century, and is familiar to every native Pittsburgher of the last generation. The first grocery store upon 
this site was established about 1840 by Mr. Connolly, who was succeeded by Paul and Gibson, they in turn by Sir. 
Strouse, followed by Midgley and Lesche, the immediate predecessors of the present proprietor. The building now 
standing upon this corner is a four story brick structure, 22x.30, and is occupied by Mr. Mrdgley as a manufactory of 
Confectionery as well as dealer in every variety of fine Groceries, Choice Teas, Sugars, Coffees, &c. Mr. Midgley makes 
a specialty of Elaine, of which he sells large quantities. He employs two assistants and transacts a flourishing business. 
He has also been prominently identified with the oil interests in the oil regions for the past fifteen years. 



E. H. MYERS & CO.-Pork & Beef Packers, Nos. 217 & 21 9 Liberty St, cor. 7th St. 

It is well in recording the various industries of any community to give more than mere passing mention to those 
firms or men in any particular branch of trade who have achieved high positions through the force of native ability, 
unaided either by the capital of others or any influences, save those evoked by their own capacity. Such a firm is that 
of E. H. Myers & Co., the senior partner being a striking exemplification of what ma)' justly be called a self-made 
man. A German by birth and an agriculturalist by occupation in that country, he came to this city without resources, 
at the age of 22, and after working some time at the very modest compensation even in those days, of §10 per month, 
started a small grocerj' store on Wylie St., making this his first mercantile venture, 34 years ago. From its very incep- 
tion succuss seemed to attend his eftbrts, and for nine years he remained in the same location, at the end of that time 
removing to No. 201 Liberty St., where as a wholesale grocer and jobber in Provisions, &c., he continued for five years 
more, annually increasing his capital and enlarging his connections and resources. At the close of this period he pur- 
chased the property at Nos. 217 and 219 Liberty street, and demolishing the old buildings with which it was encum- 
bered, erected the structure now occupied by the House, being a four story edifice 40xS8 feet, thoroughly adapted for 
the business in every way, and one of the most substantial and handsome buildings on this thoroughfare. As a pioneer 
in the meat and provision trade and as one of the first packers in this section of country, Mr. Myers discovered at an 
early date the profit of bringing meats from Chicago ; but not content with this, and perceiving the advantages of tbut 
city as a base of operations in curing, packing and obtaining supplies, he bought three acres contiguous to the Union 
Stock Yards, and at an expense of $103,000 built thereupon one of the most complete packing in houses the United 
States, 144x170 feet, with an L reaching back 194 feet and having a capacity of such extent, as to make the slaughter cf 
2,500 hogs per day of no uncommon occurrence. Besides the building on Liberty street heretofore mentioned, which is 
the center from which all he business is conducted — four other large store houses, situated in convenient parts of the 
city, are used as warehouses for the storage of stock, and are during most seasons of the year taxed to their fullest ca- 
pacity. As Pork and Beef packers and ciirers of choice Sugar Cured Hams, Shoulders, Dried Beef, Breakfast Bacon, as 
well as general dealers in Provisions, Lard, Cheese, Carbon and Lard Oils, etc., E. H. Myers & Co. stand at the head of 
the trade, not only in the magnitude of their transactions, but the excellence of all their products. Twenty men are 
employed by the house in this city; and six spechil agents resident in various trade centers of the country, assist in 
carrying on a business which has reached an average of $700,000 per annum and steadily increasing. Mr. J. Stevenson, 
the Co , has no interest in the business, but retains one-third interest in the real estate situate at 217 & 219 Liberty 
street. This firm is indissolubly connected with the advancement of Pittsburgh and the development of its commer- 
cial and industrial resources. 

A. "W. C ADM AN & CO.— Brass Works d Foundry, Duquesne Way and Sixth St. 

This house was founded in 1860 by Cadman & Crawford, who carried on the business until 1869, when the firm be- 
came S. Cadman & Son, under which style it was continued until 1877, when Mr. A. W. Cadman became sole proprietor. 
The business conducted by this house is that of brass manufactures. Pipe Fitters and dealers in Brass and Iron Fittings 
for Steam, AVater, Gas and Oil, manufacturing and repairing light machinery in brass or iron, and making to order 
castings in Ii-on, Brass, Bronze or Soft Metals. They occupy the large two story brick structure, corner of Duquesne 
Way and Sixth street, 38x125, employing ten hands and using one ten-horse power engine. Their business, which 
extends throughout the country within a circuit of two hundred miles, now amounts to about $20,000 per annum, and 
will compare favorably with any similar establishment in the Smoky city. Mr. Cadman is a native of Pittsburgh, a 
thorough practical mechanic and workman, having followed the business for the past fifteen years. 

KRAMER & SEIFERT,-Cj/5fm, Yeast, Dried Beef, dc, cor. PennAv. & 8th St. 

This well known house was established in 1870, and at that time was devoted exclusively to the introduction of 
Fleishman's Compressed Yeast, at various times since other branches have been added to the trade which now embraces 
Fresh Cut Dried Beef, Oysters (arrow brand), Jellies and canned goods genei'ally. Beginning with limited resources 
and but one horse and wagon, the firm now employ numerous assistants, besides five wagons, which barely suffice to 
supply the 680 retail grocers of the city and environs, who require constant supplies. As a branch of industry the trade 
in fresh cut dried beef has assumed proportions that are increasing daily under the management of this firm, who care- 
fully cure, and prepare it by rejecting all fat, bone or superfluous matter, pack in half pound packages, which, if not 
disposed of by the retailer while fresh are returned, and exchanged for that which is. 

In oysters, canned goods and sardines the business is constantly enlarging, and to those at home or within the range 
of our commerce, who deal in these commodities, this house is cordially recommended. 

AIKEN &. WAUjACH,— Produce Commission Merchants, 185 Liberty St. 

Liberty Street seems to be, at the present time, the general headquarters for the produce business in Pittsburgh, 
and the amount of trade in this line annually transacted upon this thoroughfare, forms a lai'ge and important item of 
the commerce of the Smoky City. Prominent among the business houses engaged in this line of bu.siness, we may men- 
tion that of Messrs. Aiken & Wallace, at No. 185 Liberty Street. The members of this firm are Mr. John Aiken and 
Mr. John Wallace, who have been a.ssociated in business since 1871, under the firm name and style above given. Mr. 
Aiken had, however, been engaged in business for himself for eight years previous to that time. They occupy the large 
three-story brick warehouse, 22x110, at the number named, with basement, and transact a business averaging $75,000 
per annum, giving employment to four assistants, and dealing in every description of Country Produce, making a 
specialty of Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Foreign Fruits, etc. These gentlemen pay particular attention to consignments 
from abroad, and guarantee prompt and satisfactory returns. Mr. Thomas E. Renton is book-keeper for the firm, and 
is a gentleman thoroughly qualified for the position which he occupies. We can vouch for the high reputation and 
unquestionable integrity of this House. 



CITY OF PITTSBUEGH. 103 



WCILER BIL0TII:E'RS -Wholesale Liquors, No. 759 First Ave. 

The wholesale Liquor house of Weiler Brothers was established in 1871 by the present proprietors, with a capital of 
S5,000. They are distillers' agents for Manongahela Rye Whiskies aud importers and dealers in Wines, Gins and Bran- 
dies. They carry a stock of fine goods, valued at from ¥9,000 to $10,000, and tlieir trade, which is distributed through 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, amounts to about $40,000 per annum. They have no particular .specialty, 
except the general excellence and purity of all liquors handled by them. The members of the firm are Mr. E. Weiler, 
who was born in Germany In 1842 and came to the United States in 1855, and Mr. A. Weiler, born in the same place in 
1845 and a resident of the" United States since 1858. The trade of this house is steadily increasing throughout the United 
States. 

W. p. TOWNSEND & CO,-f?ivets and Wire, W and 21 Market St 

The above House was founded in the year 1816 by Eob't. Townsend, father of the present head of the firm. The 
present firm, however, consists of W. P. Townsend and his two sons, Chas. C. and Edward P. Townsend. The business 
was commenced in a very small way and has always been conducted within the family since its foundation, some sixty- 
three years ago. The firm employ thirty hands, with a pay-roll amounting to $2,000 per month. The building consists 
of a wareroom and otflce, being a brick structure three stories high, 40x70 feet. The factory of the firm is located at Falles- 
ton, on Beaver River, and is 50x300 feet, substantially built of brick and stone. The jiiotive power is supplied by tur- 
bine water wheels, with ample steam power that can be substituted in time of low water. The capacity of these works 
is one thousand tons of finished work per annum. The Rivet Department is not suriiassed, nor perhaps equalled, in 
this country. The productions of the House find a ready sale all over the United States. The members of the firm are 
all natives of Pennsylvania. 

PITTSBURGH SHOW CASE CO,-54 Ninth St. 

The office and warerooms of this company are located at No. 54 Ninth Street, and their factory, which is 34x75 feet 
in size, on Grant Street. Their salesroom is"20x.30, and they have a fine stock of elesant German Silver and Walnut 
Show Cases of French Plate and American Glass, at prices ranging from $8 to $50. The members of the companv are 
Mr. T. McNulty and Mr. Wm. Friebertshauser, with a capital invested of about $9,000. Their trade, which is princi- 
pally in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, amounts to about $14,000 per annuTii. The company was founded bv 
Mr. "McNulty in January, 1878. He had lor eight years previously been in charge of one of the largest show case estab- 
lishments in' the city and is a thorough, practical workman in that line of business. Mr. Friebertshauser, who is also a 
practical workman, purchased an interest in the concern in March, 1878, since which time it has been conducted suc- 
cessfully by these two gentlemen, who do a safe, cash business and stand well financially. 

A. LYONS Sl co-Citizens' Oil Works, Cor. Seventh St. and Duquesne Way. 

The "Citizens' Oil Works" was originally established as an incorporated company, but are now owned exclusively by 
the above-mentioned firm, and, under their management, the business has largely increased. The works, which are 
located at the corner of Butler and Bridge Streets, on the line of the Allegheny Valley Railroad, cover an area of more 
than seven acres and furnish employment to about two hundred hands. They are divided into three departments, as 
follows: Parathne Wax Works, Barrel Manufactory and Carbon Oil Refinery. The machinery employed are eight en- 
gines, twelve force-pumps and two batteries of boilers, in addition to the smaller machinery required. Tlie capacity of 
the works is 350 barrels of paraffine wax per month, the largest production of any works in the country, with 
a single exception. Ten thousand barrels of refined oil per month, while the barrel manufactory turns out from 
twenty-five to thirty thousand packages every month. The packages or barrels manufactured by this firm are noted for 
their tightness, the percentage of leakage being much less than that in packages of other manufacturers. This fact is 
corroborated by official statistics and is an important item to be considered by dealers and shippers. The various pro- 
ductions of this house are all exported to Europe, England being the principal depot. The annual business trans- 
acted by this House reaches an enormous amount, as will he seen from the extent of their productions. Both members 
of the firm, Mr. A. Lyons and R. Hemmick, have been residents of Pittsburgh for many years. 

P. S. WEISENBERGER &; CO. -Key stone Varnish and Japan Works, 

Office, No. 2 Duquesne "Way, Pittsburgh ; Factory, Main St., Allegheny. 

As a comparatively new branch of industry in this community, the enterprise of the above firm deserves more than 
passing mention. Established but three years ago, the business has already grown from the limited amount of $.3,000 
sales per annum to $10,000, and is rapidly increasing. 

For the following grades of varnish this house has already established a reputation that carries with it a guarantee 
of the excellence of their manufactures: Black Baking Japan, No. 1, for Japanners, Stamping Companies, etc.; No. 2, 
for Iron Founders and Manufacturers of Hardware; Asphaltum Self-drying Varnish, for CaiTiage ^Makers, etc; Cotton 
Tie Varnish ; Turpentine Jajjan Dryer ; Benzine Japan Dryer ; with Special Varnishes, expressly for Trunks, Wagons, 
Furniture, etc., etc. Already these goods find a ready market, not only in our own State, but in West Alrginia, Ohio, 
Western New York, Illinois, Indiana, Mis.souri and other States. 

A thorough knowledge of the business on the part of Mr. Weisenberger and his partner, Mr. H. Paddock, insures a 
product that will compare favorably, if not surpass in quality that of the largest Eastern houses, while tlie liberal and 
prompt way in which the concern is conducted, speaks in tlie highest terms of the estimation in which the firm is held 
by its customers and the public at large. 

WM. GRABO WSKY -<S/7y^ Hat Manufacturer, No. 233 Penn Av. 

This House was established in its present location four years ago by Mr. Grabowsky, who is a practical Hatter and 
Manufacturer of many years experience. He occupies the three-story brick edifice at No. 233 Penn Avenue and em- 
ploys three skilled and experienced workmen, transacting a business of about $3,000 per annum, and carrying an aver- 
age stock of $2,000. He manufactures silk and felt hats extensively for the trade, sui)plying many of "the principal 
dealers in the city, besides carrying on a large retail business, selling Fine Hats, of every description, at wliolesale 
prices. His specialty is in Cleaning, Repairing and Renovating Hats, and Relining and Making-over Ladies' Furs. 

Mr. Grabowsky was born in Hamburg, Germany, in 18.53, and came to the United States in 1873. By his thorough 
knowledge of the trade, strict attention to business, and unimpeachable integrity, he has built up a business which is 
eminently gratifying and satisfactory and is steadily increasing. This House does not solicit work outside of its oflSce 
— all parties, therefore, soliciting work for this House, are imposing on the public. 



104 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

J. M. HOFFMANN & CO.- Pianos and Organs, No. 141 SmithfieldSt 

Although this firm was established, as recently as 1878 in its present location, Mr. Hoffman has been for many years 
identified with the musical instrument business of Pittsburgh and is widely and favorably known in the musical com- 
munity. They are sole agents in Pittsburgh for the celebrated Lohmer & Co. Pianos, Jubilee Organs and other reliable 
makes, besides keeping a line of Musical Instruments, ^ uch as Guitars, VioUns, Flutes, Accordeons, Strings, etc., of every 
description. They occupy three floors, 25x90, at No. 141 Smithfield Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, and carry 
a stock of about $10,000 to $12,000. Owing to their extensive acquaintance and well-known reliability, they do a large 
and floui-ishiug business in the two cities and sui-rounding districts. 

VOWINKEL & 'BYVJnUOVR.-Wholesale Liquor Merchants, 27 Wood St. 

This firm was established in August, 1878, and already ranks as one of the representative business houses of the Smoky 
City. Mr. Vowinkel, the senior member of the firm, has been a resident of Pittsburgh for the past five years, and his 
partner for nearly double that time, during which period both gentlemen have established an enviable reputation for 
industry, proliity and fair dealing. 

They occupy three entire floors of the large and commodious warehouse No. 27 Wood Street, with a full and com- 
plete assortment of the purest and choicest Brandies, Whiskies and Wines to be found in the West. At present they 
carry a stock of about 110,000 worth, and their trade is constantly increasing. While the principal portion of their business 
is in Pittsburgh and its immediate vicinity, they employ traveling salesman through the Western portions of Pennsyl- 
vania and Eastern Ohio, where their particular specialties of Pure Eye Whiskies and California Wines have already 
become famous. This firm employs three men in their warehouse; in' addition to the force upon the road, and as they 
deal exclusively in the best and purest of Foreign and Domestic Wines and Liquors, dealers throughout this section may 
at all Limes be assured of procuring the very best articles in the market and at reasonable prices. 

JOHN CRAWFORD,-5/^wc/75, Steel Stamps, Rubber Stamps, &c. , 184 Liberty St. 

It is rare to find one engaged in a business of this kind so thoroughly adapted to its requirements in every particular 
as is Mr. John Crawford. He has not only become familiar with every feature by close study and application, but is 
gifted with a natural talent of ingenuity which is higher and more essential than all the rudimentary iiistructions of tlie 
work shop. Possessing these native qualifications and skill, with careful study and experience he is capable of a greater 
variety and more perfect workmanship than could possibly be executed without them. His facilities for the manufac- 
ture of Stencils, Steel Stamps, Rubber Stamps, Burning Brands, Seiils, etc., are unsurpassed, and come directly in the line 
of the requu-ements of every manufacturing establishment aud business man. No establishment in this or any other 
city can produce better work nor at more reasonable rates. He also does Engraving, and manufactures Steel Dies, 
Notary Public and other Seals for Lodges and Societies, Hotel and Railroad Checks, Key Tags, Flour Brands, and deals 
in Stencil Inks and Brushes. His establishment, though second in size in the city, is not second in point of excellence 
of workmanship and promptness of execution. His place of business can be found at No. 184 Liberty Street, where he 
carries a stock of about $1,000, keeps two assistants, and is favored with a good and gradually increasing trade. The 
business was first started in April, 1878, and while his trade is chiefly confined to Pittsburgh and Allegheny City, it is 
gradually extending through Western Pennsylvania and Ohio. Mr. Crawford is a native of this city, having been born 
here in 1833, aud has, since coming to the age of manhood, always done business in this city. We cheerfully commend 
him to the favorable consideration of those desiring anything in his line. 

A. HAMILTON, -fM, Oysters and Game, 184 Liberty St. 

This excellent and popular depot for Fish, Oysters and Game, is ably and efiiciently conducted by Mr. A. Hamilton 
at 184 Liberty street, where he keeps a stock constantly on hand in their season, which will tempt the epicure and at- 
tract the notice of dealers in the city and surrounding country. In 1878, Mr, Hamilton took possession of this store as 
successor to R. J. Edie & Co., and by his industry and excellent business qualifications has built up and increased the 
business very materially. He does both a wholesale and retail business, extending over the city and surrounding country, 
and will alwaj^s be found prompt in filling orders for anytliing in his line. In 0}'sters he makes a specialty of the 
"Signal" brand, the choicest Baltimore Oysters. He also deals in Fish and Game, in its season, Canned Goods, Pickles, 
etc. He employs three hands, and keeps one wagon running lor delivering goods and shipping. Under his energetic 
management his trade will continue to widen and increase, from year to year, both at home and abroad. 

LOUIS MOESER,-/l^o/arj/ Public, Ship Agent, etc., 142 SmithfieldSt. 

Mr. Moeser was born in Germany in 1846. He came to this country in 1869 and to Pittsburgh the same year. In 
1872 he opened an o.Sice as General Steam Ship Agent and is the oldest resident agent in the city for the "American" 
and "Red Star" lines. He also represents the North German Lloyd, Hamburg- American Packet Co, and nearly all the 
European Steamship Lines, and transacts a large European Bunking, Exchange and Collection business, furnishing 
Drafts of any required amount on the principal and most reliable bankers in the old world. His office is 12x29 feet in 
size, and Mr. Moeser has every facility for transacting business and imparting information relative to the sailing of 
steamships, price of passage and exchange of foreign money. He also transacts every description of Notarial business, 
being duly commissioned by the Governor of Pennsylvania as Notary Public. His business is principally in Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny County, and is as large as that of any other agent in the city. 

O'BYRNE "BROS-Publishers and Book Binders, 143 Wood St. 

This House, though established as late as 1874, has given marked evidences of vitality in the rapid increase and 
general character of its business. Founded by M. A. and J. J. O'Byrne, the firm have made specialties of certain 
standard and invaluable works, among which may be mentioned the Encyclopedia Brittannica, the Encyclopedia of 
Chemistry, Picturesque Ireland, and other standard publications, such as Family Bibles, various elegant editions of the 
Poets, Histories, etc. 

Already the business of the firm, through the employment of twenty to twenty-five salesmen and canvassers, ex- 
tends not only throughout Western Pennsylvania, but several adjacent States, and gives ample evidence that its opera- 
tions are conducted upon strict business principles and with a view to the establishment of a large and permanent 
concern. The Messrs. O'Byrne have been residents of this city for about five years, and have, in that comparatively 
short period, not only built up a large and growing industry, affording employment for a numerous corps of assistants, 
but have acquired a reputation for thrift and integrity upon which any firm might be justly congratulated. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 105 



li. H. SMITH & CO.-Sfoves, Grates, dc, No. 49 Sixih St 

The beauty of style and finish of the celebrated Wellman's Reflector Stoves aud Grates, manufactured by Messrs. 
L. H. Smith & Co., at No. 49 Sixth street, has added another laurel to Pittsburgh's reputation as headquarters for novel- 
ties in the iron and glass line. The marbleized Slate Mantels on exhibition at this establishment are also models in 
their way, and most beautiful specimens of that description of work. This House also deals in Chilson's New Cone P^ur- 
naces, Hot air Registers, Ventilators, Common Grates, Fronts, &c. This house was established in 1SG9 in a compaia- 
tively small way, but to-day they stand prominent among the leading establishments of this kind in the city for fine 
work, and their sales now reach a large and very satisfactory sum. They occupy the three story warehouse," 22 by 87, 
at the location above named, employing fifteen assistants, and carrying a large "and elegant assortment of the above 
mentioned goods and all articles pertaining to this line. Their marbleized mantels range in price from $1.5,00 to $150,00. 
Their trade is principally located in the two cities, although they ship many articles to the various towns of Western 
Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia. Mr. L. H. Smith is a native of Pittsburgh. He is a business mau of 
high standing and undoubtable integrity. 

GROG AN & MEHZ— Jewelers, Cor. Fifth Avenue and Market street. 

This house was established in a comparatively small way, .35 years ago, by Alex. Richardson, and from him it was 
passed to his brother, H. Richardson & Co., who were afterward succeeded by L. Mcintosh & Co , who were in turn suc- 
ceeded by the firm who occupy the building at present. The increasing demand for artistic and strictly choice goods in 
their line has prompted them to keep on hand an unusually large stock of the same. They strive to keep a choice as- 
sortment of goods, from which may be chosen, at any time, beautiful and appropriate wedding aud holiday gifts ; at 
this house at all times may be found carefully selected Diamonds of first quality, handsomely mounted, a rich assort- 
ment of Cameos and Intaglios, Lockets, Watches, Chains, &c. Their business will amount to S^jO.OOO per annum. 
Their building IS a spacious three story brick, 22x60 feet. In order that their business may be attended to promptly, 
they employ five hands, and their pay roll amounts to about $250 per month. The trade of the house is principally iii 
and near the city. Mr. J. C. Grogan is a native of Pittsburgh, and is a practical and punctual business man. Mr. 
Merz, a German by birth, is a competent and practical Watchmaker and Jeweler. This house in every respect, is cer- 
tainly one of the leading houses in its line of goods in our city. 

F. G. I^AVL.SON.-Fashionable Hatter, 173 Wood St. 

It is an incontrovertible fact that there is no article of personal attire which so directly affects the appearance as 
that of hats or caps, and in the connection we desire to call attention to the Fashionable Hat, Cap, and Fur House of 
Mr. Frank G. Paulson, situated at No. 113 Wood street. This is one of the oldest business houses in the city, having 
been started by the Hon. C. H. Paulson in 1836, and conducted by him with uniform success up to 1875, when it came in- 
to the hands of the present proprietor. This House has long been Headquakters for the best styles and qualities of goods 
in this line, as the former proprietor, Hon. C. H. Paulson, has long been associated with the business interests of tlie 
city and identified prominently with politics, state and national atTairs, giving him an extended acquaintance and gen- 
eral popularity. He was elected State Senator for the 44th District of Pennsylvania in 1878, which position he still oc- 
cupies. Under the present management, this store will lose none of its attractive features in point of stock, style or 
qualities of goods, nor in the ability of its management. It still continues to be the leader in Hats and Caps, and for 
the Fall and Winter trade a fine display of elegant Furs is always to be found at 113 Wood street. Mr. Frank G . Paul- 
son is a son of Hon. C. H. Paulson, and has been long enough associated with the business and with the people of Pitts- 
burgh to establish for himself an enviable reputation as a gentleman aud enterprising business man. He carries a stock 
always complete in point of variety and styles, at prices always lowest for the quality. Occupying three floors of an 
ample building, the first floor being used as a sales room. 

WEBSTER GRAY & CO.-lmporting Tailors, No. 191 Penn Ave. 

As a firm of the oldest standing in this community, and one closely connected in its history with the progress and 
development of trade in Pittsburgh, the house of Messrs. Webster, Gray & Co., is entitled to more than passing mention 
in this publication. Founded nearly half a century ago by Samuel Gray, Esq., the firm has always been rec(jgnized as 
occupying the very highest position, and maintaining it by the superior character of its work and the signal intelligence 
of its management. In 1866 Mr. Webster Gray was admitted to an interest in the concern under tlie above style, and 
by the demise of Saml. Gray, Esq., his father, has in turn become the senior representative of the house. Dealiuf; with 
the highest class of custom, this trade has been strictly maintained by the direct importation of the fiiH st grades ol for- 
eign goods, and the employment only of those who are most thoroughly skilled as workmen and cutters. As contribu- 
ting in no small degree to the industries of the city, this concern employ not less than 25 hands and at times consider- 
ably more. The estatilishment is perhaps the most i"c/(('rc//e' in Pittsburgh, and is the resort of those whose taste de- 
mands the very best that can be procured, at prices that are now considered almost fabulously low. In style, make, 
quality, and all those points that are absolutely essential in a perfect suit, this house is unsurpassed, jvhile its experi- 
ence and general character is the highest guarantee of satisfaction in every respect. 

JOHN WANAMAKER & CO. -Clothiers, 29 Fifth Avenue. 

For a long series of years the House of Jno. Wanamaker & Co., Philadelphia, discovered that they had acquired a 
very considerable trade in this city of such a class as to warrant them in sending two or three men here several times 
annually for the purpose of taking orders. Gradually, however, as the character of this House and its work became 
better known, the demand for its goods became too large to manage in this way, and in April, 1878, therefore, the present 
splendid establishment was opened at No. 29 Fifth Avenue, as a branch of the Philadelphia House, and has since done a 
business commensurate with the standing of the firm and the enormous stock of goods carried. 

In the various departments of Custom Work, Merchant Tailoring, Men's, Youths' and Boys' Ready-made Clothing, 
Rubber and Furnishing Goods, etc., this House has acquired a reputation perhaps unequalled in the United States, for 
cheapness, variety, excellence, and perfectly-fitting, well-made garments. 

Occupying a building four stories in height, 23x100 feet, and employing nine salesmen, the establishment in every 
appointment and facility is regarded as being the finest and most extensive in the city. 

Mr. Nicholas Baggs, who manages the bu.siness of this branch, has been for many years connected with the firm and 
thoroughly understands the liberal and enterprising spirit that characterizes all the operations of this House. Having 
vested so large an interest here, the Messrs. Wanamaker regard themselves so much citizens as to be vitally concerned in 
every movement that affects the prosperity of thi.s'community and arc justly entitled to the high position they have 
achieved for themselves by the exercise of integrity and the extraordinary commercial sagacity with which they are 
endowed. 



106 ESTDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

B£RKSHIR£ LIFE INS. CO., of Pittsfield, Mass. 

Geo. W. English, General Agent, No. 67 Fourth Are. 

The Berkshire Life Ins. Co., is known as one of the oldest in the United States, being chartered in 1851. It lias ac- 
cumulated assets to the amount of $3,400,000 and attbrds all the security and advantages to the insured that can be 
obtained from any similar first class institution. An agency for this company was established in this city nine years 
ago, and in January 1878, Mr. Geo. W. English took the general management of this district, and the various sub-agen- 
cies throughout Western Pennsylvania and bordering States. Mr. English was born in the central part of this State, 
coming to Pittsburgh in 1870, where he was identified with the press for many years. He employs three solicitors, and 
brings to his work an adaptability and energy that already have a decidedly beneficial eflect upon the business of the 
company in this section, and must produce rerults of reciprocal advantage to all concerned. 

BUYMER, BAUMAN & CO -Prop'rs Standard White Lead Works, 

Office No. 42 Fifth Ave., "Works, Pennsylvania Ave., Allegheny City. 

Messrs. Beymer, Bauman & Co., have done much in giving creditable character to this class of Pittsburgh manufac- 
turers, their products being sold in every State of the Union, East of the Rocky Mountains, and are universally recog- 
nized for chemical purity and other points of excellence. Established in 1807 with a capital of $250,000, the business of 
the firm has reached $400,000 annually. The works in Allegheny City covfer an area of I7-2 acres, and being supplied 
with the finest macliinery and every late approved appliance, produce from about 6 to 7 tons of Lead daily with a capac- 
ity of 3,000 tons per annum, employ 40 hands, requiring a weekly disbursement of over 1400, besides, which six assis- 
tants are required in the clerical departments and on the road. The members of the firm S. Beymer, R. F. Bauman 
and C. F. Wells, are all residents of this city, having been closely identified with its interests for over 25 years and are 
at present influentially connected with many of our largest and most important commercial and financial institutions. 
With the determination of manufacturing a faultless article of white lead, this house has achieved its object. From all 
sources endorsements are received, touching its perfect freedom from all foreign ingredients. The highest oflicial au- 
thorities of the United States Navy made a special report June 7, 1878, announcing that after the most thorough tests, 
it was ascertained that the White Lead of Messrs. Beymer, Bauman & Co., "was strictly pure without trace of silver, 
antimony or other alloy, of perfect whiteness, and under the same conditions covering 834 P^r cent, more surface than 
the best lead heretofore known to the department." As manufacturers of Red Lead, Orange Mineral and Potters' Lead, 
the firm are equally successful. 

C. F. WELLS & CO.— Pennsylvania White Lead Works, 

Works, River Ave., Allegheny City. Office, No. 42 Fifth Ave. 

One of the oldest in the State. These works were established 35 years ago by B. A. Falmestock, succeeded subse- 
quently by Falmestock, Hazlett & Schwardtz, and acquired finally by the present proprietors in 1875. The works are 
situated in Allegheny City and rank only second in size and importance to any in the country. They cover % of an 
acre, with a producing capacity of 1,500 to 2,000 tons annually and are furnished with steam engines, boilers and all the 
latest and best machinery used in the manufacture of White Lead. Thirty hands are employed at tiie factory and four 
clerks and salesmen in other departments, entailing an outlay of not less than $350 per week. The vested capital is 
$125,000 and the business amounts to $250,000 annually. 

. The members of the firm are Messrs. C. F. Wells, S. Beymer, R. F. Bauman and Wm. Steinmeyer, men of public 
enterprise and spirit. The trade of the House extends to all parts of the country, and its product is highly esteemed 
for its unvarying purity and long established reputation for general excellence. This House stands second to none, and 
enjoys, in a marked degree, the confidence and respect of those with whom they establish business relations. 

ROBISON BROTHERS,-^og/ Merchants, 

Foot of Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, and Anderson St, & River'^Ave., Allegheny. 

The history of the four young men composing the above named firm furnishes an admirable illustration and lesson, 
of what may be accomplished by indomitable energy and perseverance In 1872 the four brothers, Robison, embarked 
in the coal business with almost boundless means and unlimited credit. Their father, during a busy and most success- 
ful career, had accumulated a fortune, but died during the year, leaving to his sous six hundred acres of coal lands with 
a mine in successful operation, over sixteen hundred acres of valuable land in the oil regions, and cash and bank stock 
to the amount of a million dollars or more. He had handled in one year 1,800,000 bushels of coal, in addition to au 
extensive pork packing and grocery establishment, and been considered one of the solid men in Pittsbuigh. But the 
panic came, and in a single season they saw the wealth, accumulated by so much labor and ditbculty by their honored 
parent, swept away, and for a time it seemed a complete financial annihilation. Possessed of stout hearts and iron 
wills, they struggled on to recover their lost prestige and to achieve for themselves the same success which liad signal- 
ized their father's business career. To their credit be it said, that to a certain extent they have succeeded, and give 
evidence that they are made of the metal which is purified and strengthened by trial They have now several oil wells 
in successful operation, and an extensive coal mine on the Manongahela, from whence they receive their supplies. 
They are prepared with ample facilities to deliver to any part of Pittsburgh or Allegheny. In'l876 they met with a loss 
of sixteen coal boats and other coal property, amounting in value to over $15,000, but in'spite of all these reverses they 
are undaunted, hai-d working, energetic business men, in whose "lexicon there is no such word as fail." 

JOSEPH R. H'U'NTB'R -Merchandise Broker, 265 Liberty St. 

Not only is Mr. Hunter widely esteemed and respected as a business man of energy and integrity, but as a promi- 
nent worker and leader in the temperance cause he stands preeminently conspicuous. As president of the "Old Home" 
branch of the Young Men's Christian Temperance Union for the past two years, and a prominent advocate of temper- 
ance since the conmieneement of the "Murphy movement" in the Winterof 1876, Mr. Hunter has done most ertective 
service and won for himself the gratitude and esteem of thousands. He was born in Mercer county, Pennsylvania, in 
1825, but has been a resident of Pittsburgh for twenty-eight years, during which period he has been actively engaged in 
mercantile pursuits and identified with the grocery trade of this city. ^Nine years since he established his present bus- 
iness, in which he has built up a large and flourishing trade among the wholesale grocers of Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Cities, with whom his business is exclusively conducted. The lines of goods principally handled by Mr. Hunter are 
Coffee' Sugar, Rice, Lard, Oil, Soaps, &c. Over 25,000 bags of Cofl'ee are represented at his oflice by sample, and other 
goods in proportionate quantities. The aggregate amount of sales transacted through Mr. Hunter is not less than 
$1 000,000. He represents all the leading sugar refineries and heavy importing houses of the East. 

10 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 107 



PITTSBURGH & CONNELLSVILLE COKE CO. 

Office, JTo. 83 Wood St., Works at Conuellsville, at which point all sales are made. 

So extensive is the coal interest and so thoroughly identified with Pittsburgh, that a notice of the prominent dealers 
is liighly essential. Among such organizations none is deserving of more prominent and copious mention than the 
Pittsburgh & Connellsville Coke Co. Incorporated under the mining and manufacturing laws of Pennsylvania in 1864, 
with a capital stock of $150,000, the concern at once took rank among the largest and most energetic producers in the 
country. The present officers, who have been connected with it trom its inception, are Messrs. J. M. Bailey, Prest., 
John Wilhelm, Jr. Sect'y., and John F. Dravo, Treasurer and General Manager, to whose ability and thorough knowl- 
edge is due its signal success. The possessions of the company are mainly located near Connellsville in Fayette 
county, and consist of 300 acres of the finest coal property in Pennsylvania, in which numerous shafts are sunk and 
mines operated, four powerful engines and seven boilers, extensive hoisting and pumping apparatus, and machinery 
for elevating coal through the shafts, besides ovens, for converting it into coke, the greater part of the production being 
thus used. Five hundred and twenty men are employed m these various operations, requiring an avei'age monthlj- dis- 
bursement of about $7,500. The excellence of the production is recognized by iron manufacturers all over the United 
States, and the State Secretary of Internal Affairs, in his report on Industrial Statistics, Vol 3, 1874-5, says that "the 
Pittsburgh Coal Seam," in which the mines of the company are located, "is from six to ten feet thick, containing an 
excess of bituminous matter, and yielding a large percentage of excellent coke." For the manufacture of illuminating 
gas, this coal is considered unequalled, and the coke of this company manufactured from the Connellsville Vein finds a 
ready market, not only at home, but is consumed in large quantities both in Eastern and Western States, the annual 
sales which are all made at the mines, amounting to $105,600, and increasing even under the present reduced price of 
the product. Few men in this community are more widely known than Mr. Jno. F. Dravo, a native of Westmoreland 
Co., Pa., where he was born in 1819, he came to Pittsburgh at an early age, and for nearly half a century has been con- 
spicuous in promoting the commercial and industrial welfare of this city. Active in every public untertakiug, Vice 
President of the Chamber of Commerce, Vice Pres't and Director of the Morganza Reform School and intimately con- 
nected by preference and princiijle with other organizations, tending to enhance the general good, a fluent writer and 
forceable speaker, Mr. Dravo has justly earned the respect and consideration in which he is held. The organization 
with which he is most identified, has arrived under his management at a productive capacity of 25,000 bushels per a&j, 
and takes rank at the present time with the largest enterprises of the kind la Pennsylvania. " 

JOS. R. tLVCr^'BS -Wall Paper, &c., 107 Market St. 

Mr. Hughes has been actively engaged in business since 1848, and in his present location since 1860, during 
which time his trade has steadily increased, until it now reaches the handsome sum of §25,000 annually. He occupies 
three stories of the building, No. 107 Market street, near Fifth avenue, employing five assistants and carrying an aver- 
age stock of abotit $20,000 in value, embracing every variety of fine Wall Paper, Dados, and Window i^hades, and all 
articles pertaining to this line of business. His trade is principally in the two cities and the adjacent couuties. Mr. 
Hughes is a native of the Smoky City, and well and favorably known as a citizen and as a business man of undoubted 
integrity and reliability. To all classes of customers, this House can always offer inducements not excelled by any 
other House in Pittsburgh. 

J AS. liOUGHRIDGE -5rw5/? Manufacturer, dc, No. 171 Smithfield St. 

A notice of all important branches of business of this city of the present day, is of interest to all, and essential to a 
complete history of the progress and growth of the community for the information and instruction of the present as well as 
coming generations. The establishment now owned and carried on by Mr. James Loughridge, was founded in 1854 by 
Loughridge and Maxwell, and in 1861 the present proprietor assumed the entire management and control of the busi- 
ness. He carries a stock at the present time valued at from $8,000 to $10,000, consisting chiefly of Brushes, Children's 
Carriages, Looking Glass & Picture Frames, etc., and transacts a business of not less than $15,000 per annum. He man- 
ufactures nearly every article in stock, his specialties being Brushes of every description and Children's Carriages. He 
is patentee and sole proprietor of a patent oscillating spring front for children's carriages, which is a great improvement 
upon anything heretofore in use. This is the only manufactory of children's carriages in the city, and in that line Mr. 
Loughridge enjoys a large and lucrative business. At present he employs but four hands, but at times the force is large- 
ly increased. Mr. Loughridge was born in the city of Baltimore, Md., in 1829. He came to Pittsburgh in 1846 and 
learned the trade of brush maker in this city. His establishment is noted for the excellent quality of Brushes manu- 
factured, and his trade throughout the city and surrounding country is correspondingly large. Machine brushes of 
every kind are made to order in the most thorough manner. 

H. REINEKE & CO -Gas & Steam Fitters, No. 61 Wood St. 

Some ten years since, the firm of Wallace, Caritt & Co., dealers in Chandeliers, Gas Fixtures, &c., was established 
in Pittsburgh. These gentlemen were succeeded by Messrs. Reineke & Wilson, and in 1878 the firm name and style was 
again changed to H. Reineke & Co., F. A. Reineke & J. P. Reineke being admitted. The senior member of the present 
firm is a native of (Jerraany, but has resided in the Iron City for the yiast thirty-five years. The junior partners are 
both natives and life-long residents of Pittsburgh. They occupy the first floor and basement of No. 61 Wood .street, ex- 
tending back some one hundred feet, which is divided into sales and mechanical departments. Their business is botli 
wholesale and retail, and they carry a stock complete in variety and excellence, consisting principally of Chandeliers, 
Steam and Gas Fixtures, Lift and Force Pumps, Iron and Lead Pipe, Brackets, &c. Their trade, which is principally in 
the two cities and immediate vicinity, amounts to about $20,000 annually. In their manufacturing department they 
employ from four to eight workmen, and make a specialty of re-bronziug'and gilding Chandeliers, <tc. The members of 
the firm are practical plumbers and gas fitters, and give their personal attention to the various departments of their ex- 
tensive business. 

JAMES 'SILcK'ER,— Watchmaker and Jeweler, No. 13 Fifth Ave. 

Mr. McKee is a thorough practical Watchmaker and Jeweler of more than fifteen years experience, is a native o 
Pittsburgh, learned his trade in the city and has resided here all his life. He commenced business for him.self June 1st 
1877, at his present location. No. 13 Fifth Ave., his annual business now amounting to about $5,000. He occupies the 
three story brick building, 15x15 feet in size, employing four assistants, carrying a small selected stock of Watches, 
Clocks and Jewelry, making a specialty of fine watch and clock repairing, in which he does a very large and flourishing 
business. He numbers among his customers many of the leading citizens of Pittsburgh, Allegheny and the country 
within a radius of fifty miles in all directions. He employs only careful and experienced workmen and his prices for 
repairing are lower than any other establishment in the city. 

11 



108 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

R. G. DUN & CO —The Mercantile Agency, 63. 65 d 67 Fourth Av. A. B. Wigley, Man. 

It would be almost impossible to write an account of the commercial and industrial history of this city witliout 
making frequent reference to the Mercantile Agendy of R. G. Dun & Co. Founded by Lewis Tappan & Co., in New 
York in 1841, a branch office was opened in Fittsburgli in 1852, and through all the financial and mercantile mutations 
that have convulsed the whole country during this extended period the Institution to which illusion is made, has re- 
mained unshaken and practically unchanged, save in its growing range of usefulness and more substantial position. 

As a subtle, permeating moral force to restrain evils and correct abuses in the commercial community, it would be 
hard to overrate the utility of this agency, whose operations in this country are only limited by the bounds of civiliza- 
tion. The territory over which the Pittsburg office has special jurisdiction includes a large portion of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Eastern Ohio and Western Virginia, but is, of course, connected with every other office in the United States 
and Canadas by daily communication by mail and telegraphic cyphers. 

The resident manager, Mr. A. B. Wigley, has been in charge of this office for three years, previously occupying the 
same position at Toledo, O., and Louisville, Ky. His efficiency as an agency man has never been questioned and his 
management of this branch has been productive of the best results, both in the increase of bu.siness and promptness with 
which information is obtained and transmitted, as well as a general systematic thoroughness that redounds greatly to 
the benefit of all concerned. 

Tlie premises occupied by the establishment are at Nos. 63, 65 and 67 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh. They are ample 
in dimensions, and perfectly fitted and furnished throughout. A staff of fourteen clerks and reporters is required to 
conduct the business in its various departments, special attention being paid to the accumulation of facts from all parts 
of the United States with regard to the condition and financial standing of those engaged in the Iron, Glass and Crockery 
trades. Messrs. R. G. Dun & Co. claim to be the oldest and largest mercantile agency in the world, and it is generally 
understood that no one has had the temerity to dispute or contradict this assertion ; in any event, the position this 
institution has gained in the esteem of the intelligent business public, is a sufficient guarantee of its necessity and un- 
doubted importance for the protection of commerce and trade and manufactures. 

J. M. HARTFORD, -Wholesale Auctioneer and Commission Merchant, 109 Wood St. 

Kegular trade sales of Boots, Shoes and other Merchandise have long been in vogue in the Eastern cities, but it was 
reserved for Mr. J. M. Hartford to inaugurate and popularize such a movement in the Smoky City. Mr. Hartford com- 
menced business as a wholesale dealer in Boots and Shoes in 1872, and for about three years confined himself to that line 
of business. In 187.5, he entered the field as a Wholesale Auctioneer and General Commission Merchant, since which 
time, notwithstanding the general depression in other branches of trade, he has steadily progressed, until his regular 
weekly sales have become one of the features of Pittsburgh, increasing trade and importance in a commercial point of 
view. Mr. Hartford occupies four floors at No. 109 Wood Street, with a branch office at No. 102 Pearl Street, Boston. At 
his Pittsburgh establishment he employs twelve assistants, and although his trade is principally local, large numbers of 
country dealers from the surrounding towns are attracted to the city by the inducements held out by him. His regular 
trade sales, to dealers only, are held on Wednesday of each week, and usually attract a large number of retailers and 
general merchants from tlie two cities and adjacent territory. Mr. Hartford solicits consiguinpnts from all parts of the 
country and makes li))eral advances on all goods entrusted to his care, and looks out carefully for the interests ot his cus- 
tomers. He is a gentleman of high social standing in the community, is a member of the Common Council from the 
Eleventh Ward, and, in the Spring of 1879, was elected to the position of clerk of that body. 

FLEMING & OGL,'EVI1B,-Wholesale Dealers in Hats, Caps & Furs, 139 Wood St. 

This business was originally started by Mr. Wm. Fleming in 1846. During the intervening years some changes in 
the management occurred, when in 1875, Mr. Fleming associated with him in the business Mr. J. W. Oglevee. They 
have the largest and most complete stock of Hats and Caps, Straw Goods, Ladies' Furs and Robes of all kinds to be founil 
in this city, and are able to oft'er inducements to the trade in competition with New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland or 
Cincinnati. They keep constantly in stock the best and latest styles. For the AVinter trade they are always prepared 
with a choice line of Ladies' Furs and Fur Goods, in which they do an extensive manufacturing business. They are 
exclusive agents for Dunlap & Co's. Hats, and have a large sale of superior styles of their own designs, prepared specially 
for each season. With the present depreciated prices their trade will average about $160,000 per annum, extending 
through Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Eastern and Central Ohio. Their book-keeper is S. H. Waddell ; 
traveling salesmen are L. N. Fickeisen, James F. McQuaid and J. V. Aurentz, who are always authorized to give lowest 
quotations ; besides this, seven men are employed inside the House. Mr. Fleming is a native of this city. Mr. Oglevee 
is a native of Fayette County, Pennsylvania. As a firm they bear an excellent reputation in every respect as a leading 
House in the trade. In the Retail Department this firm have lately instituted the One Price, Cash System, which is a 
new feature in the Hat trade and gives them special advantages. 

A. M. McNISH,— 5a«j/?, Blind and Door Machinery, etc., No. 116 Liberty St. 

Mr. A. M. McNish is a brother of the late Henry L McNish, one of the founders of the firm of JNfcXish & Butler, 
dissolved by the death of the former in 1871. Mr. Butler is carrying on business under the old firm name, althougli ex- 
clusively engaged in manufacturing specialties, and the general business of McNish it Butler is now handled by A. M 
McNish, who started in business for himself in 1878, after having thirteen years' experience in the old House, which 
with his acquaintance has already secured for him a thriving and prosperous trade. Mr. McNish deals largely in all 
kinds of Sash, Blind and Door Machinery, Woodworth Planers and jSlachinists' Tools, Pulleys, Hangers, Shafting, Belt- 
ing, Lace Leather and Belt Hooks, Pattern Letters, Twist Drills and Sujiplies of all descriptions. He is also Agent for 
Gardner's Patent Compensation Governor, one of the most important inventions of the age, and which should bo used 
by every establishment in the country employing steam power. The trade of this House is steadily increasing and 
reaches every section of Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia. He is largely patronized by builders 
of the two cities. Mr. McNish is a native of New York State, but has resided in Pittsburgh for many years. 

DAVID GfRAlY —Practical Watchmaker and Jeweler, No. 11 Fifth Ave. 

Mr. Gray was born in Ireland July 4, 1845, and learned his trade in that country many years ago. He has for more 
than fifteen years betm engaged in this line of business with many of the leading houses in England and Ireland, wliere 
he acquired a thorough practical knowledge of all its details. In 1878 he established the business now conducted by him 
at No. 11 Fifth Avenue, and has since met with success. He occupies two stories of the building, employing one as- 
sistant, besides giving his personal attention to the business. His trade is principally local, but the prompt and care- 
ful attention given to all work entrusted to him has given him an envialile reputation as a skillful workman and his 
trade is steadily increasing. He makes a specialty of fine Watch and Clock Repairing, guaranteeing all his work and 
making his prices moderate and satisfactory. 



W. E. SCHMERTZ & CO. -Boots, Shoes and Rubbers, 43 Fifth Ave. 

Among the manr industries that have tended to extend and enlarge the comiuercial and manufacturing importance 
of Pittsburgh, perhaps no one has had a more favorable influence ujion the mercantile relations of this community than 
the shoe trade, and certainly no house in that trade exhibits more energy and enterprise than the subject of this 
brief sketch. Established in 1848 by W. E. Schmertz, with but limited capital and meagre resources, under his manage- 
ment the business gradually merged out of comparative obscurity, until it became and has remained for years, aeon- 
trolling influence to the entire trade. In 1860, the style of the House became as above, Mr. T. A. Kammerer became a 
partner of the concern, other partners came in in 1869, composing the firm at the present time. 

The business premises occupied and owned by W. E. Schmertz & Co., are, for many reasons, worthy of particular 
attention. Situated on the principal thoroughfare of the city, they consist of a handsome iron-front building, 25x240 
feet, four stories in height, with finished basement under the wliole edifice. Here are ware and salesrooms of ample 
magnitude, counting njoms and offices with all modern appliances, such as steam elevators and heating apparatus, every 
arrangement being perfectly adapted for convenience and comfort in the transaction of the business. Here also are 
accommodations for a stock that ranges in value from $150,000 to $175,000, and a trade that reaches $600,000 per annum. 
Ten traveling salesmen are kept continually upon the road, .330 hands, the majority of whom are convicts at the 
Western Penitentiary, are employed in the manufacture of Boots and shoes, 40 skilled workmen being engaged upon the 
finest grades of Ladies', Misses' and Children's wear known to the trade. This battalion of operatives require a dis- 
bursement of about $60,000 a year and turn out about 30,000 pairs of Boots, Shoes, Gaiters, etc., per month, establishing 
the fact of this House being the largest in the State of Pennsylvania. 

Through Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana and over the far W(.st to Colorado, Dakolo and Cali- 
fornia, through the South and North-west, the products of this House find a perpeliial market and an increasing 
reputation. In view of the standing resources and public benefits conferred by this firm, some brief mention of its 
members may not be inappropriate in a commemorative publication of this kind, and will inspire with every di'cade an 
increasing interest. The senior partner, W. E. Schmertz, Esq., was born in Prussia in 1826 ; coming with his fatlier to 
this city in 1832 he became identified with his present business at the age of twenty-two years, and from that period his 
cai-eer has been among those most worthy of imitation. As President of tlie ThirdNational Bank, "Vice President of the 
Chamber of Commerce, Trustee of the Dollar Savings Bank, Director of the Exposition Society, andconnected with other 
corporations and public trusts, Mr. Schmertz has established a reputation for fidelity and remarkable business acumen, 
of which any citizen of this commonwealth might be proud. 

Mr. Kammerer, born in 1834 and a native of Pittsburgh, has always been prominent in fostering every public move- 
ment that seemed likely to conduce to the general good. Mr. Dunning and Mr. Murray are respectively natives of Ohio 
and Pennsylvania, but have been residents of this city for some years. Asa firm, it is not too much to say of them that 
in all those attributes that lead to success and universal consideration W. E. Schmertz & Co. have been endowed to a re- 
markable degree. 

DUNCAN & THOMPSONS -5rw.j// Manufactory, No. 37 Fifth Ave. 

The reputation of Pittsburgh Brushes extends throughout the United States and even to the islands of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Ocean. Among the leading manufacturers in this city, we may mention the reliable and enterprising House 
of Duncan & Thompson, who, although comparatively young in the business, are gentlemen thoroughly conversant with 
every detail of the trade as manufacturers and energetic business men. The House was established in 1875 by Duncan 
& Dilks, who conducted the business until October, 1877, when Mr. Dilks retired and was succeeded by Mr. John W. 
Thompson. In January, 1879, the firm became Duncan & Thompsons. Mr. John D. Thompson, the founder of the firm 
of J. D. Thompson & Co., became a partner. His long experience in the manufacture of brushes justifies the claim of the 
leading Brush House in Pittsburgh. While they manufacture and keep in stock a full assortment of all kinds of Brushes, 
their specialty is their celebrated brand of Paint, Varnish, White Wash and Kalsomine Brushes, of which they are sole 
manufacturers, and which are considered by the trade superior to any in the market. 

They occupy the large two-story building at No. 37 Fifth Avenue, 120 feet deep, and employ a large number of ex- 
perienced workmen. Their trade at present is among the jobbers, retailers and artizans of Western Pennsylvania and 
adjacent territory, but the reputation of their goods is rapidly spreading throughout the West and South. They carry 
an average stock of from $15,000 to $18,000, with a yearly business exceeding $60,000. Mr. Duncan was bom in Butler 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1844, and has resided in Pittsburgh since 1865. Mr. J. D. Thompson is a native of Scotland, 
and came to Pittsburgh in 1836. Mr. John W. Thompson is a son of the last-named gentleman and was born in 
Allegheny in 18.54. 

MONONGAHELA INSURANCE CO -Office, No. 89 Fourth Ave. 

The Monongahela Insurance Co., of Pittsburgh, has been in existence for the past quarter of a century, having been 
incorporated in 1854. Their actual cash capital is $175,000, and their business, which amounts to aljout $30,000 per an- 
num, is conducted in a manner eminently worthy of the business reputation of the well-known gentlemen composing 
its Board of Directors and General Managers. Their business is Marine, Inland and General Fire Insurance, and is 
principally local, being confined almost exclusively within the limits of Alleglieny County. The officers of the Company 
are Wm. A. Caldwell, President, Geo. A. Berry, Vice President, John H. Claney, Secretary, and F. A. Dohrman, Sur- 
veyor, with the following Board of Directors: Wm. A. Caldwell, President, Geo. A. Berry, Vice President, William Ren, 
Robert Dalzell, William Means, James Woodburn, R. H. Palmer, James McCandlcss, David M. Smith, Geo. VV. Dil- 
worth, Charles Atwell, Henry Hays, James A. McDevitt, William Cooper. 

GILLIAM MAN'F'G. CO.Saddtery Hardware, etc., 97 and 99 Third Ave. 

Established in 1867 by the present proprietor, A. Gilliam, Esq., this concern has grown from very limited propor- 
tions to a prominent position among the industries of the Iron City. The premises now occupied in this branch of 
manufacture consist of one large four-story double-brick edifice, at Nos. 97 and 99 Third Avenue, 30x84 feet, the first 
floor being used for sales and exhibition room, offices, counting rooms, etc., and the rest of the building for manufac- 
turing all kinds of Saddlery Hardware, Gig-saddles and Gilliam's Patent Coach Pads, etc. In comparison with other 
similar establishments, it may be said that this is the only one west of the Alleghenies, all the goods manufactured here 
being original in design with Mr. Gilliam and protected by letters patent from infringement. Owing largely to this 
fact, the trade of the House has extended from Canada to California, and it is claimed that in quality^ design and 
cheapness no house in the United States can produce such satisfactory results. Fifty hands, two traveling salesmen, 
clerks, etc., are required to conduct the business, the machinery consisting of ten sewing machines and numerous steam 
presses, dies and other appliances for cutting out stock and securing rapid and perfect work. 

Mr. Gilliam is a native of Central Ohio and wasformerly engaged in manufacturing business of a similarline of 

■ goods in Cincinnati, removing to this city in 1867, since which time he has done no little to promote its industries, and 

has become thoroughly identified with its development and prosperity. No house enjoys a higher position conmier- 

cially than the Gilliam Manufacturing Company, which, considering the liberal and enterprising spirit that actuates 

its operations, is as natural as it is justly deserved. 



110 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

A. M. SP££R, M. a, -Oculist and Aurisf, No. 212 PennAve. 

The treatment of Diseases of the Eye and Ear is one of the most difficult and delicate departments of the medical 
profession, and of late years it has been almost entirely given over by the most reliable practitioners in the country to 
those who malj;e it their especial study. While many irresponsible physicians, anxious only to secure their fees, will 
attempt treatment of those delicate organs, without knowing or understanding their peculiarities, it will be noticed that 
the best and most reliable doctors of medicine will recommend their patients to the services of some successful and re- 
sponsible oculist and aurist for treatment and cure. 

Dr. Speer is a native of Pittsburgh, and has resided in the Iron City for forty-five years, excepting two years spent 
In Europe and five years as Surgeon in the Army. He graduated at Jefterson College, Philadelphia, and afterwards 
studied in the best medical schools of Europe. He now devotes his special attention to Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 
His father is one of the oldest and best known pliysicians of Pittsburgh, having been in continual practice here since 
1825. Ten years since he retired, after a successful and honorable career of more than half a century. Dr. A. M. Speer, 
whose oflice is located at No. 212 Penn Avenue, is a thorough and practical physician and has met with marked success 
in the sijecialty for which he is noted. 

FAIRBANK'S STANDARD SCALES.-//. C. Dickinson, Agt, 48 Wood St. 

The well-known and deservedly popular Scales manufactured by Fairbanks & Co., at St. Johnsbury, Vermont, are 
universally acknowledged to be the Standard, not only in this countr}^ but iu many foreign countries. This old-estab- 
lished and reliable House is represented in Pittsburgh by Mr. H. C. Dickinson, whose headquarters is at No. 48 Wood 
Street. They have been established here since 1866 and occupy three stories and basement of the spacious warehouse 
above indicated. He carries in stock a full line of the various sizes and patterns of scales manufactured by the Messrs 
Fairbanks, which he otters at factory prices. He also takes orders for the firm, shipping directly from the works, if 
desired. Mr. Dickinson has sole control of the "Type Writer" for this section and is Agent for the most approved 
styles of Lawn Mowers and Hancock's Patent Inspirator, an invention which has received the highest encomiums from 
all who have given it a trial. Grocer's Fixtures form an important feature of his business, which amounts to from 
$60,000 to $75,000 per annum. They make a specialty of Fairbanlc's Scales and of repairing the same. His trade ex- 
tends through Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia, and ten assistants are required in his extensive 
establishment. Mr. Dickinson has been a resident of Pittsburgh since 1866, where he has built up a large and flourish- 
ing business, and and a name which is unblemished in the commercial world. 

PORTER & "DO'S A'L'D^O'^ -Wholesale Millinery, Cor. 5th Av. & Liberty St. 

This enterprising House, which now ranks as the leading Wholesale Millinery Establishment of Pittsburgh, was 
founded in 1867 by succeeding to an old established House in Steubeuville, Ohio. In that place an annual business of 
$100,000 was done under the firm name of Porter, Donaldson & Co. In 1872 the present House was established in Pitts- 
burgh, but the above-named members of the firm still retained their interest in the old House at Steubenville. 

In 1878 the firm was divided, Messrs. Porter & Donaldson assuming the entire ownership and control of the Pitts- 
burgh branch and the other members of the firm continuing the Steubenville House. They occupy here the second and 
third floors of the new and elegant edifice corner of Liberty Street and Fifth Avenue, 35x100 feet, which is filled with an 
extensive and well-selected assortment of seasonable millinery goods, consisting of Ribbons, Laces, Flowers, Feathers, 
Hats, Bonnets, Silks, Velvets, etc. Tliey carry an average stock of about 130,000, although at certain seasons the valua- 
tion will reach double that amount, and transact an annual business exceeding .$200,000, which is principally located in 
Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and adjoining States. They employ thirteen clerks and salesmen, and 
their trade is exclusively wholesale. They import direct a large portion of their foreip;n goods and are recognized as 
gentlemen of enterprise, ability and strict integrity. To the Jobber or Retail Dealer, this House presents advantages 
not equalled by any other House in Pittsburgh. 

H. D. Mcknight & CO -EcHpse steam Pump Works, First Ave. d Ferry St. 

The articles manufactured at these extensive works are principally Steam Pumping Machinery and Pumps of every 
description, and the celebrated Eclipse Steam Boiler. This House has long been noted for their excellent quality of 
work, for their complete and unrivalled machinery and facilities for manufacturing, and under the new managers they 
will in no wise deteriorate or fall short of the reputation of previous years. These works were established iu 1853 by 
Mr. Davison Phillips, who conducted the business for five years, when Mr. Wm. H. Cluley was admitted as a partner 
under the firm name of Phillips & Cluley. In 1873 this firm was succeeded by S. D. Hubbard & Co., who carried on 
the business for five years, wlien, in 1878, the present proprietors assumed the sole control. The business now amounts 
in round numbers to not less than $100,000 per annum. The "Eclipse" Works occupy the large four-story structure, 
36x100 feet, at the corner of First Avenue ad Ferry Street, employing twenty hands, with a monthly pay-roll averaging 
$1,500. Tlie motive power for their extensive machinery is supplied >y one powerful sixty-horse power engine. 

They manufacture the celebrated Eclipse Balance-Wheel Steam Pump, which has been pronounced by mechanical 
experts tlie best and most reliable steam pump now in use, having excellent qualities wliich will commend it to all 
who will investigate. They are made for both hot and cold water. At tlie Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, in 
1876, these pumps were awarded the highest Medal of Honor and a Diploma of Merit. Every pump furnished by tliis 
establishment is fully guaranteed. In addition to the various pumps for feeding boilers, Messrs. McKiiigiit & Co. make 
a specialty of Pumps for the following purposes: Water Works, Mining, Oil Refinery, Oil Tanks, Soap, Lye, 

Lard, Vinegar, Tar, Tallow, Benzine, Bleacheries, Gas Works, etc., etc., and, in fact, every deseriiJtidu or style of Pump 
which by any possibility may be required. They also pay special attention to Repairing of all kinds in conaectiou. 
The trade of these works extends all over the United States. 

NIEMAN & AUI^HIiS^-Merchant Tailors, d Furnishing Goods, 101 Smithfield St. 

The elegant establishment of Nieman & Ahlers, located at No. 101 Smithfield Street, three doors from Fifth 
Avenue, has long been famous as the headquarters for fine Clothing and Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods. This House 
was established in 1854 by H. H. Nieman. In 1861 Mr. H. Ahlers became associated with him under the present firm 
name and style, and their business has largely increased under the judicious management of these enterprising gen- 
tlemen. They occupy the entire four floors, each 20x60, in Howard Block, at the number indicated, and carry a full 
line of desirable fabrics for gentlemen's wear, together with a large and judiciously selected assortment of Gents' 
Furnishing Goods. They make a specialty of manufacturing Fine Suits to order, in the most thorough, fashionable 
and workmanlike manner. The value of their stock is about $9,000 and the annual business amounts from $30,000 to 
$40,000. They employ from twenty-five to thirty hands in their manufacturing department and their business is one 
of the largest in the city. Mr. H. H. Nieman was born in Germany in 1832 ; he came to the United States in 1846 and 
to Pittsburgh the same year. Mr. H. Ahlers is also a native of Germany, where he was born in 1832. He has been a 
resident of Pittsburgh since 1852. 

14 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. Ill 



J. B. BERND &, CO,— Importer s& Wholesale Millinery Goods.Cor.SfhAv.d Market St. 

Mr. J. D. Bernd, the founder of this House, now in the seventeenth year of its existence, was born in the pictur- 
esque little village called Hohen-Solnis, near Giesen, on the line of railway between Frankfort-on-Main and Cassel, in 
Germany. He came to this country at four years of age and received an elementary education in Philadelphia. His 
parents were in comfortable circumstances and held in high esteem in their old home in Germany. His father, a man 
of considerable culture and sterling integrity, meeting with reverses after coming here, made it incumbent on the 
children to earn a living, and thus the subject of this sketch, at the age of thirteen, commenced his career, and rose 
from humble errand boy, at a salary of fifty cents a week, through the various gradations of salesman, in various lines 
of business, traveling for his respective firms, which occasionally brought him to Pittsburgh. This is down to 1857, 
when his firm in Philadelphia (Mr. B. having a mere nominal interest in the business) succumbed to the panic, when 
he went to New York City. Still pursuing his vocation as traveling salesman until the Spring of 1861, he was sent 
out here to open a branch Millinery House, and the following Spring (1862) commenced here on his own account. 

He first occupied the second-story front room over (then) Reed's Jewelry Store, at 94 Fifth Avenue. The next 
season (Fall 1862) he occupied the second story over what is now Jno. Wanamaker & Go's. In the Spring of 1863 he 
moved to his present location, occupying at that time only the second story of this building. Here the business 
gradually increased, until the year 1870, when the building was enlarged, making a frontage on Market Street of forty 
feet and "seventy-five feet on Fifth Avenue. The firm then became J. D. Bernd & Co. by the admission of Mr. E. B. 
Eckstein as partner and occupying the entire three stox'ies of the premises. The three stories were built to accommo- 
date the increasing business of the firm, putting in elevator and all modern improvements, J. D. Bernd & Co. making 
all the interior embellishments and conveniences, making them the best adapted lofts for their business in this city, 
and, for that matter, any city in this country. 

In 187.3 Mr. S. L. Fleishman became a partner, with the view of adding notions and otherwise extending the busi- 
ness, but the panic followed, and it became necessary to contract instead of expanding. Mr. Fleishman retired from 
the business January 1, 187.5. In 1877, Messrs. C. B. Elben and S. M. Eose, two of the head salesmen, were admitted 
to a silent interest in the House. In 1878, Mr. E. B. Eckstein opened a Retail Branch House in St. Louis, as Bernd & 
Eckstein. This business at the end of the first year became such an assured success that Mr. Eckstein assumed the 
St. Louis business on his account, leaving Mr. J. D. Bernd to continue the Pittsburgh House. Mr. Bernd has been 
twice to Europe since his advent in Pittsburgh, each time importing goods and forming permanent connections with 
that view. They have a nominal office in Paris and an active one in New York City represented by a buyer ; besides, 
Mr. Bernd and Messrs. Eose and Elben are also frequently in the market. They use a fifty-lrip firm book over the 
Pennsylvania Railroad to New York. These books are good only for a year, which gives evidence of the enterprise 
and energy displaj'ed by this firm. ' Their sales range fi-om ?22.5, 000 to :$250,000 per annum, and being almost entirely 
Millinery Goods, gives it a commercial rank and standing among the largest of its class. Their business is largely in 
the two cities and through Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Their stores for neatness and 
cleanliness are considered the model ones in this city, and are constantly commented on as to how a nlace can be kept 
so clean and fresh in Pittsburgh. 

The business in all its various details of management is conducted upon principles of pure mer- 
cantile integi'ity, and it is to these merits that the credit, reputation and confidence of the House owes its success. 

WM PICKERSGILL, Jr -Man' fr, & Jobber of Boots & Shoes, 149 Wood St. 

As pursuing a very important branch of industry bearing upon the general commercial prosperity and mercantile 
thrift of this city, the House of Wm. Pickersgill, Jr., may not be overlooked in a publication whose special object will 
be attained in the proper display of the natural resources and acquired advantages of Pittsburgh as a great center of 
manufacturers and productive trade. 

This House was established in 1859, and for nearly a quarter of a century has continued a career whose success has 
been uninterrupted by the various convulsions, political and financial, that have taken place during that eventful 
period. Very early in its history Mr. Pickersgill perceived the advantages likelj' to accrue to his customers and him- 
self from the establishment of a manufactory, where not only every grade of goods might be produced, but where 
special orders could be filled with promptness and economy, enabling him to compete on equal grounds with the 
Eastern manufacturers. From this idea originated his present extensive factory (in the rear of tlie warehouse and 
sales rooms), a large brick building, 20x80 feet, three stories in height, where are constantly employed from forty-five 
to fifty skilled operatives and from which is turned out work in every department that will bear comparison with 
that emanating from the largest and best known manufactories in the country. With these facilities, and occupying 
one of the largest business edifices in the city, a trade that extends through Pennsylvania and Ohio, West Virginia, 
Iowa, Indiana and Ulinois, Mr. Pickersgill has established an annual business that will average about $2.50,000, and 
requires in its various departments, aside from the manufactory, six traveling salesmen, two book-keepers, five city 
salesmen and other employes. 

Altogether, the House of Mr. Pickersgill takes equal rank with any in the State and is entitled to consideration as 
such, while the jninciples upon which it is conducted are alike liberal and enterprising. As a business man the 
founder of this House has done no little to enhance the reputation of Pittsburgh in the diversity of its industries, and 
as one who has always conserved the public interest in every reformatory measure, he has achieved a place in the 
esteem of the community as richly deserved as it is sincere. 

A. O'Ij'BA'R'Y— China, Glass and Queensware, No. 73 Wood St. 

One of the oldest Houses in its line in this city is that of Mr. A. O'Leary, now situated at No. 73 Wood Street. 
The business was first started by John J. O'Leary in 1854, witli a capital of $10,000, and conducted by him up to 1871, 
when he was succeeded by the present proprietor who has perfected arrangements for meeting the wants of the trade 
ujion as good terms as any house in Cleveland or Pliiladelphia. He carries a stock of about $10,000, consisting of every 
desirable variety of Foreign and Domestic China, Glass and Queensware, and occupies three floors and basement of an 
ample building, where he employs three men and is doing a trade of about .f :jO,onO per annum, through Western Penn- 
sylvania, but has a large city trade. His Eetail Department offers special inducements and attracts a large patrona:jp. 
Mr. O'Leary handles English and French Goods quite extensively and imports directly from foreign manufacturers. He 
is thirty-five years of age, a native of this city, and an enterprising busine.ss man. 

GEl^Y & CO -Distillers & Wholesale Dealers in Whiskey, 184 & 186 First Ave. 

The house of Getty & Co., was founded in 1872 by Mr. James Getty, Jr., who is at present sole proprietor. Mr. 
Getty was born in Philadelphia, but became a resident of Pittsburgh at an early age. He deals largely in Wines, 
Liquors, etc., carrying a stock of about $5,000, and transacting a bu.siness of $30,000 per annum. His trade is principally 
located in Pittsburgh and vicinity, and he makes a specialty of supplying families with the purest and best articles of 
Old Manongahela Eye Whiskey. His stores are located at Nos. 184 & 186 First avenue, being 36x50 feet in size. To all, 
in want of a pure article of unadulterated liquors for medicinal or family use, we can confidently recommend the house 
of Getty and Co., whose goods are selected expressly for the purposes named. 

15 



112 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

McCANDIiESS, JAMISON & CO.-Dry Goods and Notions, 103 Wood St. 

This House was established in 1838 by Gregg & McCandless, succeeded by J. M. McCandless & Co. in 1851, and by 
the present style of firm in 1854, with a few changes in its members which are now composed of Jas. McCandless, 
Thomas Jamison and J. M. Simpson, who are still conducting the business, Mr. McCandless residing in the East, 
where he manages the purchasing department of the concern at No. 214 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

As the oldest, and one of the largest Dry Goods Houses in this city, its commercial connections range not alone 
over the State of Pennsylvania, but Eastern Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, together with other points more dis- 
tantly removed. Unshaken by the financial disasters that have wrecked less solid and conservative firms, the history 
of this House for forty-one years is one of the most pointed exponents possible of the business thrift and able man- 
agement of the concern, which in spite of all general depression has continued to increase its strength, trade and 
special facilities. 

In the departments of Woolens, Domestic Blankets and Flannels, this House oflfers inducements to buyers which 
are not only unrivalled in this but in any other market, and forms the bulk of the enormous business done by the 
firm, which in this city is conducted by Messrs. Jamison and Simpson, resident partners, whose names are synony- 
mous with that liberal commercial rectitude for which the House has always been characterized. 

ALBREE & CO.-Boots and Shoes, No. 71 Wood St. 

This House was established by Mr. Geo. Albree more than half a century ago, during which period the business has 
been conducted without interruption, regardless of general commercial derangements, financial panics, or social upheav- 
als. As the oldest Shoe house in the West, it is at the same time perhaps the best known, from the remarkable charac- 
teristics of its founder, whose unflinching integrity, great liberality, and financial solvency, are as widely recognized as 
his marked proficiency as a meteorologist. In 1876 Mr. Geo. Albree retired from active participation in the business, 
and was succeeded under the above title by his son, Jos. Albree, and W. P. Thomson, who still maintain the established 
conservative proclivities of the House, at the same time infusing into the business an energy that keeps it abreast of the 
times and in sharp competition with younger cotemporaries in the same trade.' The business premises occupied by the 
firm are of ample dimensions for the storage and display of a stock extraordinary for excellence, and the uniform care 
displayed in its selection. The jobbing trade of the house extends beyond pur own into two or three adjacent States, 
while the retail department, to which the liouse is giving close attention and great variety of styles to the custom, at 
prices ranging usually lower than the exnluseively retail houses, embraces the highest class of dealers and buyers with- 
in the commercial range of this city and home patrons. 

DR. GEORGE H. IK.'EYS'ER,- Physician, 120 & 240 Penn Ave. 

For many years the name of Doctor Keyser has been "familiar as household words" to most of the families of 
Pittsburgh and the towns within a radius of three hundred miles, not only by reason of the wonderful cures he has 
performed in his professional capacity, but the excellence and efficacy of the many preparations from his laboratory. 
Dr. Keyser is a native of Franklin county, Pa., but has for many years resided in Pittsburgh. He is a graduate of two 
medical schools, both allopathic and eclectic, and has attained considerable celebrity as a surgeon. He has been a 
practitioner for the past thirty-five years and met with the most gratifying success. Of late years he has abandoned 
the allopathic system of treatment and devotes his attention principally to the treatment and cure of chronic diseases. 
Probably no physician living to-day has devoted so much attention and study to diseases of the lungs and pulmonary 
organs, and we are confident that no one has effected so many permanent cures of the most difficult cases. The doctor 
has been a well known , highly respected and honored citizen of Pittsburgh for thirty-one years, during twenty-seven 
of which, he was proprietor of the leading drug store of the City, on Wood street. For a number of years he was pres- 
ident of the eclectic medical association of Allegheny county, and has always enjoyed the most unbounded confidence 
and respect of the profession. His oflices at present are at No. 120 and at 240 Penn Ave., his laboratory being at the 
latter number, where he manufactures and distributes all over the country, his famous preparations known as "Dr. 
Keyser's Lung Cure or Pulmonary Restorative," "Dr. Keyser's Pectoral Cough Syrup" and other medicines of his 
own exclusive discovery and manufacture. Tlie virtues of his widely known and justly celebrated medicines are 
known and appreciated by invalids in all parts of the world, and we can only advise all afflicted with diseases of the 
lungs or pulmonary organs, to call on Dr. Keyser, or send for his valuable works, which will be forwarded free on ap- 
plication as above. 

WM.GUCKERT& CO, -Desks, Tables, Wardrobes, Cherry d Strawberry Alleys. 

The manufacture of Extension and Centre Tables, Wardrobes, Office Desks, Book Cases and similar articles is car- 
ried on extensively in connection with that of Banisters, Newel posts. Hand Railings, &c., by Messrs. William Guckert 
& Co., at their factories, corner of Cherry and Strawberry alleys, between Smithfield & Grant Sts. This business was 
established in 1849 by Valentine Guckert & Bro., who were succeeded in 1878 by the present proprietors Messrs. Wil- 
liam, Anthony and Frank Guckert, all of whom are natives and life-long residents of Allegheny county. They occu- 
py two large factories at the location mentioned above, one, four stories in height, 50x60 feet in size, which is used for 
the manufacture of every description of cabinet work, and another, tliree stories high, 25x60, where wood turning, 
scroll sawing and jobbing of all lane's is carried on. The capital employed in the business is $15,000, and their trade, 
which is larger than that of any similar establishment in the West, extends through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, 
West Virginia and many of the other States. The specialty of this house is the manufacture of Centre and Extension 
Tables, of which they keep a large stock on hand and manufacture to order from any desired material and in any size 
or style. They also manufacture a variety of styles of Brackets from their own patterns and designs, besides giving 
their careful attention to every description of job work in their line. 

S. HAMILTON— Pianos and Organs, 87 Fifth Ave. 

In 1871 the firm of S. Hamilton & Co. was established, and in 1875 Mr. Hamilton became sole proprietor. The 
line of business carried on by him is that of wholesale and retail dealer in Pianos and Organs, being the only house in 
this city dealing exclusively in these instruments. He occupies the spacious sales rooms, 20x120 feet, at No. 87 Fifth 
avenue, nearly opposite the Pittsburgh Opera House, with a stock of these goods valued at from $20,000 to $25j000, do- 
ing an annual business of $150,000, which is the largest in that line of any house in the city. Mr. Hamilton is agent 
for the celebrated Decker Bros. Pianos and the Estey Cottage Organs, both of which articles have acquired a world- 
wide reputation as being second to none manufactured. While he makes a specialty of these superior articles, he also 
keeps a large line of cheaper grades and other makes, which, owing to the superior advantages posses.sed by him, he is 
enabled to sell at great bargains. Mr. Hamilton is a native of Allegheny county, and well known and widely e8t«emed 
as a citizen and business man. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 113 



ALLEGHENY INSURANCE CO.-Office, No. 67 Fourth Ave. 

Incorporated twenty years ago under the laws of Pennsylvania, as a Fire and Marine Insurance Co., the Alle- 
gheny Insurance Company began business April 4th, 1859, and is therefore intimately connected with the most vital 
periods of our commercial and municipal history. Among those who were interested in tlie inception of this organiza- 
tion as applicants for a charter and stockholders, are observed names that can never be omitted from a record of the 
industries of Pittsburgh ; the list is given entire, because many of them have passed away, leaving untarnished names 
and a projected influence that must affect every institution with which they were connected. Incorporation Commis- 
sioners : Hon. Thos. M. Howe, Jas. B. Murray, Esq., Dr. C. G. Hussey, Harvey Childs, Esq., \Vm. M. Lyon, Esq., 
John D. McCord, Esq., Isaac Jones, Esq., Geo. W. Jackson, John A. Wilson, Geo. E. White, Allen Kramer, Hon. 
Geo. W. Cass, Capt. Robt. Beer, R. B. Sterling, James Laughlin, Alexander Speer, Mark AV. Watson, and Robt. Pat- 
rick. The present officers of the company are as follows: John Irwin, Jr., Prest., Jas. S. McCord, Vice Prest., C. G. 
Donnell, Secty., and Capt. Wm. Dean, Gen'l Ag't., all being natives of Pennsylvania, except Capt. Dean, wiio was 
born in Columbiana Co., Ohio, but has been connected with this company for twenty years, and for thirty ycr.rs pre- 
vious was engaged in the River traffic between this point and Cincinnati as captain upon the old Packet line. Mr. 
Irwin is a member of the firm of T. H. Nevin & Co., White Lead Manufacturers, in Allegheny City, and Mr. McCord 
is now senior partner of the old house of McCord & Co., Hatters, No. 131 Wood St., and Mr. Donnell has always been 
intimately identified with the Insurance business as an able ur(derwriter. So officered and managed, this company 
has stood the various disasters of nearly a quarter of a century with unflinching solvency. It has paid all its losses 
promptly and rarely passed a dividend. With a paid up capital of $100,000 it has accumulated assets to the amount of 
$1.31,17.3,63, with a surplus of over $16,000. The policy of its management from the first has been a liberal and a just one, 
the natural result being that no similar institution in the city is regarded with greater favor or respect. 

CENTRAL REFINING CO -Office, 178 Wood Street. 

The gigantic growth and present importance of the Oil Trade in Pennsylvania, and especially with reference to 
its bearing upon the business of Pittsburgh, may be perhaps somewhat illustrated by a brief account of the operations 
of the Central Refining Company, wliich was incorporated in 1873, the officers being W. M. McKelvey, President, 
Wm. Frew, Esq., Vice President, and F. J. Gillespie, Secretary and Treasurer, the capital stock being $255,300. The 
property of the Company consists of one Refinery and Barrel Factory at Kennedy's Station on the West Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and one Refinery at Sharpsburg, on the same road, eighteen buildings, substantially constructed, 
forty tanks, two steam engines, fourteen steam pumps, with other machinery, together with all the modern apparatus 
of the barrel factory, covering in allnearly fifty acres. Here are employed about 350 hands in the various depart- 
ments, requiring a monthly disbursement of S12,000 and producing 40,000 barrels of Refined Oil per month, all of 
which finds its way to European and other foreign markets. 

J. H. ST'E'VENSOTS,- Attorney at Law, No. JOG Fifth Ave. 

In addition to his regular law practice, Mr. Stevenson is Notary Public, Real Estate Agent, Patent Attorney and 
Solicitor. He has been established in Pittsburgh since 1871 and enjoys a large and lucrative patronage. His Real 
Estate business is large, extending through Western Pennsylvania, and having a thorough understanding of the Pat- 
ent business, examinations of claims and securing patents has been very successful in that line. Mr. Stevenson was 
born in Lawrence county, Pa., in 1842. He received his early education in the public schools of New Castle, Pa., and 
read law with J. Smith Du Shane, Esq., then district attorney of Lawrence county. He was admitted to the bar in 
1868 at New Castle, where he practiced successfully for two years. He afterwards practiced three years in Beaver 
county, from which place he removed to Pittsburgh, where he has met with the most encouraging success and estab- 
lished a high reputation. 

C. F. AUIuBUS -Merchant Tailor, No. 77 Smithfield St. 

This house was established in 1867 as Ahlers and Bayha, the latter retiring from the firm in 1872 and Mr. Ahlers 
becoming sole proprietor. He has stock amounting in value to $4,000, and at present is transacting an annual business 
of 815,000, although at times it has amounted to as high as $25,000. He has eleven men in his employ, to whom he 
pays an average salary of $14 per week. His trade, which is large, and rapidly increasing, is located principally in 
the city and surrounding country. Mr. Ahlers' goods are of the best quality, and the fit and style of his suits are un- 
equalled in the city. He was born in Germany in 1834, and came to Pittsburgh in 1857, where he has since resided. 

H. 'LA.'SZt,— Boots and Shoes, 113 Market Street, at Junction of Market and Liberty Sts. 

Mr. Lanz is classed among the few fir.st-class workmen in the city. His neat establishment is divided into two 
departments, viz: — Manufactory and Salesroom, in which departments five hands, men who are thoroughly first-class 
workmen, are busily employed. Mr. Lanz carries a stock ranging from $2,000 to $3,000, composed of the very best ar- 
ticles that can be manufactured. He deals in all kinds of Men and Boys', as well as Misses' and Ladies' Goods, both 
of the heavy and fine manufacture. Mr. Lanz has been engaged in this business for about twenty years, and formerly 
was established at No. 21 Diamond Street, where he had hosts of cu.stomers and friends whom he still retains. His 
trade is located mainly in the city and is rapidly increasing since his removal to Market and Liberty Streets. He 
makes a specialty of Fine Custom Work, in the manufacture of which he has no superiors and few equals. 

R. C. OEHMLER,-yi/o. 78 Fourth Avenue. 

Painter, Proprietor & Mfr of Oehtnler's Patent Star Gold Faint, Liquid & Blackboard Slating, 

For fifteen years Mr. Oehmler has been one of the most prosperous painters in our city and still gives employment to 
6 or 8 hands, and often to a large number, in the capacity of house, office, sign and ornamental painting, gilding, etc. 
He is the patentee and manufacturer of Oehraler's Patent Star Gold Paint Liquid, "Ready Made Sizing" and Ochinler's 
Slating for Blackboards, all three of which are the results of his thorough knowledge of oils, paints and metals, after 
close study and untiring experiments. The Star Gold Paint Liquid and the Blackboard Slating are his specialties. 
The former being a composition used in the form of paint, which gives a bright, durable, bronze surface to metals to 
which it is applied, superior to any other preparation in the world; the latter, also in a form to be applied as paint, has 
had practical tests in our own public schools and has manifested all he claims for it as a superior slating surface for 
marking, distinctiveness and easiness of erasure, and, an excellent blackboard surface, applicable either to plaster, wood 
or paper. His products have already attained a celebrity throughout this country and Europe, and can be found in 
nearly every paint and drug store, being represented in our own city by Geo. A. Kelly & Co., and other first class 
houses. 
17 (8) 



114 INDUSTEIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. E. COLLINS & CO -Brokers in Pig Iron & Metals, 175 Wood St., Cor. Liberty. 

As Special Dealers and Brokers in Ores, Iron, Zinc, Lead and Metals, Pig Iron, Spelter, Spiegeleisen, Ferro, Man- 
ganese and Copper, New Iron and Steel Rails, Old Iron and Steel Bails and Car Wheels, Bessemer Rail Ends, etc., 
tlie firm of H. E. Collins & Co. have established a connection and risen to a prominence among the manufacturers of 
this city that places them at the head of this very important branch of industry. 

Mr. Collins is originally from New York State, and Mr. Jas. H. Murdock (the Co. of the tirm) is a native of Ohio, 
both, however, being intimately identified with the iron trade of Missouri and Pennsylvania for fifteen years. Thor- 
oughly educated in their business and practically familiar with the metals, and metallurgical properties, grades, dis- 
tinctions and qualities of the products in which they deal, tliis House can offer advantages to its customers not 
surpassed by any similar concern in the country. The wide extent from which this firm draws consignments em- 
braces every metal and ore-producing State, the Canadas and Great Britain, relations being established wherever the 
least advantage is to be gained or the slightest benefit accrues to those for whom they are commissioned to act. 

Though the career as a firm of H. E. Collins & Co. has dated only from 1877, the "progress they have made in that 
short period and the rapidly increasing importance of the House would be sufficient evidence, "were others wanting, 
that the energy, knowledge and enterprise displayed by it is a natural result, in the esteem and high consideration 
with which it is held. 

FLEISHMAN 'B'R.QS.-Trimmings, Millinery & Fancy Goods, No. 92 Market St. 

Founded by S. C. & E. Fleishman in 1875 as jobbers and retail dealers in Millinery, Fancy Goods, Flowers, Trim- 
mings and general Furnishing, this house soon became a prominent one from the enterprising and successful manner 
of its competition witli older cotemporaries. With a very comprehensive experience in the business, together with 
Eastern and importing connections that insure every advantage that can be desired from a careful scrutiny of the 
markets, tlie Messrs. Fleishman are almost always enabled to ofier extraordinary advantages to buyers, and are rapid- 
ly establishing this fact by the remarkable increase of their trade and the favor with which the house is regarded by 
the best buyers in the city. In Kid Gloves and Corsets, made specially for them, and protected with their own trade 
mark, the firm make a specialty, and in this line are beyond competition. Another specialty of the house is their 
millinery department, which is always represented with "a choice selection of trimmed hats, and others not trimmed, 
accommodating parties by trimming to order, which gives emploj-ment to a large force of trimmers wlio occupy the 
second floor of the building. With handsome and commodious premises in the very best location, a numerous staff 
of assistants, and a stock noted for the good taste evinced in selection, the house of Messrs. Fleishman Bros, is heartily 
commended to the public as affording facilities in their line of trade hard to duplicate in this or any other city. 

THOMAS M.A.'H.'Et^— Saddlery Hardware and Carriage Trimmings, 135 Wood Street. 

This branch of business has assumed extensive proportions, and this old-established House has long enjoyed a 
remunerative patronage, offering as it has in the past and still continues to do, the best facilities to the trade for sup- 
plying articles in this line upon the most favorable terms. This business was originally started in 1856 bj' McWhin- 
ney, Hare & Co. In 1861 the Company was dropped from the firm. In 1866 it became Thomas Hare & Brother. Upon 
the death of his brother in January, 1878, Mr. Thomas Hare assumed the entire control of the business, which he 
continues to conduct with most encouraging results and business ability. He carries a stock of from $40,000 to $.50,000 
and his annual sales will reach about $125,000. His place of business is at 135 Wood Street, above Fifth Avenue, 
where he occupies four floors and basement of an ample building and employs eight inside clerks and keeps two trav- 
eling salesmen, with trade princiiaally through Oliio and Western Pennsylvania. He carries large and diversified 
lines of Saddler's Hardware, both foreign and domestic, and Carriage Trimmings of all desirable kinds. His thorough 
acquaintance with the business and superior facilities enable him to offer the closest figures to the trade and to com- 
pete with an5'- house in this city, or with Cleveland or Philadelphia. Mr. Hare has been a resident of Pittsburgh 
since 1847, and is consequently closely identified with its business interests and prosperity. 

G. B. BARRETT & CO —Wholesale Jewelers, dc. No. 77 Fifth Avenue. 

Pittsburgh combines more geographical advantages of position than any inland city of the United States. Within 
a radius of four hundred miles from the Iron City some of the following States entire and portions of others may be 
reached : Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, New Jersey, 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Canada West. With such a vast scope for the sale of her manufactures and merchandise, is it any 
wonder that she stands to-day celebrated for the magnitude and extent of her trade and for the enterprise of her mer- 
chants and business men? In every branch of trade required in the United States, Pittsburgh can boast of represent- 
ative business houses which compare favorably with any in the Eastern cities. In the line of Fine Watches, 
Diamonds and Jewelry, the House of G. B. Barrett & Co., of No. 77 Fifth Avenue, takes rank among the leading and 
most reliable in the land. The firm was established in 1871 by the present proprietors, Mr. G. B. Barrett and Mr. 
Wallace Patrick. They occupy two floors, 25x82, employing nine clerks and assistants and transacting a yearly busi- 
ness of from $100,000 to $200,000, which is principally in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and 
territory adjacent. They carry a stock of $50,000 to" $60,000, are extensive importers of Diamonds, Watches, Jewelry, 
Clocks, Watch-makers' Materials, etc. Mr. Barrett is a native of Eastern Ohio, where he was born in 1834. He has 
been a resident of Pittsburgh since 1869. Mr. Patrick was born in Ireland in 1829, but has for many years lived and 
done business in Pittsburgh. This is the largest wholesale jobbing house in Pittsburgh in the jewelry line. 

JOHN J. TULcCOBMlCK -European Steamship Agent, Smithfield St. & Fourth Av. 

The leading agent in Pittsburgh for the various European Steamship Lines, and also holds first, fifth and tenth 
position amongst the leading agents of the U. S. For the National Line, first in the United States, Inman, fifth, 
Cunard, ninth, is Mr. John J. McCormick, whose office is located at the corner of Smithfield Street and Fourth 
Avenue. Mr. McCormick was born in the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1834, and came to Pittsburgh in 1865. In the 
year 1868 he opened an office as General Steamship Agent, and the business under his management has grown to be 
one of considerable importance. Mr. McCormick directly represents the following well-known lines, viz: Cunard, 
Inman, White Star, National, American, Guion, Anchor, State, Red Star, etc., and Steamers to San Francisco, Aus- 
tralia, Bermuda, Nassau, Savannah, Florida, etc. He also procures drafts for £1 and upwards on the leading and most 
responsible banks of Dublin, Belfast, London, Glasgow and at Companies' offices in London, Liverpool, Queenstown, 
Belfast, Derry and Glasgow, and attends to the obtaining of Passports and other Notarial business. His business, be- 
sides being la"rgely of a local character, extends through the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, 
and many of the Western States. 

18 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 115 



WM. P. BBNNUTT, -Blank Books, Binding, etc., No. 94 Fifth Avenue. 

For excellence of vcorkmanship, quality of material, beauty of design and durability, the specimens of Blank 
Books turned out from the Bindery of Mr. Win. P. Bennett will compare favorably with those of any other establish- 
ment in the country. The business was founded in 1859 by J. R. Welden and in 1875 it passed into the hands of Mr. 
Bennett, who is a thorough, practical workman and master of his trade. Mr. Bennett is a native and life-long resident 
of Allegheny City, where he was born in 1851. He carries a stock of about gl, 200 and transacts a yearlv business of 
from S^lGjOOOto §20,000 in the manufacture of Blank Books and all kinds of work pertaining to a General Book Bindery. 
He occupies two floors, 22x65, at No. 94 Fifth Avenue, giving employment to fifteen hands, with a weekly pay-roU 
amounting to about $150.00. His trade, which is confined principally to the two cities and adjacent country, is of the 
best class and is steadily increasing. Mr. Bennett's specialties are Blank Book Work and Sunday-School SuppUes. 

F. SUA'NIall'Y, -Boots and Shoes, 46 Smithfield Street. 

The business now conducted by Mr. Shanley at No. 46 Smithfield Street, between Third and Fourth Avenues, 
was established in 1865 by Mr. T. McCartan. In 1870, Mr. Shanley was admitted as a partner under the firm name of 
McCartan & Shanley. In 1874, the style of firm was again changed to Shanley & KeUey, and in 1877 Mr. Shanley be- 
came sole proprietor. Under all these changes of administration the popularity of the goods manufactured by" this 
House has remained unchanged and the trade has steadily increased until it has become as extensive as that of any 
similar establishment in the city. Mr. Shanley occupies the entire three-story building, 20x65 feet, at the number 
mentioned, with a stock valued at from $12,000 to S16,000. His yearly business exceeds 130,000 and extends all over 
the country, Mr. Shanley having customers even in California and Texas. He employs twelve first-class workmen, 
whose pay amounts to about $125.00 per week. The manufacture of fine Boots and Shoes for Ladies and Gentlemen, 
is a specialty of this House and Mr. Shanley numbers among his regular customers a large number of the first families 
of the Smoky City as well as of adjoining States. Mr. Shanley was born in Ireland in 1843 and came to the United 
States in 1866, locating in Pittsburgh, where he has since resided. 

WALTER KTSHyYiBSOTS, -Merchant Tailor, Cor. Wood & 6th Av. & 226 Liberty St. 

There is no longer a question as to the propriety of the employment of a competent Merchant Tailor, with those 
who appreciate properly fitting garments. Clothes made for nobody in particular, never fit anj'body in particular. 
One of the most popular establishments of this kind in this city is that of Mr. Walter Anderson, whose place of busi- 
ness is situated as above. The business was started in March, 1875, and has met with marked success ever since its 
commencement. Mr. Anderson was born in Scotland in 18.34, and came to this country in 1865. He will be found a 
pleasant and reliable gentleman to transact business with, and as he employs onlj' first class experienced cutters and 
workhands, you are assured perfect fitting and well made garments. This, he is at all times prepared to guarantee. 
His stock of price goods embraces Fine Cloths, English and French Cassimeres and all the most popular styles for 
coats, pants, vests or suits. He carries a stock of about .f 6,000, which is constantly being replenished from the most 
reliable manufacturers and importers in the country, and the annual sales are about t25,000. About twenty hands 
are employed in the manufacturing department, and his facilities for desirable goods, neat fits and lowest prices are 
unsurpassed by any establishment of the kind, East or West. 

ROBERT JJ^K,— Engine Builder and Machinist, Cor. First Avenue and Ferry Street. 

Peculiarly noted for its numerous mechanical industries, and especially those pertaining to the manufacture of 
machinery and the conversion of iron in all its forms, the establishment of Mr. Robert Lea becomes a natural subject 
of comment in a publication devoted to a thorough display of the resources of Pittsburgh and its gi-adual development. 

Apprenticed as a boy in 1833, at seventeen years of age, to the firm of Stockhouse & Tomlinson, the pioneer ma- 
chinists of this city, Mr. Lea became, upon the acquirement of his trade, a member of the firm of Warden, Nicholson 
& Co., (Mr. Lea and Mr. Marlette forming the "Co."), which firm, in 1844, built the entire machinery for the J. M. 
White, the famous swift Mississippi steamboat, whose time still remains on record as never having been beaten, Mr. 
Lea making the patterns for all the machinery.) subsequently Warden & Lea, succeeded by Robert Lea in 1854, and 
continuing'without change from that period. With a gTandfather who was a soldier in the French and Indian War of 
1758 under General Forbes, and residing in the homestead where his father and himself were reared, Mr. Lea may 
indeed be regarded as having a more than ordinary interest in the welfare of this community, and vitally interested 
through his present enterprises as well as the traditions of the past, with everything that pertains to or bears upon 
the prosperity of the Iron City. 

Though commencing business in a very small way and with but limited means, a steady increase has taken place, 
which puts this house upon a par with any in the city. Occupying premises that cover 60x104 feet, the works are di- 
vided into four departments, viz : — Pattern Shop, Machine Shop, Fouiidry and Blacksmith Shop, the machinery of 
which is of the most superior kind and is operated by a twenty-horse power engine. Here Marine and Stationary 
Steam Engines are constructed of various designs and every desired capacity. Patterns made, and Castings of all de- 
scriptions in iron made to order. From thirty to thirty-five men are engaged, nearly all of whom are skilled artizans. 

To the matter of Steamboat Machinery, Engines and Blacksmithing special attention is given, and the work 
turned out by this establishment has achieved a reputation that has extended the trade of the House to many of the 
adjacent and Western States. During the xjrolonged business career of Mr. Lea he has been not unficquently identi- 
fied with numerous civic and social reforms and connected with many of the staunchest institutions in Pittsburgh, 
such as Banks, Insurance Companies and other corporations. Always exerting an infiuence for good, he is well 
entitled to the high esteem with which he is universally regarded, the rich results of a life of laborious integrity. 

J. P. DZEHL & SON,-M^a// Paper, No. 175 Liberty Street. 

This house, though having been established as late as 1877, has already taken a prominence in the Wall Paper trade 
that places it among those that stand at the head of business in this community, and entitles it to mention in a work csf 
this kind. Started by J. P. and H. J. P. Diehl, father and son, under the "above style, these gentlemen brous;ht an 
extented experience to the work, the senior partner having been connected with the l)usiness for 20 years in this city, 
the junior half that time. Witli an ample capital for rea.sonable re(iuirements the firm secured the premises at No. 175 
Liberty Street, consisting of one three-story brick building, with basement, the whole of which is occupied by the 
house for a storage and arrangement of one or the most complete and elegant assortments of the Wall Paper and Costly 
Hangings to be found in this city. From the cheapest paper at 8 cents per roll to that at |15 this house can supply ail 
grades, together with every variety of decoration and-ornament, suitable for modern and antique styles of furnishing. 
Five or six hands are employed in the business, which extends not only to the city and environs, but over a large part 
of Western Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Carrying a stock valued at over 910,000, the firm atford the most ad- 
mirable facilities for a selection in all grades, styles and prices, and have established a reputation for integrity and 
general reliability that tends to make all dealings with them of the most satisfactory character. 

19 



116 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

S. BOYD 8c CO,— Looking Glasses, Pictures and Frames, No. 100 Wood Street. 

The headquarters in Pittsburgh for Looking Glasses, Frames, Fine Pictures, Elegant Engravings and Works of 
Art, is at the establisliiuent of S. Boyd A, Co., No. 100 Wood Street. This House was founded in 1865 by Boyd, 
Murray & Fawcett, who were succeeded by Boyd & Murray, and in 1874 the firm became S. Boyd & Co. Their large 
and spacious salesrooms at the number named are 23x85 feet, and they occupy the entire four stories and basement, 
carrying a stock ranging in value from $16,000 to $19,000 and employing here ten assistants. Their stock comprises a 
large line of elegant Plate Glass Mirrors, Fine Engravings, Chromos, Lithographs, Photographs, Statuettes and arti- 
cles of virtu. Their faclory is located at the corner of Ferry Street and First Avenue, occupying one floor 40x80 and 
employing ten workmen. They manufacture the finest description of Mirror Frames and also those of a cheaper and 
more common grade, employing a different set of hands on each kind. They also manufacture every description of 
Cheap Frames, and have jjushed their business in this department to such an extent that their trade reaches everj- 
portion of the country. They sell largely to the trade in Louisville, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago and other Western 
cities, and their trade in the East is even larger than in the Western States. The manufacture of Cheap Frames and 
Fine Walnut Mirror Frames is a specialty of this House. At their salesrooms the Fine Art Department is the most 
noticeable specialty and tlie display of Fine Engravings cannot be excelled. Mr. S. Boyd was born in Washing- 
ton County, Pennsylvania, in 1821, and came to Pittsburgh in 1845. Mr. D. S. Boyd is also a native of Washington 
County, and Mr. J. B. Ncvin, the junior member of the firm, was born in Beaver county of this State. This is one of 
the most reliable and straightforward firms in our city, well deserving the very large patronage which they enjoy. 

A. J. ^T'ESl'Lll.-Wagon Maker, 58 and 60 Anderson Street. 

Mr. Steele commenced the business in which he is now engaged in 1862, with a capital of only $125. This he has 
increased until he now constantly keeps on hand a stock of 81500 to $2,000 and does an annual business of from $6,000 
to $10,000. He occupies a building 41x80 feet and three stories high, with good yard attached, and employs seven men 
in the several departments, with a pay-roll of $52 per week. Every description" of Wagons, Carts, Drays and Spring 
Wagons, Wheel Barrows, Trucks, Skids, etc., are here manufactured in the best and most durable manner, and, at 
the same time, particular attention is paid to Repairing and Job Blacksmithing. His trade is local. 

Mr. Steele was born in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania, April 7, 1835, and came to this city nine years later. He 
began business on Washington Street, Pittsburgh, in May, 1862. He is widely known and esteemed. 

WHITE, ORR & CO -Dry Goods, No. 85 Fifth Avenue. 

One of the oldest Retail Dry Goods Houses in the West was established in 1828 by Geo. R. White, Esq., now 
deceased, and'continued at the present time under the above title by Messrs. James White and R. Leslie Orr, the 
latter being the eldest son of Mr. Robert Orr, also deceased, formerly the active partner in the House and well-known 
as being a man of great ability, possessed in a remarkable degree with the highest sense of personal and commercial 
honor. 

No House in the same line of business stands higher than Messrs. W^hite, Orr & Co., for the character of its trade 
and tlie uniformly excellent quality of the goods in which they deal — especially in Linens, Dress Goods, Hosiery, 
White Goods, Silks, Cloaks and Shawls, Curtains and Domestic Fabrics, etc. The premises occupied by the firm are 
perhaps tlie most spacious and elegant in the city — centrally and prominently located, every convenience and facility 
is afforded buyers, who by the extent of the annual trade freely attest the esteem in which this House is held. 

GEO. A. KELLY & CO,-Wholesale Druggists, Cor. Wood St. & First Ave. 

As an important factor in the growth and general progress of this city, the Drug trade has played no insignificant 
part, as might be illustrated by the detailed history of the above house, which was established during the infancy of 
our commerce, half a century ago, by B. A. Fahnestock & Co., who were succeeded in 1872 by the above firm, com- 
posed at present of Geo. A. Kelly, Capt. Jehu P. Smith, (Estate of) and Van R. Smith. 

The business premises occupied by the house are located on the corner of First Avenue and Wood St., and consist 
of a large four-story double brick edifice, admirably situated and adapted for the trade. The departments are numer- 
ous and embrace Paints, Oils, Varnishes, Dye-Stuffs, American and Foreign Chemicals, with a large and complete as- 
sortment of Drugs and Druggists' Sundries, Perfumery, &c., &c., aggregating a stock of the average value of $100,000 
with a businesss that requires the employment of It) hands, and a weekly disbursement for salaries of over $300. Mr. 
Geo. A. Kelly is a native of this city, where he was born in 1832 : at a very early age his education was commenced in 
the Drug business, which he acquired thoroughly in all its branches, and with which he has been intimately identified 
all his life. Upon succeeding the firm of B. A. Fahnestock it Co., he became associated in business with Capt. Jehu 
P. Smith, who dying several years subsequently, his son Van R. Smith, who had been engaged in the house since 
1872, was admitted to an interest in 1876. Prominent in every public movement that seemed to promise a greater de- 
gree of prosperity and comniercial importance for the Iron City, Mr. Kelly has achieved a reputation for business vi- 
gor and intellectual aptitude, that has given great weight to every undertaking in which he has been concerned. As- 
a firm Geo. A. Kelly & Co. stand, in its resources, magnitude of its transactions and high business qualities, at the 
head of the trade in this city, justly esteemed for those attributes, liberality, integrity and thrift, which invariably 
conduce to solid and lasting success. 

B. TTEOJL'L— Merchant Tailor, No. 58 Smithfield Street. 

For more than a decade, the name and fame of Mr. B. Tiegel, as a Fashionable and Reliable Merchant Tailor, has 
been familiar to the citizens of Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania, where he has a large and profitable business 
acquaintance. And not alone throughout this immediate section has his reputation extended, for his customers may 
be found in nearly every Western State and Territory. From the mines of Colorado, the growing cities of the far West, 
even unto the sunny slopes of the Pacific Ocean are orders received for garments of Mr. Tiegel's manufacture. Strict 
attention to business, uudeviating honesty, and the artistic excellence of his fits, are undoubtedly the secrets of his 
success in business. 

Mr. Tiegel is a native of Breslau, Province of Silesia, FVussia, and was born in the year 1845. At the age of nine 
years he came to the United States, and in 1865 he removed to Pittsburgh, where he' has since resided. In l8G8he 
commenced business for liimself, on a comparatively moderate scale, and to-day his Establishment will compare 
favorably with any similar one in the United States. He employs regularly from six to fourteen experienced work- 
men, his weekly pay roll at times amounting to nearly two hundred dollars. Carrying a carefully selected stock of the 
best materials of from $4,000 to $5,000 in value, his annual trade amounts to nearly twenty thousand dollars. He 
occupies the entire building (four stories), 20x30 feet in diuiensious, at No. 53 Smithfield Street, besides having a 
considerable portion of his manufacturing done by outside parties. 

20 



II 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 117 



CAMPBELL, WILLIAMSON &, J}1CK,-Dry Goods. 88 & 85 Fifth Ave. 

This is the leading house in Pittsburgh doing an exclusively cash business in the Dry Goods line. It was estab- 
lished in 1871 by the present proprietors under the title of the "People's Store," a name which has since become widely 
known and deservedly popular throughout the two cities and the adjoining territory. The members of the firm are: 
Mr. William Campbell, who was born in Perthshire, Scotland, and came to .the United States in 1865 and located in 
Pittsburgh in 1871; Mr. Andrew Williamson, a native of Fyfeshire, Scotland, born in 1838, a resident of the United 
States since I860, and of Pittsburgh since 1871 ; Mr. Peter Dick was borii at Paisley, Scotland, and came to America at 
the age of eighteen, and located in Pittsburgh eight years ago. They occupy two floors of the spacious " Masonic Hall 
Building," Nos. So and 85 Fifth Avenue, 50.xll0 feet, and carry on a General Wholesale and Petail Business in Diy 
(ioods. Notions and Carpets. Their stock, which is very full in all its departments, comprises every description of goods 
pertaining to their line, and is estimated at from S70,000 to $100,000, with an annual trade e.xceeding ip200,000. They 
employ from twenty-five to thirty clerks and assistants, and in the Winter season manufauture large quantities of 
Ladies' Cloaks and Suits. In the Summer they manufacture Ladies' Dresses in great variety. • Their regular trade is 
principally derived from the two cities and the towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio within a radius of two hundred miles, 
with considerable transient business from all parts of the Union. 

E. P. ROBERTS &, SO'NS,-Jewelers, No. 16 Fifth Avenue. 

One of the best known and oldest establishments of its kind in Pittsburgh is that of Messrs. E. P. Roberts & Sons. 
Establislied thirty years ago by J. M. Roberts, Esq , whose demise in 1866 occasioned a change to the present firm. Ko 
house in this community has enjoyed a more deserved popularity. The individual members of the firm are E. P., S. P. 
and C. W. Roberts, all of whom give their personal attention to the business, which embraces a manufacturing depart- 
ment where every class of work is elegantly and artistically made to order The stock, valued at S30,000, is not so 
remarkable for its extent as the exquisite taste and judgment evinced in its selection. In the matter of Silver and 
Silver Plated Ware, Diamonds, Jewels, Ornaments, and especially fine Clocks and American Watches, this house can 
perhaps otter facilities to buyers, in the way of selection and price, not to be duplicated west of New York. Five 
assistants are constantly employed, and the trade, amounting to $10,000 annually, extends through Pennsylvania and 
adjacent States. Messrs. E P. Roberts & Sons are all natives of Pittsburgh,' and have done no small service in 
promoting the mercantile credit and thrift of the Iron City. 

WM. Mc. C. DRAVO,-(?/75, No. 99 Water Street. 

The subject of this brief sketch was born in the City of Pittsburgh in 1834, and has, in a measure, grown up with 
the business of the city, and been for a numt)er of years connected with the leading blanches of the city's industries ; 
having formerly been connected with the coal trade, and since T876 in his present business of Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in Ijubricating and Signal-Light Oils. These are manufactured for the special trade of this house and are always 
perfectly pure and reliable, and of such a quality as to have built up for the house of W. Mc. C. Dravo an influential 
reputation with the river trade which forms the chief patronage of this house. To dealers throughout the city, and the 
entire country, as well as to those engaged in the river traffic, the Editor respectfully calls attention to the full line and 
choice Oils of this house, as I. X. L Engine Oil, Head-Light Oil, Caibon Oil, Natural Lubricating Oil, Pit Car Oil, &c., 
as well as to his department of Engineers' Supplies in Machinery Grease, Belt Stuffing, and Wliite and Red Lead, 
Colors and Varnishes, Lamp Globes and Wicks, etc., all of which they will find at the lowest market prices. 



C. YEAGER & CO, -Wholesale Dry Goods, dc, No. 110 Market Street. 

Established forty years since, by Christian Yeager, the senior partner of the present firm, this house is perhaps as 
intimately connected and identified with the development and prosperity of Pittsburgh as any commercial enterprise 
in the city. A native of Lancaster, Pa., Mr. Yeager settled in this community in 1835, and in 1839 began his present 
business, in a small way, with but a very limited capital in cash, but generally endowed with business ability of a high 
order, energy, economy and integrity, and with these as his ujain dependencies he founded the present house. In a 
history extending over nearly half a century, no house can exhibit a more untarnished career, with the rapid growth 
of the city, its trade prospered, and for over thirty years it has been a direct importer of every class and grade of 
Fancy Goods, Toys, Notions and Fabrics, its sales having reached as high as $360,000 per annum. As an enterprising, 
but remarkably conservative man, Mr. Yeager has alwaws been the custodian of numerous public and private trustis, 
and is at the present time President of the Pennsylvania Insurance Co., a Vice-President of the Dollar Savings Bank, 
Director of Mechanics' National Bank, member of several Benevolent Societies, and more or less interested in the 
Reformatory Institutions of the State. 

Dealing largely in Dry Goods, Fancy Goods and Hosiery, this house pursues the policy of having no traveling 
salesman, a plan which if generally adopted would add greatly to the profit of producer, dealer and consumer. For 
this and other reasons, the results of a long and varied experience, the firm is prepared to oti'er advantages to the trade 
hardly to be duplicated in this country, and a stock of goods that for extent and variety would be impossible to match 
in the State. 

H. C. Yeager is the company of the house, and has under his special charge the books and clerical department. 
The premises of the firm are ample and consist of the five story brick building No. 110 Market Street, 21x80 feet, and 
stocked with goods from basement to roof. Nine assistants are employed here to aid in the conduct of the businers 
which ranges over Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia. In the consideration of the community no house takes a 
higher rank, or is more deserving of the success which it has achieved, or the spotless reputation it bears. 

E. J. WARING & co-star Oil Works, Office, No. 49 Fifth Avenue. 

Bt'ftnery, Bennett's Station, W. P. It. H. 

Eleven yearn ago this business was established by Messrs. LafTerty & Waring. Subsequently, in 1868, Mr. Lafferty 
died and was succeeded by .J. H. Ralston, Esq.. and the firm became Ralston & Waring, till his death in 1872, when 
the above title was assumed. When the firm first began business, they did so with a limited capital, which, however, 
was enlarged from time to time until the capacity of the works now reaches 26,000 barrels crude oil, monthly. Conveniently 
located, on the Allegheny River near Bennett's Station, W. P. R.R., the works consist of five buildings, with numerous 
tanks, stills, etc., which occupy five acres of ground, and afford every facility for the business. The average trade of 
the concern is ibout S300,000 per annum, and the monthly pay roll, when in full operation, will amount to from $1,600 
to $1,800, and a force of forty-five hands employed. -^Mr. Waring is a native of Saratoga Co., New York, and is now 
thirty-one years old. He came to Pittsburgh in 1865 and has since been intimately identified with the oil trade. 
Possessed of no ordinary business ability, as well as a high sense of personal rectitude, liis great success is regarded as 
being as natural as it is well deserved, and entitles him fairly to occupy the elevated position he has achieved in 
commercial and social circles. 

21 



118 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

KOWNBUJM.-Optician, No. 25 Fifth Ave. 

Though having been a resident of Pittsburgh for only three years, Mr. Kornblum has already established a repu- 
tation of being the best optician and most capable dealer in philosophic intruments of any man in this city. A native 
of Austria, he acquired his profession under the best scientific masters of his vocation in Vienna and Europe, and 
since his residence in America for 16 years has devoted himself entirely to the attainment of perfection, in his chosen 
profession, with the most signal success. His ^yide experience as an optician has been followed by a reputation that 
places him in correspondence with the most distinguished men from all sections of the country, who desire to avail 
themselves of his marked proficiency. Upon every point relating to the eye and its diseases and defects, he is 
thoroughly posted, and by a merely superficial observation gauges the strength of the organ in any case and selects 
lenses of the appropriate power. At his present location, to wliich he has just removed, will be found a complete 
and carefully selected stock of Spectacles, and every variety of rare scientific and philosophic instruments, the work 
of the best "makers in this country and in pjurope. Those at a distance may be assured that any orders by mail or 
enquiries, will receive prompt and intelligent responses, and further that any business placed in the hands of Mr. 
Kornblum, will result in the most satisfactory manner and a continued appreciation of his unquestioned abilities. 

D. W. C. CARROLL & CO -Fort Pitt Boiler, Bridge and Tank Works. 

Corner Third A.ve. and Liberty St. and Second A.ve. and Short St. 

The history of this house has been so intimately connected with the development of the trade of Pittsburgh, that 
no record of the Industries of this community would be complete that did not take cognizance of the firm of D. W. C. Car- 
roll & Co. and its predecessors. Established in 1843, the business was founded by M. Stackhouse, Esq., succeeded by 
H. Busha &. Co., who preceded C. Gutendorf & Co., who gave place to Caroll and Snyder, who were succeeded by the 
present proprietors, D. W. C. Carroll and R. G. Jones, under the caption title, in 1872 ; the business premises and works 
of the firm occupy an entire square fronting on four streets. Short and Liberty Streets, and Second and Third 
Avenues, consisting of a substantial brick building, ranging from one to three stories in hight, well supfilied with the 
most approved machinery, consisting in part of one 45 horse power engine with two boilers of 40 and 15 horse power 
respectively, 10 foot plate rolls, 2 pairs power shears for cutting the heaviest iron plate, 9 power punches for boiler 
plates, one plate planing machine, 8 vertical drills and many other pieces of ingenious mechanism and tools proper to 
the trade, making in all the best equipped works in the city, or west of the Allegheny Mountains. The extent to 
which the business of this concern has reached is not limited to the United States, but embraces Mexico, much of 
South America and Canada, finding customers in fact in nearly all parts of the world. 

In the manufacture of Steam Boiler and Heavy Plate, Iron Bridges, Buildings, Oil Tanks, Gas Holders, and Sheet 
Iron Work generally, this House has few rivals and no superiors. The first Oil Refining appliances, Tanks, Stills, 
etc., ever manufactured in this city, were constructed by this establishment, which still maintains a celebrity un- 
equalled for this class of work. The iron dredge boat "G. W. R. Bailey," used by Capt. J. B. Eads in his excavation 
of the Mississippi Jetties, was built by this firm, who have, perhaps, made more steamboat outfits in their line than 
any other concern in the business. For some years the manufacture of boilers for agricultural machinery has engaged 
the attention of the House asa specialty, their admirable facilities insuring work of a high order of excellence in this 
department, which is rapidly assuming greater importance. 

The firm employ seventy-five men in the business and do a trade that approximates a quarter of a million dollars 
annually. Mr. C. H. Parker, the manager, is a gentleman of wide experience, a native of Providence, R. I., and formerly 
engineer of the National Bridge Works, of Boston, Mass. The members of the firm are both natives of Pittsburgh and 
have always resided here, intimately involved in the iron trade, and, as a firm, it is not too much to say that in every 
respect it stands at the highest point in the estimation of its cotemporaries and the commercial world at large. 

HEAD & 'SILeEL'RO'Y —Produce Commission Merchants, No. 249 Liberty Street. 

Dealers in Butter, Eggs, Cheese, Flour, Grain, Seeds, Fruit, Vegetables &c. 

This house refers by permission to the Hon. Robt. Sidell, Mayor of Pittsburgh, Messrs. Arbuckles & Co., whole- 
sale Grocers, Geo. S. Head, Esq., President of Second National Bank, Pittsburgh. Head & McElroy began business 
in their present location, April, 1876, succeeding the old and well-known Wholesale Grocery House of Head & Metz- 
gar. Tliey occupy the fine four-story, iron-front warehouse No. 249 Liberty Street, the location being the choicest for 
this style of business in the city, the largest and most complete warehouse "used in the produce commission business 
in Pittsburgh, having a deptli of 120 feet, four lofty stories, a splendid cool cellar, steam engine, two elevators, one of 
which is operated by steam, two offices with speaking tubes and telephone, and all the modern appliances for the 
careful and prompt despatch of business. With these facilities and a full force of efficient hands, all business is 
tran.sacted promptly, accurately and intelligently, and upon sound business principles. Head & McElroy, during the 
three years in which they have been in business, have built up a trade that will not suffer by comparison with the 
oldest established house in the trade in Pittsburgh. The plan pursued by this House has been to sell without delay 
all consignments and to make prompt retui-ns tlierefor, which, judging from their success, seems to commend itself to 
the favor of shippers as the correct method of doing business. They also make liberal advances upon non-jierishable 
goods, where it is desired. Any one having business in this line can feel assured that it could not be entrusted to 
safer hands. 

J. B. IKAHRCH.'E'R^-Hardware and Cutlery, 73 Market Street. 

The Hardware House of J. B. Kaercher was established at the above location in 1877, and from a comparatively 
moderate beginning has, within the past two years, met with encouraging success, and he now transacts a business of 
about $12,000 per annum. Mr. Kaercher occupies three floors of the building at No. 73 Market Street, 13x60, and 
carries a general line of Hardware and Cutlery, embiacing all the leading and staple articles known to the trade. His 
business is principally local. Mr. Kaercher is a native of Pittsburgh, having been born in 1859, and has had six years 
experience in the business. 

BROWN, MURPHY &; THRTIG -Sewer-Pipe, Cement, etc., 

No. 65 and 67 SandtisJcy Street, Allegheny, 

The firm of Brown, Murphy & Fertig was established January 1, 1878, as successors to Mr. Charles Brown. Their 
office and yard are located at Nos. 65 and 67 Sandu.sky Street, which is the Headquarters in Allegheny for the cele- 
brated Akron Sewer Pipe. They are also wholesale and retail dealers in all the standard brands of Hydraulic 
Cement, Terra Cotta Chimney-tops, Hot and Cold Air Flue Linings, Chimney Flues and other Terra Cotta Goods, 
Fire Brick, Grate Tile and Ground Fire Clay, White Sand, Lime, Plaster, etc. The building occupied by them is a 
three-story .structure, 30x100, with a commodious yard adjoining. They carry an average stock of about $3,000 and 
transact a business in the two cities and surrounding towns which is principally local, amounting to $15,000 per an- 
num. The individual members of the firm are Charles Brown, J. G. Murphy and Frank Fertig. 

22 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 119 



MILLER, FORSE & CO,-Wholesale Liquors, No. 253 Liberty St 

As a representative House in the line of one of the hn-gest commercial and manufacturing industries of this city, 
and, at the same time, one of the oldest, the firm of Miller, Forse & Co. are entitled to more than hrief mention in a 
publication of tliis descrijition. Founded in IS:'.!, w nearly half a century ago, by Wm. Miller, Esq., who began busi- 
ness upon a capital of 81,000, the fortunes of the House have been as intimately connected witli the rise and develop- 
ment of the industries of Pittsburgh as any concern in the community. For many years the business was conducted 
by Mr. Miller alone, and during that period he not only established a reputation for honor and responsibility that 
ranked him first among the pioneer business men of the city, but laid the foundations of a great monetary success. 

In 1866, by the death of Chas. Ricketson, the style of the House was changed to Wm. Miller. In 1869, however, 
the firm title became Wm. Miller & Co., remaining as such till 1S72, when Mr. Miller, having accumulated a fortune 
estimated to be not less than $1,000,000, dissolved the partnership by his demise and the present firm shortly suc- 
ceeded, being composed of Morris Miller, Esq., nephew of Wm. Miller, Esq., and Wm. H. Forse, who conduct the 
business upon the same principles, respecting those traditional rules of the House, upon which its prosjjerity has 
hinged so largely. 

Having just removed to the four-story, iron-front edifice, 23x125 feet, at No. 253 Liberty Street, the firm are 
perhaps better prepared to aflbrd those facilities to the trade for which they have always been noted — especially in 
the line of Old Monongahela Bye Whiskies, the celebrated "Cabinet Whiskey," Pure Imported Wines, Brandies, 
Ales, Cigars, etc. Messrs. Miller, Forse & Co. can not be surpassed either in the quality of goods or fair and liberal 
terms. With a trade extending to almost every State in the Union, and aggregating not less than $125,000 per annum, 
and steadily increasing, this House may be regarded as a favorite among those retailers who demand a brand upon 
which to rely with implicit confidence. Such a brand is that of this firm and to the'scrupulously preserved purity of 
their wares may be traced the signal success of their operations. 

THEOPHILUS lEi01Ju'ER,-Wholesale& Retail M' facturer of Parlor Furniture, 

No. 122 Ohio Street, Allegheny City. 

The goods manufactured at the above-mentioned establishment have attained a well-merited reputation among 
the residents of both cities for their beauty of design and elegance of finish. Being almost the only house in the city 
which makes a specialty of Parlor Furniture, and employing only experienced workmen, Mr. Roller enjoys a trade of 
5^15,000 to 918,000 per year, and carries a stock valued at .1^16,000. The business is divided into three departments, 
comprising the salesroom at No. 122 Ohio Street, the manufactory, on Cedar Avenue, which is 24x150 feet, and where 
twelve men are emploj'ed at salaries aggregating SluO per week, and the warehouse on Avery Street. The proprietor, 
Theoplailus Roller, was born in Germany in October, 1836, and came to this country in March, 1859. In 1873 he began 
business at his present location, with a capital of $2,000, which he has since increased to $5,000. Mr. Roller, being a 
practical mechanic, has introduced several valuable improvements in his business — among other things he has in- 
vented and patented a reversible spring mattress, which is well known among all dealers in furniture, and which has 
a large sale. 

MRS. T. A. ROliLEK-Millinery, DressdCloakMaking, 122 OhioSt., Allegheny. 

One of the most extensive Millinery and Dress and Cloak Making establishments in Allegheny City is that of 
Mrs. T. A. Roller at No. 122 Ohio Street. The building itself is a large one, measuring 18x100 feet, and contains ample 
space for the accommodation of the three departments of the business, viz: — Dress Making, Cloak Making and Millin- 
ery, which require the services of thirty hands. Besides these, there are three salesladies employed in the store 
proper, and the pay-roll weekly reaches the sum of $140. The proprietress, Mrs. Boiler, was born in "France, Feb. 22, 
1835, and came to this city in 1851, where, in ISGl, she erected the building which she at present occupies. At that 
time her capital was only $50, but by the use of those talents for her business which are peculiar to her country- 
women, and by the exercise of good taste and judgment in the selection of designs, she has since increased it to 
$20,000, and has built up a trade throughout the two cities and surrounding country which amounts to $20,000 an- 
nually and requires the keeping on hand of a stock valued at $8,000. Her assortment of Ribbons, Flowers and Straw 
Goods is one of the best in either Pittsburgh or Allegheny City. 

ARTHUR K.1RK,— Powder, and Miner's Supplies. No. 19 Seventh Street. 

Mr. Kirk was born in Scotland in 1825, but has been a resident of Pittsburgh since 1839, and prominently identi- 
fied with the business interests and material prosperity of this city for many years. Although not a politician, Mr. 
Kirk is a public-spirited gentleman whose name has frequently been connected with public affairs. He established 
tlie business in which he is now engaged, as dealer in Powder, Quarrying and Miner's Supplies, etc., in 1867, but had 
previously been actively engaged in mercantile pursuits for over twenty years. His trade has steadily increased, as 
may be seen from the fact that during tlie first year of business he disposed of only two hundred packages, while up to 
the commencement of tlie panic ten thousand packages were disposed of annually. He occupies a large and conve- 
niently arranged office at No. 19 Seventh Street, employing four assistants, at a weekly expense of about $40.00. His 
trade is in the State of Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia. His past honorable business career is a sufficient 
guarantee for a successful future. In the same office with Mr. Kirk Is N. G. Ayres, Ms son-in-law, who is the author- 
ized agent for the well-known Austin Powder Company. 

JOHN L. DAWES, SONS & CO— Druggists' Glassware, No. 81 Third Avenue. 

This house was established in 1864 by .Tohn L. Dawes, Sr., being the pioneer of this business west of the Alleghenies. 
Later, E. L. Dawes and John L. Dawes, Jr., were admitted, and now form the only firm in Pittsburgh engaged in 
manufacturing Glass, Isabels for Druggists, and making a specialty of supplying that trade with glassware and general 
sundries. The premises occupied by the firm are situated as above, where eight assistants are employed in the 
manufacture of " Dawes' Patent Label," which for neatness, durability and economy has no i-ival in the market, and 
has created a demand throughout the United States and Canada. Mr. Dawes, Sr., has been a resident of this city for 
nearly forty years ; he has been identified in many ways with its progress and development. His sons are natives of 
Pittsburgh; they have a thoroughly detailed knowledge of their business, and are constantly making improvements 
that tend very greatly to its increase, and advantage. The house always carries a large stock of Labels and Glassware, 
which are sold by sample and manufactured to order, and it is not saying too much to remark, that occupying in a 
certain sense the position of a monopolist, this fact would never be suspected from the liberal and square manner in 
which the business is conducted. 

23 . ' 



120 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

ROSENBAUM & CO— Trimmings, Millinery and Notions, 91 Market Street. 

The largest and best known house in Pittsburgh engaged in this line of business is that of Rosenbauni &. Co., who 
have recently removed their quarters to the elegant and spacious sales rooms, No. 91 Market iStreet, where they occupy 
three floors, each 18x90 feet, completely stocked with a fresh, fashionable and elegant assortment of Millinery Goods, 
Trimmings and Notions. The house was founded eleven years ago by Mr. Rosenbaum and another gentleman, and 
since that time the business has steadily and rapidly increased, until the sales now reach the round sum of $120,000 per 
annum. They carry a stock of not less than 3?40,OUii, and are in receipt of all the latest styles and designs in Foreign 
anil Domestic Millinery and Trimmings simultaneously with their appearance in the New York and Philadelphia 
markets. Their openings are attended by the elite of the two cities and surrounding towns, and this house has come to 
be justly celebrated by the ladies as the headquarters for fashionable and elegant styles. Messrs. Kosei; baiim & Co. 
employ the services of' twenty-live clerks and assistants in their Establishment, witha weekly pay roll amounting to 
about S200. Mr. liosenbaum is a native of Germany, but has resided iu this country for about sixteen years. 

B. li. H. HKSB^— Artist Photographer, Cor. Market and Liberty Sts. 

Mr. Dabbs commenced business in this city in 1861 and opened rooms for the sale of Photographic Materials. He 
was very successful and had a large trade, extending through several States. Becoming interested in the art of Pho- 
tography and tinding he had both inclination, taste and knowledge for it, he opened rooms in Allegheny. Almost at 
once he took the lead in that branch and has kept that position ever since. His thorough and practical mei'cantile ed- 
ucation has been greatly in his favor, giving him the business sense of proving by actual demonstration that as good 
pictures could be made in Pittsburgh as anywhere in the world ; he has been going on, steadily improving from the 
very commencement of his business career. In 1863 he removed to this city, as he found that his trade increased faster 
than the facilities he was possessed of in Allegheny would keep pace with, he therefore fitted up a gallery, studio and 
reception rooms on Sixth street, such as had never been seen before in this locality, and which were abandoned in 
1875, only to take possession of his present premises, and now has without any question as complete facilities for carry- 
ing on his business as can be obtained. The rooms which he now occupies were built according to his own plans and 
ideas, consequently they are just what are needed. His past experience taught him just what was most desirable, he has 
one of the finest plate glass skylights in the United States. He always examines carefully into everything new that 
is ever introduced in Photography, and if he considers it practicable and any impi-ovement on what he has hitherto 
used, never fails to adopt it. Acting on this principle he bought the right for the making of the new permanent prints 
by the Carbon process, and through this method he has been most successful in obtaining beautiful results in porce- 
lain pictures. There is the most pleasing variety in his pictures, his positions are all characterized by an ease and 
grace which very few photographers can obtain. We consider iMr. Dabbs' greatest success lies in this, he studies the 
sitter and aims to give to each one such a position as will best suit them, and this he almost seems to know by intui- 
tion. He takes a pride and a great pleasure iu his work, which materially helps him in the good results which he 
obtains. 



F. SQ^'VY'E,- Merchant Tailor, No. 288 Penn Avenue. 

Mr. Soevyn is a jiractical cutter and has had over thirty years experience as a Tailor, thus being enabled to not 
only understand every detail of the business, but to give perfect satisfaction to his cu.stomers. He has been estab- 
lished in his present line for about five years, during which time he has secured the patronage and confidence of 
many af the leading gentlemen of Pittsburgh, in all cases giving the most undoubted satisfaction, and establishing a 
reputation second to none engaged in the same business. He keeps on hand a carefully selected and fashionable stock 
of the best foreign and domestic fabrics for gentlemen's wear, from which to select, and his garments are all made up 
in the most thorough and workman-like manner. His business is exclusively Custom Work, and his specialty is in 
the manufacture of fashionable dress and business suits at prices to suit the times. 

JOHM SEIFERTH -I^/m and Liquors, Nos. 27 and 29 Market Street. 

Mr. Seifcrth has been engaged in his present line of business in the old First Ward for the past twenty-one years, and 
at his present location for sixteen years. He is a well known and highly respected business man and a prominent cit- 
izen of the Smoky City. He now occupies the three story brick warehouse, fronting on Market street 373^ feet and 
extending back on Second avenue SO feet, where he keeps a large and finely selected stock of pure Wines an'd l^iquors, 
both Imported and Domestic. Ho is an extensive rectifier and carries on both a wholesale and retail busines, amount- 
ing to not less tlian S'25,000 per annum, employing three hands, and making a specialty of Pure Unadulterated Wines 
and Liquors for family use. Mr. Seiferth has in stock some of the oldest and purest Liquors to be found in the city, 
and his trade, which is both local and country, is of the very best class. He was born in Germany in 1829, but has 
for many years resided in Pittsburgh and boon identified with themercantilc and spiritual welfare, being a prominent 
and consistent member of the German Lutheran Church. 

LASHEL & WAJLTTJEL -Commission Merchants. &c., 54, 56 & 58 Ferry St. 

These gentlemen are engaged in the business of general Commission Merchants and dealers in Flour, Grain, Mill 
Feed, Hay, Produce, &c., and pay special attention to the buying and selling of Horses. They have good stabling in 
connection with their establishment for the accommodation of patrons. The business was established in 1875 by Mr. 
Murry Trimble, who was exclusively in the feed business and was succeeded in 1879 by the present firm. They caiTV 
a stock of over ?f2,000, while their annual business will amount to many thousands of dollars. They occupy the prem- 
ises 60x60 feet at the numbers above named. The members of the firm devote their personal attention to the business 
and employ one assistant. Their sales are principally made in the city and surrounding towns, and they receive con- 
signuientsfrom almost every section of tlie country. " Mr. G. A. Lashel was born in Pennsylvania in 1845 and is an 
experienced business man of many years standing. Mr. J. T. Walter, the junior member of the firm, takes no active 
part in the business, but his son, E.'j. Walter, fills that position with ability, he having a long experience in the 
Commission business before embarking in the enterpi'ise iu which he is now engaged. 

McELROY &i CQ -Brooms, Brushes, Paper, Paper stock, dc, 80 & 82 Third Ave 

This firm do a business of from §80,000 to §100,000 employing in their manufacturing and assorting departments 
35 hands, who, with the aid of the best machinery to assist in making "hand-made" Brooms and Brushes, turn out 
the best work known to the trade. Hugh McElroy, one of the firm, is senior partner in the Choshocton Paper Co. 
of Choshocton, Ohio; whose mill manufactures the Paper handled by JfcElroy &. Co. and deal largely in Rags and 
other Paper stock, etc. The firm is one of the most solid of the city and is at all times reliable. 

24 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



121 



PITTSBURGH TAR CHEMICAL WORKS.// A. Clifford & Co., 

No. 170 Rebecca Street, Allegheny City. 

Few persons, not familiar with the business, have any conception of the variety of aiticli's manufactured from 
that, to many, repulsive loolcing and smelling material known as Tar. The Pittsburgh Tar Cliemical Works is the 
only manufactory in this city of this description of goods. Tlie Works were established by I). Hostetter, Otto Wuth, 
and A. Herz, with an original capital of §110,000, which they increased to $25,000. The present proprietors are H. A. 
Cliflford and Erail Schalk, doing biisiness under the firm name and style of H. A. Clittbrd & Co., and they increased 
the capital to $40,000. The premises occupied by this firm are 145x300 feet in size, containing five buildings and four 
sheds. The dimcn.sions of the buildings are respectively as follows : 40x80 feet, SOxUO feet, 20x30 feet, 20x30 feet and 
18x50 feet. Their laboratory and works are fitted with all the requisite appliances and machinery for tlie distillation 
and manufacture of their various products. The works require one 5-horse power engine and one 8-horse power 
boiler, and furnish employment to eight hands with a monthly pay roll aggregating about $425. They carry a stock 
of about $25,000, and their annual business will reach, if not exceed that amount. Their trade is principally local 
although they ship goods occasionally to ditferent portions of tlie United States. The works will compare favorably 
with similar establishments in St. Louis and Chicago manufacturing the same class of goods. Among the various 
articles for which they have established a high reputation, we may mention, Pvoofing Cement, Paving Cement and 
Composition, Dead Oil, Napthaline, Crude Benzole, Pure White Rectified Benzole, Iron Varnish, Cotton Tie 
Varnish, Crude and Refined Carbolic Acid, Carbolate Powder, "Universal Disinfectant" and Oil Myrbane, an article 
used extensively for perfuming Soaps in place of Almond Oil. 

Mr. H. A. Cliflford is a native of New Hampshire and came to this city in 1874; and his son, Mr. Charles W. 
Cliflford, is book-keeper and superintendent of the clerical and corresponding department. 



HODGE, GODDARD & CO -Wholesale Jewelers, No. 43 Fifth Avenue. 

No history of the Industries of Pittsburgh would be complete without frequent reference to the trade in which 
the above house is engaged, and in which it has achieved so prominent a position. Established in 1864 by Messrs. 
Scott & Hennegen, that firm was shortly succeeded by Scott, Hennegen & Co., who were followed by Scott, Barrett & 
Co., then J. T. Scott & Co., and finally by the present firm, composed of Messrs. W. C. Hodge, Geo. E. Goddard and 
E. W. Hill, making a specialty of American Watches. They represent the Waltham, Springfield, and Elgin Watch 
Cos., wliose superb products are known for their accuracy over the entire world, and are remarkable for the perfec- 
tion of their construction and matchless time keeping qualities, being regarded as absolutely flawless in the latter 
respect. — As Importers, Jobbers, and Manufacturers of Jewelry, Clocks, Watches, Silver and Silver Plated Ware, 
Dinner Sets, Tea Sets, etc., with every variety of goods suitable for all occasions, tliis house offers facilities to the trade 
that are unsurpassed between Philadelphia and Chicago. As an evidence of this fact may be cited the remarkable 
growth of a business, which of a most limited character at its inception, has reached the proportions of one of the 
largest houses in the West. Exclusive of the individual members, each of whom takes an active part in the business, 
the firm employ four salesmen, two of whom are constantly on the road, one skilled engraver and designer, one 
watch-maker, two jewelry-jobbers, and several other assistants. Engaged exclusively in Jobbing, the trade of this 
heuse extends through Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio and Indiana, its products being highly regarded 
in the trade for beauty and originality of design, special attention having been directed to perfect all goods in these 
respects. As a firm, Messrs. Hodge, Goddard & Co. stand at the head of the Wholesale Jewelry trade in this ciiy, 
carrying the largest stock and doing the most extended business, and are regarded with esteem and consideration by 
all with whom they come in contact. Their business policy is just and lilseral, resulting naturally in the marked 
success that has attended their operations. 



SOMERS, BROTHER & CO., 

Ill LIBERTY STREET, 

Produce Dealers and Shippers, 

and General Commission Merchants. 

There are few kinds of business which have the capacity of a wider 
range and scope than the business in which Messrs. Somers, Bro. & Co. 
are engaged. These gentlemen commenced business at No. 177 Liberty 
Street, in 1876, with a comprehensive knowledge of its responsibilities and 
requirements, and have, by their straightforward business transactions, 
established a flourishing trade, and, at the same time, won the confidence 
of all with whom they have had dealings. The gradual increase in their 
business made it necessary to secure more convenient quarters, and they 
subsequently removed to No. 202 Liberty Street, and later, again to en- 
large their business space and facilities, to their present location. No. 211 
Liberty Street. Their transactions embrace a General Produce and Com- 
mission business, receiving and disposing of Consignments of Produce, 
Fruits or Dairy Products, as well as Buyers and Shippers. We know of no 
house in this city to whom we could more cordially commend country 
dealers, nor any whose facilities are better for the disposition of any 
products placed in their hands. They occupy four floors and basement of 
a capacious building, employ seven per.sons in the diflferent departments of 
their business, and their annual tran.sactions will reach at least $100,000. 
They receive consignments from all parts of Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, 
New York, West Virginia, Kentucky and this-State, with sales princi- 
pally in this city and vicinity and shipments to Eastern cities. The firm 
is composed of J. L. & Charles Somers, men of excellent business qualifica- 
tions, formerly of Beaver County, this State. 
25 




122 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANLl. 



JOHN T. NATCU'E'R -Carpenter and Builder, Nos. 125 & 127 First Avenue. 

.Tno. T. Katclu'v w;is bnni in Carlisle, rcniisylvania, in 1S47. He commenced the tradt-, whicli he lias followed in 
this city willi siicli signal siut'oss, in his native town in 11S()3. Four years after he came to I'ittsburiih, where he has re- 
sided siiiee that time. Heoeeuiiiosa buildini;;'.t)xr)J feet, built on alotSOxKU) feet, reaeliinfj; from First to Second Ave .and 
has an animal business of from SotJ.OtHl to S7."i,tRi(). He furnishes steady en\iilovment to from 1(1 to 5(1 hands, at an aver- 
aiie salary of $1.75 per diem eaeli. Throuuh the eity and vicinity are iandnuir"ks of his mechanical ability, some of the 
tiiicst structures of arcliitcctural skill are pointed out as erected by him, viz : "The First I'resbytcrian i'liurch on the 
south side;" "South Side City Hall and Market House;" "St. Clair U. P. Church" at ]Mount Lebanon, and many 
others might be mentioned. Anu)n!; the many prominent firms of our city, to whom he has given satisfaction in 
buildini; ami repairing, we uuiy nuuition a few as follows : A. Garrison & Co., Robison, Rea I'i: Co., Roht. J. Ander.son 
it Co., \Vm. Clark it Co., INlclntosh, Hemi)hill & Co., Zug ct Co., besides numerous others. His shop is the best regu- 
lated one in tlie city, perfectly equipped ami systcmizcd, and tilled with uoue butthe best of mechanics. Thus repre- 
sented and located "he is perfectly prepared to give cstinuites and perform ail jobs on contracts in the best manner, 
either by day or contract, making a specialty of mill and foundry work, also giving special attention to erecting steam 
and hand cranes of all sizes, in which, as with other work executed by him, he has established a reputation equal to 
the best of his cotemporaries, and well deserved. 

L. FUNDIS & SON,— Clothing & Furnishing Goods, 57 Frankstown Ave, East End. 

One of the leading houses of the East End is that of L. Fundis & Son, dealers in Ready Made Clothing, Hats, 
Caps and Gents' Furnishing Goods, situated at No. 57 Frankstown Avenue, in the fine brick block owned by the firm. 
Tlie sales room now occupied by the house is •20x(j0, and is stocked with a full and complete assortment of articles 
pertaining to the lines enumerated. This house was founded in 1852 by Mr. L. Fundis with a caiiital of $300, which 
iias by careful management and shrewd business tact increased to not less tliau S^5(l,()00, which is principally invested 
on Real Estate, clear vi all encumbrance. The stock now carried by the firm is about S(),Ot)0, and their annual sales 
reach S12,000, wliicli are i>rincipally to residents of the East End and surrounding districts. The members of the firm 
are Mr. Lewis Fundis, wlio was born in Baden, Jan. 14, 1832, and cauu^ to this city in 184S. and Mr. John Fundis, 
born at East Liberty, Dec. 14, 185S. They ai'e wide awake, enterprising and energetic business men, as the brilliant 
success which has attended their business career will sufficiently indicate. 

D. AYRES & CO. -Live Stock, Central Stock Yards, East End. 

The present firm was established January 10, 1879, by Mr. D. Ayres, Jr., and Mr. H. A. Holdridge, as Commission 
Dealers in Live Stock. Mr. Ayres has for the past twelve years been identified with the business at the Central 
Stock Yards and connected with the firms of Hedges, Hull" it Co., Cochran, .Vyres *t Co., and Hamilton, Lougry it Co. 
The office of this firm is at the Stock Yards, East End, and they do ai\ exclusively Commission Business in Cattle, 
Hogs and Sheep. They employ two men at an average expense of §125 per month. Mr. Ayres was born at Kalida, 
Putnam Co., O., in 1841, and came to Pittsburgh in 1867. jNIr. Holdridge was born in Knox Co., O., in 1840, and came 
to this eity in 1878. They are wide-awake anil energetic young men and do a thriving business. 

M. J. TKRREUL.-Plumbing, Gas & Steam Fitting, No. 236 Penn Ave. 

Though apparently diversified, the various branches of business in which Mr. Farrell is engaged form one 
complete whole and are interlinked. In addition to the occupation of Locksmith and Bell-hanger he is an experi- 
enced Plumber and Gas and Steampipe Fitter, manufacturer of Stencilplates and Materials, Steel and Rubber 
Stamps. Repairer of every description of Small Machinery^, Cutlery and Household Mechanism, and general dealer 
in Hardware, Locks, Keys', Cutlery, etc., at No. 2oii Pcnn Avenue, between 7th am 8th Streets. Mr. Farrell is a 
native of Ireland, but has been a "resident of the United States for many j'cars and for over twenty years engaged 
in his present line of business in this city. His premises are 20x50 feet in size and he employes three experienced 
workmen with an excellent local trade. 



WOODRUFF SLFFPING AND PARLOi/l COACH CO,, 

Office, So. 4 Market Street, 

The Woodruff Sleeping and 
Parlor Coach Company is a 
stock company, incorporated 
January, 1872, by special char- 
ter, with a paid up capital of 
?ri0O,O()0 and charter privilege 
of "^ "1,000,00(1. The officers arc 
as lollows: Frank Kahm, Pres- 
ulent, James Irwin, Vice Pres- 
ulent. and Augustus Trump, 
^elIctaI■y. The object of the 
Comp.uiy is the controlling 
and running over various lines 
of lailroads Sleeping and Par- 
lor Coaches combined, that 
shall, through the perfection 
ot ill |iie\iiuis lb simiN by ihe late Jonah Woodruff' (the onainator of the Sleeping and Parlor Coach idea), 
surp.iss all others in i educed Mbration, improved ventilation, suppress. on or uicket and friction, increased safety in 
the adjustment of the centre of [.gravity — nearer the floor — removal of berths from over the trucks, and other advan- 
tages, special among which is doing away with dead weight of at least six tons as compared with other sleeping cars, 
and being the only cars manufactured tliat are built with electric bell at each berth, which enables passengers to at 
once sun\mon tlic porter to the respective berth calling, when anything is desired, lieing of special advantage to ladies 
with eliildren, besides a general elegance and sumptuous convenience iiitherto unapproached in any cars previously 
manufactured or designed. The business of the Con\pany has already become extensive on many of the roads 
throughout the United States, where not less than eighty of "these cars add greatly to the comfort and convenience of 
the general public, and are the first company to reduce their rates twenty-five per cent, from former prices, but en- 
hance greatly the earnings of the respective roads upon which they are employed. 

26 




CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 123 



LAUGHLIN & jy:E AN, -Ship Chandlers, Boat Stores, Groceries, dc, 90 Water St. 

In compiling a record of tiie business liouses of tlie City and in niuking mention of tlie City's conimerce and 
river traffic, we have a two-fold reason for noticing tlio house of Lauglilin & Dean, lirsl, as a new iironiinent busi- 
ness liousi! on tlie river for their benelit, and secondly, for the benefit of the readers of this volume doing a nav- 
igation business, in directing their attention to the line stock of supplies here to he found in llie necessaries 
ajipurtenant to tlie shipping interests of our city, by way of ropes, cordage, oils, calking materials, provisions, 
groceries, &c. At the store of this firm, which occupies tliree floors of a building, 25x80 feet, may be found not on- 
ly a full line of goods above mentioned, but also a comjjlcte stork of clioice and staple groceries, fresh country 
produce and dairy products, as butter, cheese, eggs, fruits, vegetables and fowls, this being indeed headquarters oli 
Water street for these every day necessities, whose real merit lies in their purity and freshness, which is always 
here guaranteed. In addition to these lines the firm make specialties of St. Louis flours, tlie leading of which is 
the celebrated "Che.ster" brand bought direct from the mills as per order of this house, h. M. Laughlin and John L>. 
Dean, who compose the linn, are both well known to the trade, and we are safe iu commending to our river 
readers the fulfillment of their every want at satisfactory prices. 

JAMES I^HHL, AN, —Hosiery and Gents' Furnishing Goods, No, 82 Fifth Avenue. 

The "Old Stand Stocking Store" is one of the landmarks on Fifth avenue. It was started in 1889 by Michael Daly, 
uncle of the present proprietor. Mr. Phelan succeeded to the business in 18D4, having been connected with the house 
as early as 18.50. Three floors are here occupied by a stock of goods amounting in value to about $20,000. The business 
embraces Hosiery and Furnishing Goods, and the sales require the attention of five persons in the store. Special at- 
tention is given to fine imported goods, and tlie best selections are made from Knglish, French, German, Irish and 
Scotch manufactures, among which may bo noted the Irish Balbriggan Goods and Scotch Underwear. The house has 
also a high reputation for its manufacture of well-fttting shirts of the best quality of material. For fine goods, large 
variety, choice selection of goods and reliability of guarantees, Mr. Phelan's house has a reputation of which any bus- 
iness man might be proud. 

LOUIS A. ID'ENISON,— Grocer, Penn and Frankstown Avenues, East End. 

In a block of three-story buildings fronting on both Penn and Frankstown Avenues, East End, owned by the 
Denison brothers, is located the well arranged Grocery Store of Louis A. Denison. This house was established in 
IS.'JS by Mr. William L. Denison, father of the present proprietor, who came to Pittsburgh in 1832 from Connecticut. 
After his death, which occurred in 1873, the business was conducted under the firm name and style of W. L. Deni- 
son's Sons until .Jan. 1, 1879, when Mr. Louis A. Denison became sole proprietor. The house is now one of the most 
popular in the East End, and the business will compare favorably with that of any similar establishment in the city 
proper. His store is 20x70, fi-onting on botli the streets named, and four assistants are constantly employed. Mr. 
Denison was born in Pittsljurgh in 1851, and may appropriately be classed among her most prosperous and enterprising 
young merchants. 

A R. REINEMAN &: BUO. -Wholesale & Retail Florists, 25 Fifth Avenue. 

The delightful industry of the florist has increased with the growing wealth and luxury of this city to such an ex- 
tent, as to form a very important factor in the general prosperity and resources. Among those houses that have 
secured by their enterprise and energy more than usual prominence in this department, may be mentioned the 
Messrs. A. R. & E. C. Reineraan, who, under the caption title, founded their Vjusiness more than a year ago, with facil- 
ities that placed them at once in the front rank as commercial and botanical florists. The Garden Houses of the firm 
are located on Troy Hill, and consist of about 10 acres of garden thoroughly stocked with the choicest variety of trees, 
shrubs and plants to be found in this section of the country. The Green House, which is heated by steam and a 2.5 
horse power engine, covers an area alone of aljout an acre and contains a selection of rare indigenous and tropical flow- 
ers and flowering plants. From this source the store at No. 25 Fifth avenue is su ftp lied with daily floral additions to its 
stock, and charming decorations furnished for every social or funeral occasion. Orders from abroad are promptly filled, 
for Flowers cut or otherwise, Plants, Bulbs, Fancy Stands, Baskets and Vines of every description. With these facil- 
ities and all the added advantages to be derived from an enlarged experience and thorough familiarity with the work, 
the Messrs. Reineman are to no small degree deserving of the hearty support and consideration of the community. 

I. JACIL'&ON- Star Clothier," 322 Liberty Street. 

One of the most complete and extensive stocks of Ready Made Clothing and Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods to be 
found in Pittsburgh, may be seen at the well known "Star" Clothing Emporium of Mr. I. .Jackson, which is located 
at No. 322 Liberty street, corner of Oak alley. The store room is 15x00 feet and is filled with a line of the most desir- 
able and fashionable goods in the market, estimated at not less than $10,000 in value. He has a large city trade as 
well as an e.Ktensive and lucrative custom along the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, amounting to SlO,006 or Sl2,000 
annually. In addition to the Clothing and Furnishing Goods business, Mr. .lackson makes a specialty of manufac- 
turing fine suits to order, having a merchant tailoring department in connection with his establishment, in which he 
employs a number of first class workmen. Mr. .lackson was born in Germany in 1844. He came *.j the United States 
in 1860 and to Pittsburgh in 1874, when the present business was established by him. 

W. A. TSUNTTNQc^-Stencil Works, 25 & 27 Fifth Avenue. 

Mr. Bunting started his business in 1869 at No. 11 Market street, afterwards removed to 184 Liberty street, and 
became located as above in April 1878. His business embraces the cutting of Stencils, Steel Stamps and Burning 
Brands, the manufacture of Seal Presses, Rubber Stamps, Ribbon Stamps, Dies, Seals, &c., also Elecirotyping and Stere- 
otyping. The office and exhibition rooms are on the 2nd floor, the manufacturing department on the 4th. Eight men 
are employed in cutting, manufacturing, &c., one on steel stamps and burning brands, two on seal presses, one on rub- 
ber stamps, one on ribbon stamps, one printer, one clerk and one office boy. New designs in letters and dies are con- 
stantly being produced. A new article is metal-bodied rubber type for hand presses, superior to any other. This 
house is the leading one in its line in the city, and equal to New York houses in variety and scope of work and in the 
execution of the same. Its trade extends from Harrisburgh, Pa., to Indiana and further West, through which dis- 
trict he has numerous agents, and solicits correspondence from those who wish a plea.sant and paying business. The 
proprietor is the inventor of the "Eureka Cigar Box Brand," the most convenient and rapid stamp in the world, and 
makes a specialty of its manufacture. He was born in Maryland in 1846, and has been a resident of Pittsburgh since 
1809. 

27 



124 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

KEYSTONE PAPER CO -/\los. 726 <& 728 Second Avenue. 

J^'ew Yor!:, 22 Vesey S/rcct. 

This company was establislu-d in 1S7S by Capt. C. C. Markle and J. K. Cass, for the purpose of handling the 
products of the West Newtou, Mill Grove and Koaring Spring Paper Mills, Capt. Markle being a member of the well 
known house of C. P. Markle & Sons, proprietors of the two tir.st named plants, and Mr. Cass of tlie firm of Morrison, 
B;u'e & Cass, owners of the Roaring Spring Mills. Engrossing the total product of those e.vtensive concerns, the 
Keystone Paper Co. finds a market for 600,000 pounds of paper per month, involving annual transactions of over one 
million dollars, at the present unprecedented prices, and ranging over the entire United States ; a considerable export 
tr.ide being done with Cuba and other foreign points. The larger part of the business of the house lies in the line of 
News Printing and Book Paper, but includes Hardware, Manillas, Express, Tea, Glass, Rag and Straw AVrapping, 
Roofing Felt, Lining Felt, and Printed Wrappings, etc., affording buyers all the range and facilities that can be offered 
by any contemporaneous concern in the country. Some idea of the capacity of the house may be gained from the 
fact that the West Newton Mills alone cover an area of over two acres, and employ IGO skilled operatives, to pay 
whom an annual outlay is necessary of between $60,000 and $75,OD3. Of the four mills under control of the company 
each manufactures four different kinds of paper, the machinery in all of them being the best that modern ingenuity 
can devise, or capital and enterprise supply. 

Capt. lilarkle is the resident partner and is personally alert in every department of the business, supervising the 
operations of the mills at West Newton, and conducting the financial and various other transactions at the office and 
ware rooms in Second Avenue. A native of Westmoreland Co., Pa., the Captain was born in 1840 ; he served through 
the late War of the Rebellion with honorable distinction, and removing to Pittsburgh in 1867 has since that time 
been largely identified with the industrial interests of the community, not only in the line of his present vocation, 
but extensively connected with the manufacture of coke along the line of the B. & 0. R.R. The successful operation 
of numerous diverse enterprises has made Capt. Markle widely known in this city and surroundings, where his 
extraordinary business cajMcities have been universally recognized and appreciated as being of the highest order. 
His p.irtner in the Keystone Co., Mr. J. K. Cass, was born at Coshocton, O., 1844, and is a nephew of Gen. Geo. W. 
Cass. He removed to this city in 1877, and shortly thereafter to New York, where he conducts the extensive Eastern 
business of the company at No. 22 Vesey Street. As a firm with whom to establish permanent relations, the Key- 
stone Paper Co. is perhaps one of the most desirable in the country. Liberal, decisive and honorable, with a product 
unsurpassed for excellence in any market, and facilities that defeat all competition, the house is thoroughly 
commended to the public as entii-ely meriting the high consideration of which it is the object. 

H. W. LAGEMAN & IBRO -Groceries, Tea, Flour, dc, 

Corner Frankstotviat Avenue and Station Street, £ast £nd. 

This firm succeeded Adam Mohler in his business, in March, 1877, and have since increased their tr.ade, until it 
now ranks with the most prominent of the East End grocery houses. Their stock, usually to the value of about 
S3,500, is composed of the choicest articles to be obtained, and "their business, which is about"$25,000 yearly, requires 
the attention of three men (two salesmen and a delivery-man) besides the proprietors, the pay roll being SlOO 
monthly. Their capital, which was originally 8^2,000, has largely increased, while their uniform system of fair dealing 
and courteous endeavors to please, have extended their trade throughout East Liberty and the surrounding villages 
of Homewood, Dallas and Wilkinsburg. Their store, a three-story brick building, 20x70 feet, is situated in one" of 
the most prominent locations in the East End, and this, added to the facts before mentioned, has secured them a 
lai'ge and respectable class of trade. Both members of the firm are natives of this city ; Herman AY. Lageman having 
been born December 13, 1854, and H. ,T. Lageman, August 5, 1849. They have resided here all thcirlives, and are 
therefore too well known to require a more extended notice. 

PENNSYLVANIA LEAD CO -Smelters and Refiners, Office, 44 Wood St. 

Works, Mansfield, Pa. 
Adding in no small degree to the general industrial thrift of this community, the Pennsylvania Lead Company 
naturally demands the attention of a work, the objective point of whose aim is a proper and detailed display of the 
resoiirces and advantages of Pittsburgh. Organized in 1872, under the mining and manufacturing laws of Pennsyl- 
vania, as the Pittsburgh Smelting and Refining Company, the title was changed the following year to the present 
style, as being more appropriate and descriptive. A close corporation, its operations in the smelting and refining of 
lead for the use of coiToders and others, have been awai'ded the most signal success, the business having constantly 
augmented from the inception of the enterprise to the present time, and still rapidly increasing. The plant of the 
company is located at Mansfield, a short distance west of the city, upon the line of the P. C. & St. L. R.R., and some 
idea of the magnitude of the works maybe gained from the fact that .=ixty men are constantly employed, and that 
last year 12,500 tons of lead wore brought to a state of chemical purity and freedom from every trace of foreign matter 
or alloy that would aifect or impair the product of the corroder. The principal markets for these goods are found in 
Pittsburgh, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, and other large cities of the East and West. The officers of the 
couip.any are Mr. J. E. Schwartz, President, J. B. Arnold, Esq., Secretary, both men well known to the community 
and long identified with the manufacturing interests of this city, and as there are few institutions that have achieved 
so great a degree of prosperity in so limited a period, so there are perhaps still fewer that occupy in every respect a 
liigher position, or one subjected to less cavil. 

H. KLEBER & "BRO.-Pianos and Organs, No. 722 Wood St. 

For the past quarter of a century the firm of H. Kleber & Bro. has been known in Pittsburgh, as dealers in musi- 
cal merchandise. It is the oldest house engaged in that line of business, under the original firm name and style, now 
in the Smoky City. It was established in 1848 by Henry Kleber, who two years after took his bi'other Augustus into 
partnership. These are gentlemen of unquestioned business integrity, whose long experience in the business gives 
them advantages which are enjoyed by few. They occupy the spacious five story building No. 122 Wood St., 20x80 
feet, and are sole agents in Pittsburgh for the celebrated Steinway and Chickering Pianos, which agency they have 
held since 1857. They have also been the exclusive agents for the world renowned Burdett Organs tor the past twenty 
years, during which time their sales have far exceeded those of any other instruments of that description. They 
have at present on exhibition about eighty pianos and some sixty organs of various syles, and they also carry one 
hundred and fifty pianos for rent. The amount of stock generally kept on hand is valued at about SSO,000. In addi- 
tion to the large number of pianos and organs to be found at this establishment, they keep every description of musi- 
cal instruments known to the trade, and the largest line of general musical merchandise to be found West of New York 
City. Their trade is distributed through Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia, and the amount 
of their annual sales exceeds $150,000. Mr. H. Kleber and Mr. Augustus Kleber, the two geiLtlemen composing the 
firm, were both born in Germany, but came to this country when verv young, and have been residents of the United 
States since 1832. 

28 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 125 



JAM£S RBUS,— Machinery, Duquesne Way and 4th St. 

Among those enterprises tliat liave made Pittsburgh celebrated for its splendid mechanical success, that of Mr. 
James ll.'es is perhaps entitled to particular mention in a woric designed to exhibit in detail the varied resources aud 
capabilities of this city. For more tluin a quarter of a century this iiouse has engaged in tlie manufacture of every 
grade and class of machinery, including Marine and Land Engines, Saw and Sugar Mills, Steam Boilers, Oil Tanks, 
Salt Pans, &c. Blast Furnace machinery. Iron aud Brass Castings, and Pipes, Steam Pumjjs, <tc., all of which from 
the perfection of construction and mechanical e.^cellence have established a reputation that is not confined to the 
United States. As a builder of Steam Boats, in Wood, Steel, or Iron worker, he has perhaps performed his greatest feats 
as a mcclianician, and achieved the most signal success. The first steel steam boat ever constructed in tlie United 
States was built last year by this house, under the direction of Jas. Rees' son, Thos. M., who went to South America 
and superintended its construction, and after its completion made a successful trial trip on the Magdalena River, for 
trade on the Magdalena River in South America, and it has been a matter of comment and congTatulation by the press 
of the country that this first etfort, opening up so wide a field for industry and capital, was attended by the most 
Siitisfactory results, meeting more than all the requirements demanded, and acconii^lishing with ease a speed of ten 
miles an hour against a five mile current. The plant of Mr. Rees is located on the Allegheny River, at the foot of 
4th St., and is about as completely equipped as modern improvement and inventive talent can suggest. The build- 
ings cover an area of over lialf an acre aud afford ample conveniences for the business. A large force of mechanics 
are employed here, requiring a large weekly outlay. The annual trade of the concern is very large, and extends 
through the United States and to other countries. Mr. James Rees, the founder of the establishment in 1854, and 
still at its liead, is originally from Wales. He came to this country when but a youth, and by the exercise of sterling 
virtues and great constructive ingenuity, has becoraQ a representative, and a self made man of the truest type. As 
the inventor of a Patent Steam Boat Hull, and the best adjustator cut-off for Steam Engines in use, Mr. Rees is 
widely known on all the rivers of the West, the latter invention being applied to nearly all tlie steamboats navigat- 
ing the Ohio River. The commencement of his career was attended with great difficulties, small returns, and no 
calpital. Its outcome reflects credit upon the Iron City, and entitles him to the high estimation of all honest pro- 
moters of Industry. 

A. G. HATRY,-/row Commission.-COY'Ni: & HATRY" -Machine Builders. 

Office: 114 & US Water St.— WorUs: Cor. 28th and Smallman St., nttsburgh. 

Among those extensively engaged in the sale of Iron, Nails, Steel, Borax, and particularly Rail Road supplies in 
manufactured metal, Mr. A.G. Hatry occupies a prominent place, especially in the last named department of his 
business, from the fact of having no competitors in this city. Besides conducting a commission trade in these products 
Mr. Hatry carries a very considerable stock, requiring a capital of over S20,000, enabling him to transact with greater 
facility abusiness that extends over the entire United States, and averages between §500,000 and §1,000,000 annually. 
These figures seem to establish the fact pretty conclusively that Mr. Hatry either has it in his power to otter the trade 
unusual advantages, or that his ability for the business is of no common order, the real source of such prosperity being 
probably found in a happy conjunction of both facilities and abilities. The extent to which the transactions of the 
house are carried, will appear more striking when it Is known that the business was only established in 1874, thougli 
Mr. Hatry had been a resident of this city for nine years prior to that date, and previously a citizen of Ohio, frr.m 
whicli State he entered the Union Army during the late rebellion, and served with distinction for four years, obtain- 
ing the rank of Colonel nearly two years before the close of the war. — In 1875 he associated himself with Mr. John 
Coyne, under the style of COYNE & HATRY, for the purpose of manufacturing, as sole patentees and inventors, the 
Patent Automatic Nail Selectors, and Improved Cut Nail Machines, the former being one of the most useful devices 
for the rapid automatic rejection of inferior nails ever conceived, and proves an invaluable apparatus in every nail 
factory where introduced. The plant of the firm is situated at the corner of 28th and Smallman Sts., and is amply 
equipped for tlie manufacture of these .specialties, in wliich a business is trans.icted annually of about S100,000. — Mr. 
Coyne is a native of England, and has resided in Pittsbuvtrh about 10 years. His personal attention and superinten- 
dence is given to the constructive departments of the w n Ic, and as an accomplished mechanician he has few equals. 
In every respect the house is a reliable one and highly conducive in its operations to the industrial prosperity and 
advancement of the city. 

JAMES A. M.c'N Alal/Y, -Importer and Jobber of Woolens, No. 60 Wood St. 

As one of the only two houses engaged exclusively as jobbers of piece goods in this city, the trade and establish- 
ment of Mr. James A. McNally are worthy of more than passing mention in this work. Not alone from the extent 
and magnitude of his transactions, but tlie extraordinary ability that has been displayed in securing, from so com- 
paratively small an origin, so signal a success. A native of the County Doun, Ireland, Mr. McNally came to this city 
in 1856, and ten years later established his present business, which from its inception to the present time has been 
constantly enlarging tlie trade now extending over a large portion of the middle, AVestern and Pacific States, a very 
considerable traffic being done in California, in all amounting to over a quarter of a million annually. The premises 
of the house are located as above, and consist of one large double brick building, three stories high, 25x90 feet, on the 
corner of Wood St. and 4tli Avenue, stocked with foreign and domestic woolens to the value of from §05,000 to 870,000, 
carefully selected and adapted expressly for merchant tailors, with whom the trade of the concern is carried on, to 
transact which 8 assistants are required. Importing direct from European markets, Mr. McNally has established re- 
lations that enable him to compete, in the advantages offered the trade, with any firm in the country, wliile his deal- 
ings with the producers of domestic fabrics are equally satisfactory. Energetic, talented, and reliable, Mr. McNally 
lias made a very consjiicuous mark upon the commerce and trade of his adopted city, with whose interests he has been 
closely involved for nearly a quarter of a century, and whose prosperity he has materially promoted. 

SAMUEL R. LIMEGROVER,-^a'^^r and Confectioner, 

Penn Avenue, opposite Collins St., £ast £nd. 

The " Excelsior Bakery " and Steam Ice Cream Works is located on Penn Avenue, opposite Collins Street, at the 
East End. It was originally establislied by Daniel E. Bown, who was succeeded by M. Samuel R. Limcgrovoin tlio 
early part of the present year. The various articles manufactured at this establishment are noted for their excellence, 
and the business is steadily increasing. In addition to the products of his Bakery Mr. Limegrover keeps a fine assort- 
ment of Choice Confectionery, Fruits, Jellies, Canned Goods, &c. One steam engine and boiler is used, and four 
hands are employed at the establishment. A sp&ciality of Mr. Limegrover is in furnishing Wedding Parties, Society 
and Party Dinners and Suppers, and entertainments or festivals of any description. His facilities for this part of tho 
business "are unsurpassed, and his well known taste and skill in such matters enables him to give unbounded satisfac- 
tion. He carries a stock of about SIOOO, and his annual business reaches between $3000 and $4000. Mr. Limegrover 
was born at Sharpsburg, Allegheny County, Jan. 1, 1855, and commeuced business at his present location. 

29 



126 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

D. K. :B0 AS,- Druggist & Chemist, Butler & 43rd Streets. 

At the corner of Butler and 43d Streets is one of the most elegant!}' fitted and handsomely arranged Drug Stores and 
Pharmacies in this city. The genial, popular and enterprising gentleman, Mr. Boas, will be found with the most com- 
plete, varied, handsome and elegant stock of Drugs, Chemicals, Perfumery, Toilet Articles, fine Instruments, etc., to 
be found anywhere in this city, everything being new, fresh and clean. The room is handsomely located on the corner, 
is 17 feet front and 40 feet deep, is filled with Marble Counters, Prescription Case of elegant designs, handsomely plated 
Show Cases and Fixtures of all kinds of most neat and tasteful patterns. Mr. Boas has been located at junction of Penn 
Ave. and Butler St. for 6 years, selling out there early in 1879, and opening his present, beautiful store, at an expense of 
about ?S,000. 

Mr. Boas was born in York, Pa., in 1846, came to Pittsburgh in 1873. He served two terms of enlistment in the 
Union Army, first in the 130th Pennsylvania Volunteers, afterwards in the 195th, being but 15 years of age, when first 
enlisting He participated in all the arduous services of his regiment, going through all their campaigns, marches and 
battles. He was the youngest man in his corps ; after close of the war he graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 
During his Senior year at that institution he was Assistant Instructor in the Laboratory to Dr. C. J. Heons, Professor 
of Chemistry and Natural Sciences. After graduating he went to No. C. and engaged in business and was burned 
out in 1872, then came to Pittsburgh and entered the Drug business in partnership with Mr. Cornman as Cornman and 
Boas, at Penn Ave. and Butler Street, sold out his interest to Cornman in 1874 and went into the establishment of 
McClarran and McKennan, where he remained but a short time, having to return to the old place. Mr. Cornman not 
being able to fulfill his contracts, being involved, and resume the business which he assumed with liabilities, shortly 
extinguishing the debt and placing the business in prosperous condition. He remained at the business until recently, 
when he sold out to Mr. Tea. Air. Boas has taken considerable interest in political matters, and wields a large influence 
in the community where he is known. 

A. BRICKER & SO'NS.-Gommission Merchants, No. 199 Liberty St. 

One of the most favorably known and prominent Commission Houses on this busy thoroughfare is that of A. Bricker 
and Sons, which was founded in a small way in 18G5. Their business however has steadily increased since that date, 
until it reaches the handsome amount of $100,000 per annum, and is regularly improving each succeeding year. They 
occupy the entire building, three stories and basement, 22x110 feet at No. 199 Liberty St., and transact a general Com- 
mission business in Flour, Grain, Fruit, Butter, C^heese, Lard and every description of country produce, employing four 
assistants. Mr. A. Bricker, father of the present proprietors and one of the founders of the house (now deceased), was 
a gentleman of more than ordinary business sagacity and foresight, and his sons, David and Levi Bricker, who now carry 
on the business, are worthy repi'esentatives of their respected sire. As originally established, the business of this house was 
confined to Flour, Feed and Grain, but shortly before the death of Mr. 15ricker, Senior, it was changed to its present line 
with gratifying results. By Judicious management, strict attention to business and undoubted business integrity the 
young men of the firm have succeeded in making a large increase annually to their trade, and the house to-day ranks 
as one of the first in that line of business in the Iron City. 

LUEBBE & "ERO. -Wholesale and Retail Grocers, Nos. 23 & 24 Diamond 

This extensive establishment was founded many years ago by J. D. Draro, Esq. The firm afterwards became 
Haslage and Co., who were in turn succeeded by the present proprietors, Messrs. William and Henry Luebbe, both 
natives of trei'many, but for many years residents of Pittsburgh and connected with the firm of Haslage and Co, since 
1857. They occupy a large double warehouse, 40x115 feet, at the number above given, which is filled from basement to 
attic witli a large and complete stock of every description of goods pertaining to the Grocery trade, and a choice assort- 
ment of pure Wines and Liquors, employing eleven clerks and salesmen. They do a large and flourishing business in 
the city and all the surrounding towns, comparing favorably with that of any other house in the same line of business 
in the city. 

PITTSBURGH "WIRE WO'B.'KS^-James R. Taylor & Co., No.35 MarketSt. 

The manufacture of Wire Work of every description, plain and ornamental Wrought Iron Railings for parks, lawns, 
verandas and cemetery lots is carried on very extensively by the firm of James R. Taylor and Co., at "No. 35 Market St. 
This house was established in 1842 by James R. Taylor and Co. In 1874, Mr. C. Dean, after ten years faithful service 
in the establishment, was admitted as a partner. The increase in their business has been very large within the past few 
j'ears. The main building occupied by them at the location named, is four stories high, 25x125, and they also occupy 
three floors ot an adjoining building of the same dimensions. They employ about twentj' hands with all the latest and 
most approved machinery for the speedy production of all work in'their line, and carry a stock of about 88,000, transact- 
ing an annual business of about $35,000. This house has of late years been particularly noted for the elegant designs 
of Wrought Iron Fences manufactured by them, and they make a specialty of an improved Fly Screen^for windows and 
doors, made to fit any desired size or shape. Air. Taylor is a thorough master of this branch of industry and has resided 
in this city for many years. Mr. Dean was born in Pittsburgh in 1850. Both members of the firm are practical work- 
men and energetic and reliable business men. 

W. W. WA.TT'L'BS.-deweler, No. 30 Fifth Avenue. 

The assertion may be safely made tliat no Retail Jewelry House in the city is regarded with more favor than that 
of Mr. W. W. Wattles. E.stablished twenty years ago by "the present proprietor,"the business has gradually aug- 
mented from very limited proportions to an annual trade of 5p50,000, and a stock unsurpassed for variety, richness, or 
tasteful selection. In these respects the house has acquired a reputation that is an assurance to its customers that 
tliey could not here buy an inferior article even if they would, no second qualities ever being tolerated in this estab- 
lishment. For elegantassortments of fine Watches of the best makes. Rings, Jewelry, Jewels, and especially in Dia- 
monds, the house of W. W. Wattles has a wide celebrity, while in the countless articles of taste and utility in Silver 
and Plated Ware, French Clocks, Bronzes, Ceramics, Brie a Brae, and some articles of virtu. Dinner and Tea Sets, Urns, 
Tureens, Epergnes,Lav,ratory, Cologne and Toilet Sets, Fruit Stands, Cake Baskets, Casters, Cand>esticks and Candel- 
abras, the house presents advantages to the buyer that can hardly be duplicated in the West. — As a native of Penn- 
sylvania Mr. Wattles came to the Iron City 26 years ago, and from that i)eriod has been identified with his present 
occupation. It is but simple justice to say that he has always maintained a position, both as a private individual and 
a business man, that has won for him in no stinted measure the confidence and consideration of his fellow-citizens, 
who at various times have endowed him with posts of responsibilities and trusts, which have been discharged with 
scrupiilous fidelity. At the present time Mr. Wattles is Treasurer of Thiol College, Greenville, Pa. 

30 



CITY OF PITTSBUitOn. 127 



W. H. BO'RT'E'R— Alderman and Deputy Mayor, Cor. Butler and 37th Streets. 

This popular gentleman and upright and honorable officer is located on Butler Street between 35th and 36th Sts. 
He was elected to the position of Alderman in 1872, in which capacity he has continuously served since that date 
with honor to liimself and to the great satisfaction of the people of his and adjacent districts. He was appointed 
Deputy Mayor of 5th Police District, Feb. 1, 1878, at the time the present Mayor assumed the Chief Magistracy of the 
City, in which capacity he has rendered efficient services, and given the highest satisfaction. There is no more 
efficient officer, nor one who has won a greater degree of respect and confidence by his honorable, upright and gentle- 
manly course, than Alderman Porter. He takes an active interest in political matters, and exerts a large influence in 
the councils of his party, and by the high esteem, in which he is held, commands a very large influence in his, and 
adjacent districts. He was born near Fredericksburg, Va., in 1839, came to this city at the age of eighteen, and 
entered the furniture business in the 12th, and afterwards in the 1.5th Ward. During the War he enlisted in the 
123rd Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Clark's Regiment. At the expiration of his term of service he entered the 
Naval Service of the Government and was stationed a long time at New Orleans. At the close of the War he returned 
and embarked in the furniture business, in which he continued until elected to his present office in 1872. He is an 
intelligent gentleman of high character, and possesses the respect and esteem of all who know him. 

LONDON TEA YLOTJ^JL -Martin d Collins, No. 3604 Butler Street. 

The large and fine establishment of the very enterprising firm of Martin & Collins is located at 3604 Butler Street, 
where they have a very large room, 20x60 feet, well arranged for their business, completely stocked with as fine a 
stock of Groceries, Tea.s, Flour, Provisions, etc., to be found in any establishment in the East End ; a fine and tasteful 
display of their varied stock is made showing the good taste of the proprietors. These young gentlemen opened their 
present establishment in 1878, and since then has begun a new era in the grocery business in this part of the city. 
They began with small capital, but since their start have manifested the highest business (lualifications, greatest 
enterprise, and remarkable energy in pushing their business forward to the very prominent position they now 
occupy. They possess a thorough appreciation of the wants and demands of the puhilic, which fact has enabled them 
to so adjust their prices and conduct their business as to draw in so short a time the exceedingly large patronage they 
now enjoy, and enables tliem to do the business, reaching to $25,000 per annum, they are now doing. The rapid rise 
and success of this establishment is a remarkable one and speaks well for the enterprising gentlemen. 

Both of the proprietors are natives of Pittsburgh, Mr. G. S. Martin having been born in 18.53, and Mr. A. H. 
Collins in 1849. They brfiught with them a thorough, practical and experienced knowledge of their business, having 
heretofore been connected with the grocery trade. They do business strictly on the cash ba.sis. These gentlemen 
are both quite young, but the energy and ability they have shown since starting are rapidly .sending them to a 
leading position among the successful business men of the East End. They have won the esteem and respect of the 
community in which they have located, by their upright, honorable course and courteous manner. 

HOST£TT£R & SMTTH^Stomach Bitters, Nos. 57 to 61 Water St. 

It is very safe to assert that no firm extant has done more than Messrs. Hostetf er & Smith to advertise Pittsburgh, 
not only in America, but the most remote regions of the habitable globe, as well as promote to no small degiee the 
wealth and industrial thrift of this community. With such a marked reputation, they are peculiarly fit objects for 
mention in a work devoted exclusively to a detailed disclosure of the resources of the Iron City. Established more 
than a quarter of a century ago, at its inception the enterpri.se involved but a very limited capital, and facilities (com- 
paratively) of the most meagre kind. At that early period in its history, the firm occupied part of a building on 
Penn St.,' at a rental of $175 per annum, the total staff of employees engaged in the manufacture of the celebruted 
Hostetter's Stomach Bitters would scarcely number half a dozen. The business, however, contained the elements 
of success, and under the consummate tact and resolution of its projectors annually increased, with rapidly augmen- 
tive revenues and proportionately enlarged facilities in every department. The extent to which the operations of 
this house have reached may be illustrated by the fact that in 1806 it became necessary to do all its own printing, 
no firm in Pittsburgh, or perhaps in the whole country, being capable of producing, either in kind or quantity, the 
work requisite in carrying on the trade of Hostetter & Smith. In the Printing and Binding departments, alone, are 
now employed eighty compositors, pressmen and others. The equipment in machinery consists in part of 10 large 
cylinder presses, and 8 smaller ones, all of which are kept running ten months during the year upon the jjublication 
of Hostetter's Illustrated United States Almanacs, which are printed in the English, German, Dutch, French, Span- 
ish, Welsh, Norweu'ian, Swedish and Bohemian languages. This Almanac was first issued in 1862 and was published 
only in German and English, increasing its edition each year and reaching in the year 1867 one million copies, which 
were disseminated in these two languages. Still increasing its edition each year it reached, in 1876, 9,000,000 copies, 
which were produced that year in all the various languages above enumerated, the average issue per year at the 
present time being 10,.500,060 copies, Consuming annually 16,000 reains of white paper, and about 2000 reams for covers 
alone. When first established the manufacture of Bitters was entirely a manual operation. The enormous increase 
in production, however, made this process impracticable, and machinery and apparatus of the best construction, with 
a capacity for putting up 500 dozen bottles per day, is now employed in "preparing and bottling the Bitters, which are 
made en tin;! y from the choicest remedial roots, barks ond herbs, the active essences and freshly expressed juices of 
which are preserved in chemically pure spirits, forming a compound of the most remarkable vital force and efficacy, 
peculiarly active in the rapid and in many eases almost miraculous relief afforded in all disea.ses arising from climatic 
causes or derangements of which an impaired stomach is the prime occasion. In this department of the work 14 pon- 
derous tanks are used, 15 feet in diameter and 5 teet high, and 10 tanks 8 feet high and 6 feet in diameter, and here are 
employed, in manufacturing, packing and shipping, not less than 50 liands. The buildings now occupied and owned by 
tlie firm are at Nos. 57, 58, .59, 60 and 61 Water St. They cover an area of over half an acre, are four stories in height, 
and are admirably situated for purposes of shipment by rail or river, through which mediums large quantities are 
shipped to all parts of the United States and territories, to South America, Australia and otlier foreign countries. Nine 
accountants, correspondents, &c., are engaged in the counting rooms of the firm, and it is not an over-estimate to say 
that in its direct and contingent operations, such as the gathering and growing of the necessary medicinal drugs, the 
manufacture of the paper with its dependent industries, the product of grain and its conversion to spirit, &c., &c., 
the house employs directly and indirectly the labor of 1000 people daily, and so far, a.side from the intrinsic merits of 
its specialty, becomes a great factor in promoting the general good. 

The .senior partner, Dr. David Hostetter, is a native of Lancaster Co., Pa., where he was born Jan. 23, 1819 j re- 
moving to this city in 18-53, his whole history .since has been attended with the most brilliant and successful business 
achievements. Not confining his talents to limits of that vocation that has made his name so celebrated, he has taken 
an interest in the development of the various resources of Pittsburgh, and conjoining the advantages of tlie community 
with his own, has pursued both with resistless activity, the broadest comprehension, and the most effective results. 
Geo'. W. Smith, Esq., the junior partner, is also a-native of Lancaster Co., Pa., and was born in the city of that name 
Feb. 22, 1823. He, too, is largely engaged in other enterprises, and may be regarded, in the fullest sense, as a self- 
made man, liberal, intelligent and sincere. As a firm perhaps no house in Pittsburgh is entitled to a higher place; 
none, certainly, is accorded a more universal or unfeigned consideration. 

31 



128 INDUSTKIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THOMAS ROSE & SOUf -Boots and Shoes, No.W Diamond Street. 

One of the oldest and best known Retail and Custom Manufacturing Boot and Shoe Stores in the city was estali- 
lished by Mr. Thomas Rose in 1839, and for nearly half a century lias been an important factor in supplying the 
wants of the Pittsburgh public in this essential line of trade. The premises occupied are centrally located and 
commodious, the upper floor being devoted to the making of Custom Boots and Shoes and repairing, where five 
mechanics are employed. The first floor comprises the salesroom for machine and hand-made work, in which a stock 
of about $10,000 is generally carried, consisting of a full and well assorted line of Children's, Misses', Ladies' Shoes 
and Gaiters, and Boys', Youths', and Men's Boots and Shoes, bought directly from Eastern manufacturers, which 
enables the house to compete in prices and styles with any contemporaries, to the decided advantage of the customer. 
As a firm, this house is so well established for their strict adherence to truthful representation and reliability in 
busiuess honor, that any comment from us would be unnecessary to further their well deserved popularity. The 
senior member, a resident of this city for forty-five years, has built for himself a high reputation, while the junior 
member, Mr. A. N. Rose, is acknowledged as one of our most thoroughly upright young business men. 

M. F. CAl&^l'D'Y— Alderman, 94 Third Avenue. 

The subject of this sketch, M. F. Cassidy, Esq., was born in this city, September 26, 1839, and before entering, as 
the people's choice, upon the duties of the office of which he is now the incumbent, was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, having in early life been for several years in the merchant tailoring business, as partner in the firm of 
Kane & Duffy of Sixth Street, later was of the firm of M. F. Cassidy & Co., Produce Commission Merchants, and was 
called in 1872 to fill the Aldermanic chair of the 1st Ward. Filling the office so ably and so satisfactorily to his 
constituents, it was their pleasure to continue him in the same position of trust in 1875, when he was re-elected for 
another term. Not only as a careful advocate of the city's interest in the Council Chamber does he acquit himself 
most deservedly of the people's support, but in all matters pertaining to his private office business, he has ever 
proved an upright magistrate, a careful business agent and a worthy incumbent. 

H.. CHILDS & CO -Wholesale Boots & Shoes, 183 Wood Street. 

The first Boot and Shoe House established West of the Allegheny Mountains was that of John Albree, at Pitts- 
burgh, in the year 1817. The business subsequently jjassed into the hands of Albree & Childs, who were in turn 
succeeded by H. Childs and Co., under which style the business has now been conducted for over forty years. Mr. 
Harvey Childs, Jr., and Mr. Ross Johnston, the members of the present firm, are both natives of Pittsburgh, and they 
have always been identified with the shoe trade of this section of the country. They occupy the entire five stories 
and basement of the elegant and commodious building, No. 133 Wood Street, and carry a stock of from 140,000 to 
$75,000, comprising as full and complete an assortment as can be found in any similar establishment in the Union. 
■They employ four traveling salesmen with an extensive business acquaintance and flourishing trade in Western 
Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland. Few mercantile houses in the United States 
can boast of such a long continued, honorable and successful business career as that of H. Childs & Co., and it is but 
seldom that any one firm continues so long engaged, unchanged, in the same line of business. 

KENNEDY F. L AXGE, Eagle Pharmacy, Cor. Butler d 37th St. 

At the corner of Butler and 87th Streets, the handsome and attractive Eagle Pharrhacy is located, and is stocked 
with the finest and most complete stock of Drugs, Chemicals, Fine Instruments, Toilet and Fancy Articles, in endless 
variety, and the finest quality to be found in the city, and which are arranged and displayed in an extraordinarily 
attractive manner. Mr. Lange carries a stock of goods to the amount of $8,000, and is doing a business of $12,000 or 
upwards per annum. This is one of the most noted establishments in this part of the city, and enjoys a reputation of 
which Mr. L. has a right to be proud. Mr. L., the genial proprietor, is a highly accomplished and popular gentleman, 
possessing the confidence of the business coinmunity and enjoying the respect and generous patronage of an appre- 
ciative public. The business, which was started by Mr. L. in 18(57 with a small capital, has grown into its present 
handsome proportions through the untiring energy and enterprise of its proprietor. Mr. L. occupies a very hand- 
somely located and beautiful store room and three-story building on the corner, and the handsome and beautiful 
display of his goods embellished with an attractive show of beautiful and rare plants during the Summer season, is 
the subject of general remark and commendation. Mr. L. also possesses the esteem and confidence of the medical 
fraternity in an eminent degree. He was born in the city of Pittsburgh in 1845, is a son of Dr. Lange, a well known 
and highly respected citizen and accomplished physician. He has lived in this city ever since, and since reaching 
the age of maturity has been identified with the local politics of the city. He is now, and has been for some years, a 
member of the Central Board of Education, a position that he fills with honor ,to himself and the satisfaction of the 
comuiuuity. He is a leading and popular Republican, and wields an important influence in the councils of his party 
and in the community with the interests of which he is so closely identified. 

THE ENTERPRISE EXCHANGE -C/?a5. Hilger, Proprietor. 

Cor. Perm Avenue & Butler Street. 

The most popular, respectable and high-toned resort in the East End is the Enterprise Exchange, which under the 
liberal, careful and upright management of the very genial, courteous and popular gentleman Mr. Chas. Hilger tne 
proprietor, enjoys a high degree of popularity and is patronized by the most prominent and enterprising citizens of 
Lawrenceville, and is the favorite resort of the leading citizens. Mr. H. has won for establishment so high a reputation 
by keeping a house of the highest character, and in the most respectable order, nothing but the most gentlemanly be- 
havior is for a moment tolerated, such resorts and such men are an honor to the community in which they are found. 
Mr. Hilger is also proprietor of another fine establishment farther out of the city, which is also a fovorite resort during 
the summer season. 

Mr. H. was born in Baden, Germany, in the year 1842, he came to the U. S. when a child and located in Louisville, 
Ky., since a number of years. During the war he left there and went to Chicago, where he remained but a short time, re- 
moving from there to Pittsburgh. He enlisted in the Union Army, serving 9 months until the close of war, was discharged 
at Richmond, Va., returning again to this city, where for a time he was engaged as Commercial Salesman. Entering 
his present business in 1867 in connection with J. B. Pierson, the latter retiring from the Co. partnership at the end of 
tlie first year, since which Mr. H. has conducted the business him.self in such manner, as to win the esteem, confidence 
and respect of the entire community. He is a young gentleman of intelligence and enterprise, takes great interest in 
tlie political affairs in his ward, exerts a large and important influence, he has been a member of the School Board for 
6 years and is now a member of Select Council of the city, in which position he will be found exerting his influence in 
the interests of true reform. Mr Hilger's popularity has been won by his manly and honorable course, during the ten 
years or more of business connection with the people of this section. 

32 



CITY OF PITTSBUKGH. 129 



JAMES T. KING AID, Sr.-No. 107 First Ave. 

This manufactory of Steamboat and Hotel Cooking Stoves, Tin Ware, etc., is equal to the best, and occupies two 
floors, the upper one being used as a manufactory. Five hands are in constant employment, manufacturing Tin, Cop- 
per and Sheet Iron Wares. The greatest variety and clioicest workmanship is done here of any place in the city, 
consuming over $12,000 worth of stock per annum. The firm was organized in ISlo by Lewis Peterson, with whom 
Jas. T. Kincaid, Sr., learned his trade, and afterward became partner and in 1S40 proprietor. In 1SG() the firm became 
" Jas. T. Kincaid & Sons," and passed into the hands of the present owner in 1874. The Steamboat and Hotel Conk- 
ing Stoves of this firm are original witli the former firm of Peterson & Co. They are made of wrought iron, and are 
known and acknowledged to be the best in use. All the steamboats on the rivers use them in preference to any other. 
Mr. James T. Kincaid is a native of Pittsburgh, born in 1828. He learned the business, which he has always fol- 
lowed, with his father, who was long known and respected in this city. 

LEE & MARSHALL -M^oo/ Dealers, 90 Water Street. 

This is a business which is but little understood by the masses, and its magnitude is but inadequately appreciated 
by the general public. The capital invested in this line of trade is very large and the business is one of the important 
features of our national prosperity. The home supply of wool is not equal to the demand and consumption, and large 
quantities are imported form foreign countries. The house of Lee and Marsliall is composed of Mr. II ugh Lee and Mr. 
James L. Marshall. They have been engaged in business on Liberty Street for the past thirty-live years, and for 
twenty-four years under the present firm name and style. They have agents in the various wool growing districts 
buying for tliem on commission, and they handle on an average about 250,000 pounds of wool per year. Tiieir sales 
are almost exclusively to eastern manufacturers and dealers for whom they principally purchase and ship, although 
frequently buying on their own account and holding it for an advance in price. 

FREEHOLD BAHJH -Discount and Deposit, No. 68 Smithfield Street. 

Contingent upon and identified witli the industries of Pittsbui-gh, the Freeliold Bank is justly regarded as one of 
the most solid, conservative and responsible financial institutions in the city. Organized under the State laws in 
1870, with a capital of S200,000, the bank became a success fi-om its very Inception, under the management and direc- 
tion of the following well known gentlemen : E. House, Esq., President, J P. Speer, Cashier, L. H. Widney, Teller, 
the Board of Directors being Messrs. E. House, John Paul, John MacKin, T. W. Davis, C. L. Magee, Jared M. Brush, 
and T. S. Biglow. 

The building owned and occupied on the first floor by the bank is a handsome stone front edifice, 40x60 feet, and 
three stories high, centrally located, and regarded as being a very valuable property. Taken altogether, no similar 
institution possesses a higher rank either on the score of solvencyor able management, and the Freehold Bank may 
justly be regarded as one of the representative financial establishments of the Iron City. 

J. P. ^WILLIBON, -Undertaker and Embalmer, No. 4015 Butler St. 

This very polite, courteous and popular gentleman, and accomplished Undertaker and Embalmer is to be found at 
4015 Butler St., where he opened his establishment, and olfcred his valued services to the public in that part of the 
city in 1877, since which time his genial manners, high accomplishments, and prompt and careful attention to all bus- 
iness entrusted to his hands and the wants of the public, he has rapidly grown in favor, enlarged his business, and 
widened his ah-eady large circle of acquaintances and patrons. His energy and determination will achieve success in 
whatever enterprises he may engage. He was born in Allegheny County "in 1842, worked on the f-arm of his father 
until 18 years of age, then learned the blacksmitli trade. He enlisted at the beginning of the war in the famous 62nd 
Pa. Vol., Col. Sam Block, and served during the entire war, being wounded six times, but escaping without being 
seriously maimed or crippled, although bearing the scars of the "leaden hail." During his term of enlistment lie 
prudently saved his money paid him by the Government, with which, after the close of tb.e war, lie was enabled to 
gratify a noble and lofty ambition to educate himself. He applied himself to study closely for a considerable period. 
In 1866, through the efforts of an influential friend he secured the appointment of clerk in the House of Representa- 
tives at Harrisburg, which position be held with credit to himself, and the satisfaction of his friends for two years 
After that he entered the Dry House of J. J. Bender & Co. as Book-keeper, leaving there to acccjit the position o 
Cashier in tlie Office of the P. C. & St. L. R. R., in which position he served seven years, after which iie embarked i'. 
his present enterprise, in which he is meeting with encouraging success. Mr. Willison is well and popularly known 
in his community, actively participates in the public and political matters of his ward, and exerts an important influ- 
ence in matters of that kind. 

JOS. VOGEL,-Z?ry Goods, Notions, Carpets, Oil Cloths, &c.. No. 3702 Butler St. 

The large, handsome and splendily stocked establishment of Mr. Vngel is located at No. 3702 Butler St., and is 
recognized as one of the most prominent Dry Goods houses in the East End. The room owned and occupied by Mr .V,, 
is 20 feet front and 75 feet deep, the building being a fine 3-story brick. The store is filled from end to end with as large, 
varied and attractive line of goods as any one could desire, and the stock is kept sup]ilied with frequent invoices of nil 
the latest novelties and newest patterns. The beautiful manner in which the goods arc displayed, the perfect neatness 
in which everything in the establishment is kept, everything in perfect order Not a speck of dust allowed to 
accumulate anywhere, as is too frequently the case in many establishments, speaks volumes for the good 
taste, and the high appriciation of the advantages to be derived from an attractive and pleasant place in 
which to greet customers of Mr .Tos. Vogel, Jr. The popular, very polite and courteous son of the proprietor, 
who takes much pride in this as well as all other features of the business, and who by his very gentle- 
manly and courteous treatment towards all the patrons of the establishment, as well as by his popularity 
and general high character in the community adds much to the high esteem in which the establishment is 
held. The establishment is doing a large and growing business, reaching very large figures annually. Vogel's is 
known by everybody in this part of the city and favorably mention the establishment on all bands. Mr Jos. Vogel 
first began business in this city 25 years" ago as a Merchant Tailor on Liberty St. with limited capital, but by cb-se 
attention to business, and enterprising ability rapidly^ccumulatf'd capital, he continued in that business until 9 years 
ago when he removed to Lawrenceville and enctaged in the Dry (roods business. Mr. Vogel wns horn in (iermany and 
came to the U. S. in \KM, first locating in BiiflTalo. N. Y., afterwards removing to this city, he has:iccmiuilated consider- 
able means during his loni; and busy career in this city, and i'; an honored and highly respected citizen, and an upright 
honorable Gentleman. The two sons of Mr. Vogel, John and Joseph, give their close attention to the busines ; they are 
both young men of popular and agreeable manners, with whom it is a pleasure to deal, and who are highly respected by 
the community in which they reside. 

33 '91 



130 INDUSTRIES OF PENXSYLVAXIA. 



W. L. GRIFFITH & CO.-Millinery and Trimmings, No. 76 Market St. 

W. L. Grirtith & Co.. whdse phuH> i>f business is us above, have ii just vuasoii to feel proud of tlie success which 
they have achieved in cst;iblisUiiis tluiuselves in such a prounneut position in connection witli the millinery trade of 
our'city. Tliey are dealers in all lines of Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, Millinery, Triiuuiings, "Ribbons, 
Feathers, i<:e., Itc, and oci'upy two light and spacicus floors, as sales and nianufaetuiing departments, in whicli ten 
salesmen and imineriius triumiers, Ac, are employed, while the members of the tirni, Messrs. W. L. and S. L. GritKtli, 
pay personal supervision to l!ie business. Over the millinery department, as superintendent, Mrs. S. L. Griliith, a 
lady who possesses a thorough knowledge of the business, is daily in attendance. This house carry a large and diver- 
sitied stock of :?10,Ui)l) in value, where every want, in this line of goods, may be as fully and economically fulfilled as 
at any place in the city. In addition to the attractions usual to such a house, here may he found, also, headquarters 
for tl"e lelebrated Peinorest's Patterns, the most reliable in the country. This tirm, although established as late as 
1875, has achievccl a recognized success and reputation, both in business relations and in social connections, which may 
well bo worthy if th • sustenance and patronage of both our own residents, and those visiting our city from neighbor- 
ing cities and "t.nvns, will always iind it to their advantage in visiting the house of W. L. Griffith & Co., at No. 76 
Market St. 

EPHRAIM dLAY" -Hosiery, Gloves, Notions, dc. No. 37 Diamond St. 

This well i^stablished and successful jobbing and I'etail house is of eigheen years' standing, and carries a large 
variety of goods in the line of Hosiery, Notions, Gloves, Yarns, and Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods, the usual amount 
of stock being about 3^15,000. There are four floors in the building, all of which are used in the business of the house. 
Five hands are usually engaged in the busine.ss, attending to the wants of the trade at the house, while one traveling 
salesman, in the person of Mr. Phil. Baer, represents the house through Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Vir- 
ginia. The well-earned reputation of the house has given it a large and steadily increasing trade, and its stock is as 
complete as any in the city. Mr. Clay was horn in England in 1818, has been in "this State for about 30 years, the last 
IS of whicli have been spent in this city and in the business he has so successfully established. 

JOSEPH MACIulBAN, -Bookseller and Bookbinder, Room 3, NO. 41 Fifth Ave. 

As a dealer in Books, making a specialty of mechanical scientifle and art works, and rare publications, it is safe to 
assert, that Mr. Joseph Jlaelean possesses a more detailed, as well as eouijiivhcnsive knowledge of his business, than any 
competitor in this city, and can at the same time otter advantages to the regular or casual book buyer, that may not be 
duplicated in the West. For more than ten years Mr. Maclean was associated with the widely known publishing lirni 
of Gebbie and Barrie, Philadelphia, and in conjunction with them established a Book House in Pittsburgh 1871, which 
liowever was subsequently removed to xs^ew York, of which place INIr. Maclean became a resident. Between the last 
named yieriod, and 1878, however, he was a frequent visitor to this city, maintaining his relations with the trade here, and 
finally in that year engaged in business for himself, exclusively at the above location. 

The premises occupied by Mr. Maclean are admirably suited for the book trade, and are stocked with a choice as- 
soi'tment of special works in the lines mentioned, as well as a large miscellaneous collection in the province of general 
first class literature, classical and modern, the stock being of an average value of alxuit five thousand dollars. To this 
spot resort many of the prominent book lovers and buyers of this city. Finding invariably something curious, rare or 
new, upon the well filled shelves, to reward them for the quest, constant additions being made in all departments, 
througii the foreign or eastern connections, established by the energetic proprietor. As sole agent for the Harper 
Brothers in this city, Mr. Maclean controls the sale of Stanley's celebrated work in Africa, "Through the Dark Conti- 
nent" and deals largely in other subscription hooks, lor reference generally, or in particular branches of mechanics, 
chemistry or the arts etc., etc. Indefatigable in the pursuit of his business, for which he possesses marked talent and 
appreciative comprehension, Mr. Maclean's relations are mainly with the highest and most intelligent classes of the 
community, to whom he can always otter advantages in the purchase of hooks, and the selection of libraries not to be 
equalled by any eoteniporary, either here or in the eastern cities, and which have given him a position in the trade, 
rarely acquired except by years of exertion and experience. In the department of Binding, Mr. Maclean has ettected 
special arrangements with the best binders in I'hihulelphia, by which tlie finest work is invariably insured, at the most 
moderate outlay. In every respect this establishment is a model one, the proprietor being thoroughly deserving of the 
patronage and consideration of the public, to whom his enterprise is cordially commended. 

THOS. FAWCETT & SONS, -Bituminous Coal, Office, 87 Water St. 

In the great coal interests of AVestern Pennsylvania, so closely identified with the indusiries and development 
of this community, a review of the trade in extent, and the mode" of caiTying it on in respect to transportation to 
other points must prove interesting to every reader of this volume, either in or out of this city. In compiling such a 
review perhaps no citizen of Pittsburgh is more fully posted, and more capable of giving to our readers an idea of the 
scope and extent of changes that have occurred in the last quarter of a century, than Thomas Fawcett, Sen., Esq., 
at whose otfice our reporter obtained the information fur the formation of this brief notice, regarding the operations of 
this firm (composed of Thomas Fawcett, Sen., .Tames T. Fawcett, and Thomas Fawcett, Jr.), which may he taken as an 
illustration of the advancement and improvement attained in this line of industry. 

Succeeding his father, Mr. James Fawcett, who commenced the mining of coal, and wholesale dealing in the same 
as early in our city's history as 18:>1, and was accordingly one of our earliest miners and coal merchants, ^Ir. Thomas 
Fawcett, Sen., had, upon entering into business in 1850, at the ago of 23 years, a knowledge and experience in the coal 
trade possessed by few young men of those days. At this date (1850), before the general use of steamboats and tugs, 
coal was floated down with the current of the river to cities south of us, requiring to every pair of boats, with a capac- 
ity of 40,000 bushels, 25 men to guide and handle them. Through the dill'erentgradations of changes from year to 
year, this firm have kept pace with, and made large original improvements, until now a single tow-boat will convey 
20 coal boats and barges, having a capacity of 500,000 bushels, manned with but 30 men, showing an advancement in 
this branch of nearly 1000 per cent, over "those of former days. Bringing these vast advantages in practical use, this 
firm now own and operate two large tow-boats, 50 barges, holding 12,000 bushels each, and 100 coal boats, holding 24,000 
bushels each, which are called in requisition, in addition to one tug-boat for harbor use, in efl'ecting for them an outlet 
for the immense amount of coal mined from their mines at Green Springs, opposite Braddock's Field, where they 
own over 100 acres of excellent coal land, from which are yearly extracted not less than 6,000,000 bushels of bituminous 
coal, which is, to a large extent, shipped down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers as far South as New Orleans, at which 
point the house have a yard for the saleof their coal to the wholesale and retail trade of that city, in addition towhich 
large numbers of cotton presses, steamships and steamboats are supplied, both along the rivers at ditterent points, and 
at the intermediate cities lining the hanks between Pittsburgh and New Orleans. To carry on the business of Faw- 
cett & Sons 200 men are engaged in the ditterent branches of mining, shipping and handling, to whom are monthly 
distributed about Sr2, 000 in i):iynient for their labor. As a representative firm in the coal trade, that of Thomas 
Fawcett A Sons mayunmislak.ibly be styled the largest shippers down the river, and the oldest in the city, being 
the only firm engaged continuously since 1850, and justly deserving the large trade they have built up and so success- 
fully hold. The senior member was born in this city in 1827, and in addition to the part he has taken in the promo- 
tion" of our industries in the capacity in which he is most prominent, he has contributed largely in capital, time and 
influence to the upbuilding and upholding of our financial institutions. 

34 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 131 



G£0. M. IRWIN^— Grain and Provision Broker, No. 55 5th Ave. 

Hardly to be classed under the Industries of Pittsburgh, and yet intimately connected with them, by association, 
the business of Mr. Geo. M. Irwin, as a Grain and Provision Broker, demands recognition in this work. A native of 
Beaver Co., Pa., Major Irwin has been a resident of this city for over 10 years, and since 1875 has devoted himself 
with great and deserved success to his present occupation. In constant connection, by wire, with the corn and grain 
exchanges of Chicago and the West, and with extraordinary advantages in tlie prominence and sagacity of his corre- 
spondents, no man is better able to form a judgment on the fluctuations of the market, or direct witli greater success 
the operations of margin buyers. His tact and experience in this respect has been a matter of frequent comment by 
the pi-ess, as well as a source" of handsome profit to his clients. The method of JVIaj. Irwin is such that buyers or sel- 
lers through him, for future acceptance or delivery, manipulate their own investments, the same being deposited in a 
National Bank for mutual protection, a small percentage only in each pool or transaction going to the broker. As a 
means of realizing rapid and considerable returns upon small ventures, the operations of Maj. Irwin sliow pretty 
conclusively that capital so employed is subject to no more risk than if vested in ordinary trade transactions or com- 
mercial or other products, while the profits are likely to be, from the system in use, measurably greater. As a judi- 
cious, cautious and adroit adviser, Mr. Irwin has repeatedly given evidence of marked capacity. Those at a distance 
who desire to avail themselves of the advantages he offers can do so by correspondence, as well as by personal inter- 
view. 

UNION PLANING MILL COMPANY,-/l/o. 50 18th St., South Side. 

As no unimportant factor among the industries of Pittsburgh, in connection with the lumber trade, the above 
corporation is worthy of special mention in tliis work, both from the extent of its operations and high standing in 
other respects. Chartered in 1866, witli a capital stock of Si20,000, the affairs of the company have been so ably and 
faithfully managed tliat each year has brought about an increasing business, enlarged resources, and a great range of 
usefulness. The officers at present are : James McMasters, President, Wm. Wigman, I>. Shutte and S. Hamilton, 
Directors, and A. H. Hunter, Secretary and Book-keeper. The premises occupied by the establishment are situated 
as above, and consist of one large building, 40x120 feet, with extensive wings, containing the most improved and per- 
fect machinery for the manufacture and construction of Sashes, AVindow Frames, Door.s and Door Frames, Mouldings, 
Weather Boarding and Flooring, Boxes of all descriptions, &e., &c., One large engine and steam boiler are required 
to drive the various mechanical appliances, and 3.5 to 40 employees are constantly engaged, occasioning a disbursement 
of from S^.50 to 1600 per week. In the matter of the manufacture of boxes for glass and otlier wares, tliis concern does 
a larger business than any of its cotemporaries, not confining its works only to this immediate locality, but extending 
it to a wide range through this and adjacent States, aggregating a trade of not less than $9.5,000 annually. Tlie Presi- 
de!. t of the campany is likewise President of the Farmers and Mechanics Bank, and well known for liis enterprising 
connection with the progress and development of the resources of this community. The concern takes its standing 
from tliose who are concerned in it, and is therefore regarded with the highest favor, as being perhaps the best ap- 
pointed and most carefully managed Planing Mill in this section of the State. 

JOS. WOODWELL & CO -Hardware, Cor. Wood St. and Second Ave. 

Among the many firms engaged in the above line of trade in this city, none occupy a more suljstantial position than 
the subject of this sketch. EstabJislied March 1st, 1845, as Wood well and Walker, tlie latter partner soon retired leav- 
ing the firm title as at present. Two buildings 4-stories high, 140 feet in lengtli with two ample basements, are barely 
sufficient to contain a stock, which rarely runs below a valuation of $100,000, consisting of every variety of foreign and 
domestic Hardware, Cutleries, Saws, Shovels and Spades, Harvest and Agricultural Tools, Builders, Machinists, Railway 
and Cabinet Hardware, Chains, Anvils etc , etc. 

The firm which is composed of Mr. Josseph Woodwell and two Sons, W. K. and Jos. B. does a large and increasing 
business in Railroad supplies, as well as a very extensive retail trade, the result of the long establishment of the house, 
and the extended acquaintance of its members, which reaches with their business into three or four contiguous State.s. 
Besides posessing all the advantages above enumerated, this firm have the special agency for the celebrated Nicholson 
Files, Wood Ornaments and the mo.st compl(;te assortment of Iron, Steel, Bra.ss and Copper, Wire to be found west of 
the niountains. From 14 to 20 employees are regularly retained in the various department of the business, which in- 
volve sales of from $1.50,000 to g200, 000 per annum. The general characteristics of this house for financial solvency, 
thorough conception of the Ijusiness in which they are engaged, together with a high standard of personal and commer- 
cial honor, would reflect credit upon any community, and make the untarnished record of nearly thirty-five years a 
source of private and public satisfaction. 

WESTERN INSURANCE COMPAN Y,-eraw/fe Building, 81 Wood St. 

This old and reliable Company was incorporated by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, March 20, 1849, the fir.st com- 
pany chartered in this city after the disastrous Fire, that occurred on the lOtli of April 1845, and now the oldest Fire 
and Marine Co. in the city, with cash capital of $225,000, Assets $317,607.25. The management of this sound and pros- 
perous company is not excelled by any other similar organization in the country. The directors were truly fortunate 
in the selection of a financial officer and general business manager in the person of Wm. P. Herbert, secretary, who has 
been in charge of the business over a quarter of a century. The vast number of risks, that he has handled, the enor- 
mous amount of losses paid, the prompt adjustment of claims when necessary, has given the Western an enviable repu- 
tation, both at home and abroad. The careful and judicious cour.se pursued by the management, has been the means 
of making the stock of this company one of the best for investment to be found in the city, when we learn that they 
have paid their stockholders in dividends nearly four dollars for one invested. As an illustration of the character ol the 
management, and probity in conducting the very large and increasing business of this company, we may refer to the 
showing of the handsome amout of A.s.sets of $317,607.25, after paying losses in 30 years of their existence ot nearly 1,000,- 
000. The managers have given evidense of rare ability in selecting business, and their judgement has been verified in 
the success, which has been acquired. The business of the Western has bi'en princifially of a local character, and within 
reach of the officers, that an accurate examination of each risk could be had. We herewith present the names of the 
board for the year 1879 : 

President, Alexander Nimick, V. President 1st National Bank, of firms of Nimick & Co., 
Phillips, Nimick & Co. and President .Tacobus it Nimick Mfg. Co., etc. etc. R, Miller Jr., President Monongahela 
Bridge company, David M. Long of Hubbard, Bakewell and Co., John R. McCane, President Union National Bank, 
Charles J. Clarke President Library Hall company^Capt. Wm. S. Evans, President of Missouri River Transportation 
company, Phillip Requier of Requier and Brothers, Wholesale Grocers etc., William Jlorrison, Capitalist, H. Sellers 
McKee of McKee and Bros., Glass Manufacturers, John B. .Jackson Member of city council, Hon. L. K. Moorebead, 
President of Monongahela N a V. Co. and President of Chamber of Commerce, Hon. Edwin H. Stowe President, .fudge 
com. Pleas No. 1., Wm. Frew, first Vice President Standard Oil company. In this list are found the names of solid ineo 
of Pittsburgh, and of men who are the architects of their own fortunes. 

35 



132 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



THE W£STINGHOUS£ AIR BRAKE CO. 

Office & H orliH : JAherty Street, Jiettveen 24th and 25th Streets. 

It is tolerably safe to say that no one special branch of our manufacturing industries has disseminated more 
widely a knowledge of Pittsburgh and its characteristics, than the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. Certainly none 
more entitled to copious mention in any work professing to display in its proper light, the resources, advantages and 
development of the Iron City. Based upon the masterly invention of George Westinghonse, Jr., the manufacture of 
the Automilic Air Brake was coinuienced by the patentee and Ralph Bagaley, Esq., nearly ten years ago, creating 
an absolute revolution in tlie matter of handling railroad trains, greatly increasing the safety of travel, and reducing 
running expenses, with many otlier striking advantages. The importance and novelty of tliis unique appliance, 
attracted at once universil attention resulting in the formation of an incorporated Joint Stock Company, with a 
capital of SJOi.1,000 paid in, for the ])urpose of a more extensive manufacture of the Air Brake. Of this Association, 
Geo. Westinghouse, Jr. was elected President, Ralph Bagaley Secretary and Treasurer, and T. \V. Welsh Superin- 
tendent, and under the management of these gentlemen to the present time the company has attained an almost 
unparallelod degree of pro.sperity, extending its operations not only throughout the entire United Stiitesand Canadas, 
but introducing its inventions into Mexico, Culia, South America, England, France, Germany, Russia, Scot hmd, 
Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, India, and in fact in alm-ost every country iu the world where railroads are in 
process of construction, or liave become a necessity. 

The works of the corporation are unusuallycomplete in every mechanical detail, they occupy an area 100x264 
feet, containing two engines and boilers aggregating ninety horse power, and line machinery especially invented or 
designed for the work performed. One hundred and fifty skilled artizaus are constantly employed, occasioning an 
annual disbursement to this source alone of $S4,000. Besides the construction of the original Automatic Air Brake, 
other devices involving much the same principle have been invented by Mr. Westinghouse, covering Train Brakes, 
Freight Brakes, Westinghouse and Smith Vacuum Brakes and Locomotive Driver Brakes, all of which are manu- 
factured bv tlie company, protected by numeixnis patents in this country and abroad. 

Geo. Westinghouse, Jr. is a native of Schenectady, N. Y., and is still a young man. He acquired his knowledge 
of meclianics in the Agricultural Implement Works of his father in his native city, but removed to this city in 18(58, 
where after combatting numerous discouragements he finally established the foundations of a signal success. 

Mr. Bigaley is a native of Pittsburgh, his father Wm. Bagaley, Esq., was one of the most talented business men 
this city ever produced ; methodical, enterprising and comprehensive in character, he was twenty-live years ago a 
representative man, and did as much perhaps as any one, in advancing the prosperity of this community. Mr. Ralph 
Bagalev from tlie inception of his business career has been constantly engrossed in the manufacture of machinery in 
some of its many branches. As one of the projectors and officers of the Westinghouse Co., as well as proprietor of the 
Pittsburgli Evening Telegi-aph, he is widely known, and this in connection with various interests in financial and 
civic institutions has given him an influence always justly exercised and well deserved. With an annual revenue 
averaging half a million dollars, and a practical usefulness almost philanthropic, it is not a matter of surprise that the 
Westrughouse Air Brake Co. occupies a place iu the Industries of Pittsburgh as honorable as it is well merited. 



A. NORTHROP & CO -Sheet Iron Roofing & Building Materials. 97 ht Ave. 

Among those industries 
contingcut upon or spring- 
ing from the L'on trade, 
and the material out- 
growth o f improvement 
and invention may be 
classed the enterprise of 
the above firm, which is 
of such a character and of 
so great a usefulness as to 
entitle it to more than 
mere mention iu a publi- 
cation, <1p voted exclusive- 
ly to a detailed display of 
the resources of Pittsburgh. 
Composed as a firm of A. 
Northrop and Henry S. 
Northrop his son, both 
are natives of Ohio and 
were established in busi- 
ness at Elyria in that 
State for 25 years, prior to 
their removal to this city. 
A finished mechanic in 
Tin and Sheet Iron, with 
a comprehensive know- 
ledge of how these mate- 
rials sliould be worked to 
secure tlie best results. 

Mr. A. Northrop became 

inventor and patentee of certain improvements in Iron Roofing. Siding and Ceiling, that must eventnallv 7tlect a 
vast c.vinge in the metliod and expense of constructing buildincrsof every description, and which are now" produc- 
ing radical alterations and advantages. By the mode of application introduced by this house. Iron Rooting be- 
comes not only impervious to the action of water and fire, hut ornamental and durable to the last degree as well 
as exceedingly economical. Some of the advantages claimed for it, which claims are substantialed by the strongest 
testimonials and the most disinterested authorities, are that it not onlv possesses the features above refered to, but 
that It IS suitable for all classes of buildings, is wind and lishtning proof, simple of application. No nails or 
screws through the Sheets, can be perfectly fitted to chimnevs, skv lights, hips, vallevs and gutters One of the 
great advantage.? of this method lies in the fact, that the Roof can be taken apart, moved at pleasure and utilized 
as often a^ desired, and is so prepared for shipment with printed instructions, as to be easily ajiplied bv any ordi- 
nary mechanic. The same advantages hold good in rearard to thp siding, which aftords a flawless protection' to all 
weathers and all climates, as well as addinsi sreat strenath to the structure. The ceiling is perhaps the best ever 
devised, both in appearance and for the relief aftbrded from falling plaster, the breaking oft", of which is only a 
question of time. Besides the manufacture of this valuable invention A. Northrop & Co., are large manufacturers 
and dealers in Sheet Iron Cornice, Gutters, Fire-proof Shutters, Roofing, Paint, etc., etc. Their facilities are exten- 
sive and a rapidly increasing trade, which extends all over the United States and Canada, demonstrates the favor with 
which their improvements are being received and appreciated. To those intending to construct new edifices or repair 
old ones, this firm is most heartily commended, their entire business policy being characterized by thoroughness, 
promptness and probity, their work speaks for itself wherever known. 




CITY OF PITTSBURGH, 



133 



CHARLES FREIL,— 5ofl^a and Mineral Waters and Bottling House, 956 Penn Ave. 

The bottling business, as conducted by Mr. Charles Freil at No. 956 Penn Avenue, is entitled to more than a pass- 
ing notice in a work devoted to the business industries and interests of the Smoky City. Established in 1SU7 by the 
present proprietor, these works now occupy two spacious buildings, one, 24x120, at the location named, and one front- 
ing on Liberty Street, 30x100 feet. They have all the apparatus and appliances for carrying on an extensive bu.siness 
in the manufacture of Soda and Mineral Waters, Sar.saparilla, &c., and for bottling Ale, Porter, Cider and Lager Beer. 
They have a capacity for bottling 2000 dozen bottles per day, and the works are as complete and well arranaged as any 
in the West. Mr. Freil keeps four wagons constantly employed in delivering goods, and his trade extends through 
the two cities, Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio and West Virginia. Mr. Freil was born in Londonderry, Ireland, 
in 1846. He came to the United States in 1860 without means, working his passage to this country. Ho at lirst worked 
on a fai-m, afterwards on the river and in several diflerent branches of industry, until he accumulated sufficient capi- 
tal to establish himself in business. He opened a tavern in 1865, and met with gratifying success until 1807, when he 
sold out and embarked in his present business, in which, by energy and enterprise, he has accumulated considerable 
property, owning the buildings in which he is located, and other property in the city. The success that has attended 
Mr. Freil's enterprises in business, and the prominent position attained "in the business community, starting without 
means, is an indication of great ability and energy. He is a gentleman, highly respected and esteemed by all who 
know him, for his general qualities, and upright, honorable life. 



GEO. DUXCAN & ^O^S -Glass Manufacturers. 70th St. South Side. 

In a work devoted to a minute display of the resources and advantages of this community, the Glass manufactur- 
ing industries must occupy a position of importance commensurate with the prosperity and genenil development of 
Pittsburgh traceable to this source. Conspicuous among those firms that have added no little to the celebrity of our 
pi'oducts in this department of trade, the hou.se of Geo. Duncan & Sons must always occupy a place that, in many re- 
spects, eclipses all competitors. This firm was originally established, in 1866, by Pipley & Co., assuming its present 
title in 1874, and composed individually of Messrs. Geo. Duncan, Jas. E. Duncan and A. H. Heisey, all practical 
glass makers, with a comprehensive knowledge and extended experience in the business, and all natives of this city, 
the senior partner having been engaged in this vocation for over a quarter of a century. For the specialties, to the 
perfect production of which this house is devoted, it has achieved a wide spread and splendid reputation, distancing 
all competitors in the manufacture of Table and Bar Glassware of chaste and elegant designs, finished to a wonderful 
degree of excellence ; engraved, cut, stained and etched in such a manner by new processes and labor saving methods 
as torival in appearance the finest cut glass, at a vast reduction in price. It is not saying too much to assert that in the 
production of Table Sets, Elaborate Lamps, and superior Bar Goods the firm of Geo. Duncan & Sons can not be sur- 
passed. 

The plant of the house is extensive and occupies 18 lots, covering a total area of about two acres, subdivided into 
factories, mould shops, packing rooms, stock and sample rooms, offices, &c., &c. A powerful engine and boiler are 
required to drive the machinery, and 150 skilled artizans are employed at an average outlay of $1400 per week. With 
these and other unequalled facilities the firm transact a trade averaging $150,000 per annum, and extending through- 
out the United States, Mexico, Cuba, South America, and other foreign countries, contributing gi'eatly to the general 
wealth of this community, and fostering to a large degree its material prosperity. As a firm the house of Geo. Dun- 
can & Sons is regarded as being at the head of the trade, and is justly entitled to the high consideration, resultant upon 
an honorable and enterprising career. 



METCALF, PAUL & CO -Verona Tool Works, Office, No. 7 McCance Block. 

A branch of those great Iron Industries that have made 
Pittsburgh the center of this production in the United States, 
the house of Metcalf, Paul & Co. can not properly be omitted 
from a work exclusively directed to a detailed description of 
the resources, development and special advantages of this city. 
Established by Messrs. O. Metcalf and J. W. Paul under the 
above style in"l873, the efforts of the firm wore directed to the 
manufacture of .solid steel tools, particularly such as are used 
in the construction or repair of Rail Road tracks. The works 
were erected at Verona, a few miles from the city, on the Al- 
legheny Valley R. R., and specially adajtted in construction to 
the required purpose, being equipped with the best mechanical 
appliances that every modern improvement could suggest, and 
such processes adapted for the more perfect preparation and 
finisn of the material used, as should secure a product abso- 
lutely flawless. In the attainment of this desideratum the 
firm met with the most signal success, and the almost instant 
celebrity tliat followed led to a trade that at the present time 
is not limited to the United States, but extends to Brazil, 
South Afric;i, and the West Indies, the South American trade 
having grown to such proportions as to require the establish- 
ment of a branch office at Rio Janeiro. As manufacturers of 
solid steel tools exclusively, the firm of Metcalf, Paul & Co. 
have really no compeer in this country, and for lightness, 
strength, durability and economy their work is recognized and 
appreciated by every constructive engineer for its matchless 
superiority. The works at Verona are ample in extent, cover- 
ing an area of nearly half an acre, one 50 horse power engine is required to drive the machinery, and 43 skilled opera- 
tives are constantly employed, making a disbursement necessary to this source alone of about 860,000 annually. The 
rapid increase of the business of the house at home has kept equal pace with its foreign operations, and for greater 
convenience in transacting trade with the West and North-West, a tributary establishment, trade house and office, 
at No. 40 Dearborn St., Chicago, affords in this direction all the necessary facilities. 

Mr. Metcalf is a native of Pittsburgh, born in 1840. He has always made his permanent residence in this city, 
and, within the range of his influence and domain, has to an equal extent with any other one citizen fostered and 
conserved, in every possible way, the interests of this city. The financial, clerical and general business management 
of the house fall to his care, while Mr. Paul, who is also a Pittsburgher by birth, gives his personal supervision to the 
operative, manufacturing departments of the work, for which he is admirably fitted by an enlarged experience and 
thorough education as a mechanician. During its^mparatively short e.xistance as a firm, the house of Metcalf, Paul 
& Co. have achieved a success so signal and complete as to rank them with the best and most extensive manufactur- 
ing enterprises in this or any other city. Closely identified with Pittsburgh, its development, industrial growth, and 
general prosperity, promoting all these to the greatest degree possible, the proprietors of the Verona Tool Works are 
deservedly awarded the highest consideration on the part of the community for which they have done so much. 

37 




134 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



T. W. W'HlTlEJJcL'Y -Commission Merchant, Terra Cotfa Ware,&c.,244 Penn Ave. 

The rapidly increasing demand for Terra Cotta AVare in the shape of Flues, Sewer, Stove Pipes, &c., and the abso- 
lute necessity of these appliances in all modern structures, suggested the idea of establishing a coiumission agency in 
this city for tlie sale and storage of such merchandise. About one year ago, therefore, Mr. Whiteley commenced bus- 
iness, representing the Excelsior sewer pipe and lire brick works of P. Connor & Bros., located at EUiottsville, Jeffer- 
son county, O., and other leading potteries in Oliio, including other articles in the same, line, such as Fire Brick, Tile, 
White Lime, Calcined and Land Plaster, Cements, Stone Crockery, Lawn Vases, Pots, <&c. The wisdom of his enter- 
prise has already been amply shown by an annual trade of over 520,000, which is fast developing into larger propor- 
tions, and affords conveniences to the general public locally and at a distance for making purchases at lowest rates 
heretofore unobtainable. Those who desire any information with reference to such particulars in connection with the 
business not otherwise easily got at, will find'Mr. Whitely by correspondence or otherwise, ready to import any 
knowledge within his jurisdiction. 

CHARLES MAGIHN & CO.-Wholesale Confectioner, 188 Liberty St. 

Mr. Charles Maginn, proprietor of the "Liberty Candy Works" and wholesale Confectioner, has been engaged in 
business under the present .<:tyle, and at his present location since 1875. Previous to that time, from 1857 until he estab- 
lished this house, he was a partner in the lirm of E. and C. Maginn, a concern which transacted an annual business of 
some 5f250,000. Since starting in Inisiness for himself, Mr. Maginn's trade has steadily increased, until his yearly sales 
reach the handsome sum of ^yO,000, with fair prospects of rivaling the business of the old firm in cours of time. He 
occupies four floors and basement of the elegant stone front Warehouse, 22x110, located at No. 183 Liberty Street, 
as manufactory and sales rooms, and employs about twenty-five hands in the various departments of his establish- 
ment. His trade extends through Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, and compares favor- 
ably with that of any other house in the same line. His stock comprises every description of Fine Confectionery, 
Canned Goods, Foreign Fruits, Nuts, Sardines, etc. etc. 

JAS. W. ARROTT,— f/r^. Marine & Life Insurance Agent, Office, 167 Wood St. 

In presenting the name of Mr. Arrott to the public, it will at once be recognized as one well known to all, as 
associated in giving security to the citizens of Pittsburgh and Allegheny county against the ravages of the devour- 
ing element. His name is a guarantee, that in case of loss, promptness will follow the amounts of damage ascer- 
tained, and quick payment will ensue, hence his popularity and success in this city. During the last 20 years he 
has written policies amounting to almost untold millions of dollars, in the same time he has adjusted losses run- 
ning up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. In his agency he has employed three clerks, who are constantly 
engaged in attending to tlie details of the office, whilst Mr. A. gives his whole time to the general management. 
The following list comprises some of the staunchest Companies in this country and Europe, which are represented 
by him; viz.: Continental Fire Insurance Co.; German American Insurance Co; Guaranty Fire Insurance Co.; 
Hanover Fire Insurance Co. ; Hoffman Fire Insurance Co. ; Merchants Fire Insurance Co. ; Niagara Fire Insurance 
Co. ; Queen Fire Insurance Co. ; Royal Canadi.m Fire Insurance Co. ; Koger Williams Insurance Co. ; Shawmut 
Insurance Co. ; New York Life Insurance Co. 




GRAY'S IRON TJINTI,- Freight Transportation. Office. 94 Water St. 

Contingent upon the industrial manufactures of Pittsburgh, Gray's Iron Line is entitled to particular mention 
in any records, from which may be derived a detailed knowledge of the various resources of this city. As the 
Pioneer Line of Barge Transportation of general merchandise from Pittsburgh it was established in 1863, with a 
view to ailbrd shippers greater facilities in the river transportation of heavy freights to points in the West, North 
and South- West from which they would otherwise have been virtually cut off, the Iron Line at once became a 
permanent intitution, conducive in the highest degree to the advantage of manufactures, and consequently to the 
entire community. In the line of heavy freight trans'portation the company gives special attention to that of Steel 
and Iron Rails and Pittsburgh manufactures from Pittsburgh to all points. The Proprietors of what has now be- 
come an enterprise of more than ordinary importance, are Capt. R. C. Gray and Capt. M. W. Bettzhoover, the 
former acting as general manager, W. P. JtcConnell and J. H. Dunlap being respectively secretary and superintendent. 

As the largest undertaking of the kind in this part of the country for inland navagation, and river transporta- 
tion the facilities of this company are somewhat extended and consist of the Steamers Iron Mountain, W. C. Gray 
Master ; Fearless, Thos. Greenlee, Master and Ironsides, Jas. McDonald Master, 35 model barges for regular freights, 
Iron etc., etc., and 5 barges designed for carrying bulk grain, having a total capacity of 8140,000 busliels with a 
tonnage of 1400 tons each. For safety, speed and economy this Line has justly achieved a matchless reputation, as may 
be inferred from the continued addition's made to it, and its long and useful career. No men in Pittsburgh are 
better known, or more highly esteemed than Capts. Gray and Bettzhoover. Their connection with the growth and 
prosperity of the Iron City has been a very intimate one. Grays Iron Line is but one of many beneficial enter- 
prises to "which they have lent their names and advanced their capital, employing in this branch of their business, 
alone, over 100 men. They may weU be entitled to consideration as promoting in no small degree the industries of 
Pittsburgh. 

38 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



135 



JAMi:S McQUISTON & CO -Pittsburgh Galvanizing Wks., 26th & Railroad Sts. 

A very important industry contingent upon the use and manufacture of Iron, adding to its durability appear- 
anoe, and adapting it for many purposes otherwise out of its range, is the process of (Galvanizing a business of 
wliich Messrs. James McQuiston and Co. make a succes.sful speciality. Established in 1S71 at the present location, 
tlie firm was at first McQuiston & Kraft, the latter however withdrawing in 1873 left the title of the house as at 
present, the company being nominal. The plant is a very extensive one, and covers an area of nearly one acre, 
being supplied with every apurtenance and apparatus neccs.sary for the effective conduct of the business. The per- 
fection, which the skill and assiduity of Mr. McQuiston has secured in results, mav be illustrated by the fact, 
that he alone has been entirely successful in galvanizing Cast Iron Bath Tubs, a desideratum achieved only by 
superior knowledge and experience, as well as unapproached facilities. The latter may be estimated by the capac- 
ity, which is from 6 to 10 tons of Wrought Iron Pipe per day and six tons Sheet Iroii, proving that the establish- 
ment is second to none in the countiy, and complete in every re-spect. The business under the management of 
Mr. McQuiston is rapidly increasing , a very conclusive evidence of the ability with which it is managed, and the 
thorough excellence of tlie work turned out. When in full operation 20 hands arc employed in the work, many of 
whom are skilled and experienced workmen. The enterprise of .James McQuiston & Co. is heartily commended as 
adding no little to the industrial prosperity of the city, and filling a highly useful and necessary place. Prompt, 
reliable and enterprising, the firm has acquired a position to which it is justly entitled by the exercise of these 
characteristics, for which it is widely known and respected. Galvaniza 100 dozen Coal Hods per diem. 

CARTER BROTHERS & CO. - Wholesale Grocers, No. 259 & 261 Liberty St, 

In a history of the advance and development of Pittsburgh, with reference to commercial affairs, the Wholesale 
Grocery trade must always occupy a very prominent position, as having conduced in no small degree to the present 
mercantile importance of this community. Among those houses whose extended transactions and high standing en- 
title them to more than casual mention is that of Messrs. Carter Brothers & Co., Wholesale Grocers and CofTee Roasters, 
making specialties of Teas and Tobaccos. Established Jan. 1, 1867, by John A. Carter and David A. Carter under the 
above style, the " Co." being nominal, the firm soon took a conspicuous place for its energy and the rapid increase oj 
its business. Commencing with but a comparatively small capital, the house at the present time carries an average 
stock of from ?40, COO to 850,000, while their yearly sales will compare favoralile with that of any other house in the 
same line of business. The ample business prernises of the firm ai-e situated as above, and consist of one large build- 
ing, 35x114 feet, with steam elevators for hoisting, and steam engine for grinding and wasting coffee. Nine hands are 
employed in the various departments, the tradeof the house extending through Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Vir- 
ginia. The partners are natives of Washington Co., Pa., came to Pittsburgh 12 years ago, and since that time have 
taken an active part in promoting the general advantages of the city, and have gained a reputation for themselves that 
entitles them to the esteem and consideration of the communitv. 




TOTTEN & CO,-Fulton Foundry, Cor. 24th and R. R. Sts. 

Pursuing a special branch in the conversion and manufacture of iron, and conducting a business of great magni- 
tude and importance to the industrial prosperity of the city, the house of Totten it Co. is not to be omitted from a 
work seeking to set forth in detail some adequate exhibit of the resources of Pittsburgh. The business which is now 
conducted, under the above style, by Messrs. Robt. C. Totten and N. B. Hogg, was originally established by the 
former in 1863, and from its very inception has not only been eminently successful, but achieved a sjjecial position 
and reputation of its own, for the manufacture of Hollow Chill Rolls, and Rolling Mill Machinery. In the invention 
of the Hollow Chill Roll, (protected by letters patent 1869 and 1877,) Mr. Totten became the discoverer, after years 
of labor and investigation, of one of the most valuable appliances known in the manufacture of iron. It is no't the 
intention in this work to explain the principles upon which this roll is constructed, or from which its superior merits 
are derived. The success attendant upon its introduction to the trade is the highest guarantee of its usefulness, 90 
mills having been supplied with them during the past two years, over .520 rolls being in operation. Of these Messrs. 
Totten & Co. are sole manufacturers, and possess ample facilities for supplying them in any length, and from 5 to 36 
inches in diameter. Besides this important improvement the firm are the only manufacturers of Chilled Rolls cast 
to shape, securing iidvantages in the uniform density and durability, of grooved surfaces never before attained, and 
possessing other merits that have stood the severest tests during the past 12 years. 

The plant of the firm is located on 24th St., and covers an area of some three acres, the machine shop being 70x120 
feet, and the foundry 85x225 feet, containing much machinery of remarkable size and power, including can turn fly 
wheels twenty-five feet in diameter, chill rolls 30x108 inches, one planing machine ten feet wide liy thirty-six 
feet long, being the largest piece of mechanism of the kind in the United States, except one at the" Cliarleston 
Navy Yard, and other appliances, operated by two powerful steam engines and boilers. Some idea of the capacity of 
the works may be indicated by the fact that a' plate for moulding plate glass was constructed here, weighing 84,000 lbs., 
which was planed on one side to a perfect surface, being perhaps the most ponderous work of the kind ever executed 
in the country. In the manufacture of Heinles Combined Friction and Cog Pinions the firm enjoy a monopoly, 
and are noted as well for their various makes. Roll Pinions, Gearings and Mill Machinery. The senior partner 
was formerly connected with the Fort Pitt Foundry, whose products in the casting of heavy ordinance have a world 
wide repute. Here Mr. Totten acquired the practical and metallurgical knowledge that has been of such manifest 
usefulness in his present enterprise, and which, for more than a quarter of a century, has connected him with the 
industrial interests of Pittsburgh. The testimonials and flattering commendations received unsought by the firm 
during the past few years, would fill many pages of this volume. It is enough, however, to say, in this connection, 
that no house occupies a higher place, or is more entitled to the po.sition achieved than Messrs. Totten & Co. of the 
Fulton Foundry. 

Messrs. Totten & Co. are now filling an order from England for Hollow Chill Rolls, and expecting other orders 
from Europe. They are largely engaged in the manufacture of Nai! Machines, having erected most of the largest 
Nail Factories West of the Allegheny Mountainvas well as some in the East. They have recently sent to England 
Nail Machinery for cutting steel nails, a branch that must also become prominent in the near future in this country. 
They have erected some 30 first-class Rolling Mills in the past 15 years, more than any other similar establishment in 
the country, and of necessity have the most modern patterns for this class of work. 

39 



136 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

S, MORROW & QO -Manufacturers of street Lamps, Cor. Market St. & First Ave. 

The firm of S. Morrow & Co. is of late formation, but this statement should not be construed to convey the idea 
that the members of the firm are novices in the line of business in which they are engaged. The founder of the house, 
S. Morrow, Esq., was, previous to liis death in February, 1878, for 4.5 year-; identified with the manufacturing interests 
of tins city, and established the business of whicli liis present successors are now the worthy representatives. The 
new firm, doing business under the style of " S. Morrow & Co.," is composed of Mr. J. Liloud Lytle and Mr. James 
Morrow, the son of the former proprietor, who succeeds as a partner, witlr a full knowledge of the lamp business and 
tiie wants of trade. With every facility before possessed, and the addition of new and improved machinery, and the 
infusion of fresh vigor and enterprise, the present firm may be relied upon as not only keeping up the standard of per- 
fection in the products that characterized the house of S. Morrow, but making advancement in every detail that the 
times require and pursuing a course creditable to themselves and to the Iron City. To this end they will continue to 
manufacture the Round Globe Street Lamp (of which S. Morrow was the inventor), which has long been acknowledged 
to be the neatest and most consistent lamp for illuminating streets, parks and entrances that has ever been produced in 
this country, and other special and ordinary designs for stock in trade and to order, including the Square City Street 
Lamp, both for gas and with gasoline tank attachment, appropriate for use in city or town. In this line of industry 
this constitutes the only manufactory of Street Lamps in our city, and have the most complete equipments for carry- 
ing on the bnsiness West of the mountains. As a firm that of S. Morrow & Co. is of the most highly commendable 
character, and to old patrons of the former proprietor, and to all others throughout the country, who wish estimate.s 
for either public or private contracts, we would respectfully call attention to this house, believing that we are serving 
the purpose of this work, in so doing, to tlie greatest advantage to the public. 

UNION CHAIN WORKS,-/?^/fer & Co., 29th and R. R. Sts. 

The manufacture of Chain of every description is carried on extensively by the firm of Eeiter & Co., at the corner 
of 29th and R. R. Sts. The present firm was establislied in 1878, but Mr. Reiter, Sr., has been for many years promi- 
nently identified with the manufacturing interests of this city, having been one of the original founders of the La 
Belle Steel Works. They manufacture in their extensive works, which are well located, conveniently ai-ranged and 
fitted with excellent machinery, driven by a fine engine, a very superior quality of chains. The greatest care is 
taken to produce none but first-class work, and no chains of an inferior quality are permitted to be sent out from this 
establishment, all being submitted to a thorough practical test before going to their customers. The iron used is the 
best quality and highest grades to be had. The purpose and design of the firm is to make an A. No. 1 chain, equal in 
all respects to the most celebrated English brands. Wherever their chains have gone or been used they have given the 
highest satisfaction. They employ none but skilled workmen, who, by the system of testing employed in the estab- 
lishment, are stimulated to the greatest care in their work. They manufacture now at the rate of 600 tons of chain 
per annum, and are having a steadily increasing demand for their products in difTerent parts of the country. 

Mr. Geo. Reiter, senior member of the firm, was born in Baltimore, Md., but has for many years resided in Pitts- 
burgh, and has been largely intei'csted in the manufacture of Iron and Steel, and closely identified with other import- 
ant industries and the general interests of the city. He is well and favorable known, and is a highly respected and 
honored citizen. Mr. Geo. Reiter, Jr., was born in Pittsburgh, and lias grown up in the Iron industries with which 
his father has been identified. He is the general manager and superintendent of the works. Mr. W. C. Reiter has 
ciiar^ge of the office business and books of the firm. Both the sons are young possessed of energy and business experience, 
and the establishment is one in which the Irou City may feel a justificable pride. Father and sons, in establishing their 
enterprise, which in a measure is a new one in this city, bring into its management large experience in a business 
point of view, and great energy. They are men of the very higliest character, and the firm is every way reliable and 
trustworthy, and fully merits the high esteem in which it is held, and the largest success in their enterprise. 



BRIDGE & 'BOWMA.'^, -Practical Plumbers, No. 28 West Ohio St., Allegheny. 

The Plumbing establishment of Bridge & Bowman, located at No. 28 West Ohio St., Allegheny, was founded in 
1871 by the present proprietors. They occupy a three story brick building, 20x70 feet, and employ on an average six 
skilled workmen. Their weekly pay-roll amounts to about $75. For the past three years their business has averaged 
?18,000 per annum, but previous to the "hard times," commencing in 1876, it would reach a much larger sum. Both 
members of the firm are practical plumbers. Steam and Gas fitters, and they are general dealers in Gas Fixtures, Lead 
Pipe, Sheet Lead, Hydrants, Pumps, &o. Their trade is located principally in the city and its immediate vicinity, 
and will compare favorably with that of any similar establishment. Mr. Bridge is a na'tive of England, and was born 
in 1839, and came to this country when a child. Mr. Bowman was born in Allegheny City in 1848, and has always re- 
sided there. 

BAKEWELL, PEARS & CO -Pittsburgh Flint Glass Works, South Side. 

Among those firms which are most intimately connected with the history of Pittsburgh, its infant struggles, growth 
and subsequent prosperity, sharing and promoting every matter of public interest, the house of Bakewell, Pears & Co. 
will assuredly take a prominent position. For three-quarters of a century its career has been closely allied to tlie Glass 
trade in all its various stages, and to a marked degree conducive to the thrift and importance that places this branch of 
our manufactures upon so solid a footing. Established in 1808, under the style of Bakewell, Payn & Bakewell, the suc- 
cess of the enterprise, as the first of its kind west of the Alleghany mountains, was assured from its inception. In 1840 
the firm name was changed to its present style by the admi-sion of Mr. J. P. Pears, who, for 30 years, until his death in 
1874, was one of the most prominent of our glass manufacturers. The present firm, whose individual members are — 
Beuj. B. Canipl>en, Thomas C, Benj. B., and Harry P. Pears, succeeded to the business in 1878, These gentlemen are 
df'scended from the original founders of the enterprise, and may be said to have an acquired as well as inherited knowl- 
edge of the Glass trade, which is evidently turned to the best interests of the house, in securing a general superiority of 
work in those specialties for which the firm has become celebrated. In 18-54 the plant of Bakewell, Pears A Co. was 
removed from its ancient site on the ground now occupied by the B. & 0. R. R. depot to its present location in Bingham 
St., South Side. In making this change various improvements were made, and the factories considerably enlarged and 
more perfectly adapted to the modern requirements of the business. The establishment now occupies anarea of several 
acres, consisting of 2 furnaces, 10 pots each; 2 warehouses, 40x125 each, and iron-clad; store house, packing room, cut- 
ting shops, offices, and other buildings, supplied with one engine and boiler for driving the machinery — 25 horse power, 
and engaging the labor of 125 artizans and others, necessitating a weekly disbursement of over $1,400. The wares uumu- 
factured by this house are mainly in the line of all descriptions of Crystal Glass and Cut Table Ware, Bar Service, Drug- 
gists' Furniture, Lantern Glasses, and all sorts of blown and pressed goods, together with the finest cut, etched and 
engraved ware, for which they have achieved a reputation unsurpassed, if equalled, by any competitor in the country. 
With such a product and such a history, it is not too much to assert that the firm of Bakewell, Pears & Co. is regarded 
in every respect as being representative of the Glass trade, and the general enterprise of the community. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 137 



JOHN GA'NG'WISCH^-Jlllegheny Valley Brewery, Foot of 46fh Street. 

The aunual increase in the consumption of malt liquors, has not only been of tlie highest advantage to the agri- 
cultural producer of gi-ain, but in afibrding a channel for the occupation of labor and capital, has done much to en- 
hance the industrial thrift of the community, both iu the employment of numerous operatives and the suggestion of 
more temperate and frugal habits, on the part of the public at large. Engaged in tiiis useful industry, Mr. John 
Gaugwisch established the Allegheny Valley Brewery in 1876 after a long, varied and comprehensive experience. 
Born in Baden, Germany in 1821, Mr. Gangwisch came to the United States when 27 years of age, first having acquired 
a thorougli knowledge of brewing both in apractical and theoretical manner. Here he worked for many years as fore- 
man in the establishment of John Beck, the pioneer brewer of this city, engaging subsequently in business for liim- 
self, in company with two others, as partners, and purchasing a planing mill on Liberty St., which was fitted up and 
adapted fur use in his special vocation. This property being purchased eventually by the P. R. R. Co., he afterwards 
erected the Union Brewery before the construction of the present plant. The Allegheny Valley Brewery is one of 
the most prominent establishments of the kind in the city, it represents an investment of over $50,000 and is adapted 
to tlie business, by the introduction of every modern appliance or appointment necessary for the perfection of the 
product, and supplied with ample cellars 60 feet deep, surmounted by ice houses, securing at all times a low and even 
temperature. Tlie buildings are extensive and cover, in connection with yards and ice ponds, an area of not less than 
one acre, having a capacity of 10,000 barrels, at which it is now running, with a large local trade, to supply which 
three wagons are required, heavy shipments being made daily to the surrounding country. 

Mr. E. J. Reinhardt, a nephew of Mr. Gangwisch and for many years book-keeper for the Smithfield National 
Bank, has charge of the books and general business of the concerns, and is well fitted for the responsibilities of the po- 
sition. The trade mark of the establisliment as indicated in all their barrels, is blue and green, while the excellence 
of the Beer produced is testified to hy the favor it has secured, being considered equal in flavor, color and purity to 
any brand made in tiie United States. 

T. & J. T. McC AN CE -Merchant Tailors, No. 196 Liberty St. 

There is perhaps no firm in Pittsburgh, in the same line of business, that is better or more widely known than 
that of Messrs. T. & J. T. McCance. Established in 18-15, and during the 34 years tliat have since elapsed, identified 
with the growth, industries and prosperity of the city, the house is certainly deserving of more than brief mention. 
With ample facilities for a large and increasing business the house of Messrs." McCanee have more than ordinary ad- 
vantages to otfer their customei's. As importers direct of the finest fabrics of France and England, an unusually 
choice assortment of these goods will always be found in hand, together with tlie best products of American looms. 
Twenty skilled operatives are employed in the custom department, two cutters and several sewers. The premises are 
of the most spacious, consisting of sales and exhibition room, 26x110 feet, located as above, stocked with the choicest 
goods known to the trade. As a firm the house of T. & J. T. McCance occupy a position, and nave attained a repute, 
that emanates from years of toil and patient endeavor, supplemented by those qualities of commercial and personal 
integrity that have always been at tlie basis of their transactions, entitling them to the esteem and respect of the com- 
munity, with whose progressive development they have been so closely allied. 

A VERM ANN & CO -Dry Goods, Trimmings, Carpets, Wall Paper, etc. 

The very large and prosperous establishment of A vermann & Co. is located on Penn Avenue, between 3^d and 34th 
Sts., with a branch on same avenue, near 41st St., at both of which places they are doing a large and prosperous trade. 
The business was first started by B. Averraann, in 1867, near the present location, in a small room, and with small capi- 
tal. It increased so rapidly that in a short time he was compelled to move into the large store room now occupied by 
the firm. It is 20 feet front by 7o feet in depth, and is filled with a very large, complete and choice assortment of the 
various goods in their line to the amount of $20,000. Mr. Rud. Wesierman and Mr. Henry Avermann were admitted 
into partnership with Mr. B. Avermann after removal to the new rooms. The firm is one of the most prosperous, in 
their line of trade, in that portion of the city in which they are located. The business has been from the commence- 
ment in the charge of Mr. Henry Avermann, to whose popularity, enterprise, ability and business tact is mainly due 
the great success of the establishment, and the large annual business, amounting to $25,000, they are now doing. The 
branch store near 41st St. is in charge of a younger brother of Mr. H. Avermann, wlio also displays the same business 
qualifications as his brother, and is doing a very fine "business. — Mr. Bernard Avermann, the senior member of the 
firm, was born in Germany iu 1824, and came to the United States about 32 years ago ; has worked nearly ever since 
at Shoenberger's Iron Works, accumuliting, while working there, his capital^ "to start the business of which he is now 
the honored head, and from which he is now deriving so liand.some an income. 

G. A. SCHNABEL,-^arm^^ Manufactory, Penn Ave. & 81st Street. 

Among the many branches of industry, which have 
contributed to the wide spread reputation of Pittsburgh 
as a manufacturing centre, that of Carriage Building in 
its various branches, is one of the most important. The 
superiority of Pittsburgh Wagons and Carri:iges is ac- 
knowledged wherever they have been used One of the 
leading manufactories in this line, is that of Mr. G A. 
Schnaliel, whose extensive works are located at the cor- 
ner of Penn Ave. and 31st Street. Tlie business was es- 
tablished in 1S(!0 by Mr. Martin Schnabel, fa-ther of the 
present proprietor, who conducted it until his death, 
which occurred in 1873, when Mr. G. A. Schnabel suc- 
ceeded. The main buildings are two in number at the 
location named, one 24x05, and one 48x130 with numer- 
ous other smaller buildings and a spacious yard. Mr. 
Schnabel carries a stock of aV)out 510,000 and manufac- 
tures every description of Light Carriages, Express and 
Road Wagons, Spring and Coach Top Wagons, and 
Vehicles of every kind required, paying esjiecial atten- 
tion to ordered work. He aims at the highest degiee of 
excellence, and the greatest durability in all work turned 
out, and the reputation of this establishment for relia- 
bility keeps a full force of skilled workmen employed all the time, and the trade which is principally local at 
present, is gradually extending to different parts of the country. Mr. Schnabel was born in Pittsburgh in 18,'i4, and 
was educated to the business in his father's establishment, acquiring a thorough and complete knowledge thereof, 
on every detail and department. He is a young man of fine business ability and attainments energetic, enterpris- 
ing reliable, and is pushing his already large bu>ine,ss with commendable zeal and vigor. 




138 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



THOMPSON, EPPING & CARPENTER-%5fo«^ Steam Pump Works. 

So. SS2 JPenn Are. 

Iti tlio inamifaoturo, dosi;j;ii and invention of Steam Pumps, it is safe to assert that no livin in the West lias achieved 
a liighec ivpiilaliou than that of Messrs. Thoinpsoii, Kpping A: Carpenter, whose phmt is loeated as ahove, and wlio, from 
tl\e extent and eharaeler of the business iransaeted, are entitled to special mention in this work. The firm which was 
organized in 1S77 succeeded to the trade and eU'eets of the t'onperi^c Keystone Works, which were established in ISO:'.. 
The premises occupied consist of one lar,«e two-story main buiUlins, l(H).N.r20, and a foundry less c.\tensive, covering an 
area in all of over lialf an acre, divided into niaeliinc shops, pattern rooms, foundry, I'ic., &c., employing "2.") skilled work- 
men, and forming the base of operations for a business that ranges over the entire United States. The members of the 
firm are all natives of I'ittsbnrgli, ami are as folliiws: J. D. Thompson, Henry Epping, and \\'. II. Carpenter, the latter 
having charge of the general business ; the general management being in the hands of^Mr. Epping. The products of the 
house are mainly in the line of Steam I'uiniis, many of which are mainifactnred under letter.s patent owned by and 
awarded to the tirm. In Cooper rumps may lie mentioned tlie rinngcr P.inler Feed rump, the I'iston I'nmp, the I'iston 
Mine riimp. tiie Phinger Mine rump, and the Vertical rump, besides ilie Keystone Steam Pump and the I'pping l>ircct 
Acting Pump — all being adapted and specially litted for certain uses, which they perfectly subserve, as shown liy testi- 
monials from the highest authorities, including engineers, mechanicians and niannfaetui'ers that would occuiiy many 
pages of this work. In addition to the manufacture of Steam rumps. Brass Castings for Kolling Jlills, Engine and Kail- 
road Work, are mado to order, the facilities of the establishnieiu insuring the best class of work at the least possible 
expense. In every respect the house ot Messrs. Thompscni, KppingiV: Carpenter is a most desirable one with which to 
est.;»hlish permanent business relations. Prompt, thorough and honorable, no tirm can ofl'er more pronounced advan- 
tages, or guarantee, in the accomplishment of every work undertaken, more satisfactory results. 

BIRMINGHAM FOUNDRY and Machine Shop-Manufacturers 

of Jiolliiig jilHI Catitiiiffs, C'nKtinr/s for (^lass Works, Etc., Cor. 'Jlst titid Ular-y Sis. 

In the iron interest, Pittsburgh stands specially prominent; her iron product' are tmsur|iassed wherever introduced. 
Among the prominent and reliable establishments in this branch of industry, and one that is entitled to a brief notice 
in this volume, is that above mentioned; not because of its magnitude <n- specialties, but for its ample facilities and 
superior productions. It was established by Geo. E. Fisher , Peter Wentzel, and others. It has enlarged its facilities 
and kept apace with the times. It has a capital invested of not less than §.ii),OlU). The machinery and material neces- 
sary to prosecute the business successfully involves an expenditure of Sir>,0(iO. An annual business of some $;?0,OtHi is 
done, even iiv these times, wlien low prices and general depression is prevalent. The works occupy three buildings, with 
a frontage on 21st of 41 f.'ct, and a depth of SS feet. In addition to these commodious Uuildings, the grounds attache<l 
and used for business purposes cover an area 120x1-10 feet. The foundry and machine shop are spacious and complete 
in all their rcquireinents. ICighteen skilled mechanics are employed, at an expense of $1,000 per luonth. The motive 
power to propel the various machinery is furnished by a 2tl-luirse power engine. The trade of this establislnuent is 
principally local and in a healthy, gi'owing condition. The owners are energetic, using every legitimate means to 
extend and enlarge their trade. They rely for their increase and prosperity on their promptness and the suiierior char- 
acter of all work iiroduced. They take special pride in their ability for turning out. machinery and eastings adapted for 
glass works. The tirm consists of Geo. L. Fisher, D. ,T. Thomas, and Peter Wentzel. Mr. Fisher was born in Germany 
ill tSli), -Mr. Thomas was born in Pittsburgh in 18:52. Mr. Weut/.el was born in Germany in 1830. He came to Pitts- 
burgh in ISlt. They are all we'l and favorably known in business circles. Their enterprise and good social standing 
entitle them to respect and coufldence as citizens and successful business men. 

WILLIAM T A.TRMKN,- Undertaker & Embalmer, 41 West Ohio St., Allegheny. 

This is one of the oldest undertaking establishments in the two cities, having been established over half a century 
ago by Mr. Robert Fairman, father of the present proprietor, who died Oct. o, 1S7S, in his 72d year, and successfully 
conducted the business for -l:> years. Mr.Wm. Fairman has been in business for himself some 15 years, but is now con- 
ducting the old business established by his father. He occupies a three-story brick building, 18x120, at the location 
above named, and carries a full stock of Caskets, Cotlins, Shrouds, aiul all things pertaining to the business. He also 
embalms bodies by the most approved iirocesses, and at reasonable rates. His annual business amounts to about SlO.OOO 
in the two cities and surrounding towns. Mr. Fairman was born in Allegheny Citv in 1840, and is a lifelong resident of 
the city. 

C. C. 'H.T^C'K.'EL,,- Merchant Tailor, No. 131 Federal St, Allegheny. 

Among the luany merchant tailoring establishments of Pittsburgh and Allegheny, we commend Mr. C. C. Heekel, 
now located at No. i:U Federal St., -Vllegheny City. ^Ir. II. has been in business for himself siitce ISlio. His present 
salesi'oom is 13x7o feet, and his stock consists of a fine and seasonable assortment of the latest styles and most desirable 
fabrics for gentleiueu's wear of both foreign and domestic manufactttre, selected expressly for this market, which he is 
prepared to make to order into Garments or Suits in the latest and most fashionable manner. Fine Press Suits, for 
instance, made in the best luanner for S20, upward. He carries a stock of about S!,000 to S4,000, and his annual busi- 
ness reaches §16,000. He employs 10 tirst-class workmen, and allows no work to go out of an inferior quality. Mr. 
Heekel was born in Germany in 1834, and came to this country in 1849. 

ISAAC TATTluOR -Importer and Wholesale Dealer in Dry Goods, dc, 129 Wood St. 

The many advantages possessed by the city of Pittsburgh, as a commercial as well as manufacturing center, should 
not be overlooked by those who have hitherto regarded it as simply the grand headquarters of the iron and glass trades 
of the United States. With facilities unsurpassed by those of her sister cities, Pittsburgh has become an important 
commercial metropolis, and purchasers from abroad are rapidly becoming convinced of the fact that they can purchase 
Pry Goods anei other articles here as low as in the New York "or Philadelphia markets, and at a considerable .saving of 
time, freight and other expenses. In connection with the Pry Goods trade, the house of Isaac Taylor, at No. 12i) Wood 
St., may be mentioned as one of the most prominent in our city. Established in 18,51, the business since that time 
has been conducted by Mr. Taylor in person, who now occupies the entii'e building of four floors and basement, at 
the number above named, giving employment to seven clerks and assistants, and a number of ti'aveling salesmen, with 
an extensive trade tbrougliout the western portion of Pennsylvania, Ohio, A'irginia and West Virginia. Mr. Taylor 
imviorts a portion of his foreign goovls direct, and bis domestic fabrics are purchased directly of the manufacturers. The 
various departments of his establishment are well supplied with the most desii-able articles required by the retailer or 
country merchant, and it has ever been his aim to treat his customers in such a manner as to retain tlieir confidence 
and respect. 

42 



CITY OF FlTTSiiUKGH, loJj 



J. P. SMITH, SON & CO.-Lamps and Glassware, No. 189 Liberty St. 

Pitlsl)urgh is noted tliiouj^liout the courjlry as tli<; lir.a<limart(;rs of tlie Glass trado of th(; Uniti-il Status, and that 
shr; is justly ciititlijd to that proud position may hi; readily helieved after even a cursory glance through some of the 
li'ading estahlislinients of the Smi;ky City engaged in that line of husiness. Prominent among her representative 
houses we may mention that of J. 1'. Smith, Sou it Co., wliich occupies the entire four stories and basement of tlie 
s|jaci(nis brick warehouse at No. 189 Liberty St., 22x110, and filled from cellar to attic with a magniticenlly arranged 
ami judiciou.sly selected stock of Lamps in every variety, line cut Glass Ware, Silverware, Bronzes, Majcjlica Ware, 
Vases and articles of utility and verlu in almost endless variety. This house was established in 18(;o \>\ J. P. Smith, 
ICsi)., who continued the business alone until 1870, when his son, Mr. Wm. L. Smith, was admitted, the firm name 
ami style Viecoming as above. Mr. S. li. Findley has been the competent and efficient head book-keeper of the estab- 
lishment since ISGD. In 1870 the l)usiness transacted by this house did not exceed §70,000, but in 1878 it had reached 
the handsome .sum of $108,000. The (inn employs seventeen assistants, and in addition to the above, five traveling 
salesmen, representing the interests of the house all through the Southern and Western States. The business is 
divided into two departments, wholesale and retail, and the house is considered one of the most solid and reliable in 
its line in the West. 

IRON CITY BRIDGE WORKS,-(?. J. Schultz, Prop., 2007 Carson St. S.S. 

At the Iron City Bridge Works are manufactured Iron Lattice, Truss, Arch and Plate Bridges ; al.so Iron Viaducts, 
Railroad Turn Tables, Trestles, &c., Iron Roofs, Steeples, Cranes, Iron Buildings and Bridge Bolts. Work of this 
nature necessitates spacious buildings, of wliich this firm po.s.sess two : one on Sidney St. in dimension .50 feet front 
by l.W feet in depth, and one on 20lh St., 50 feet front by 120 feet in depth. The power is furnished by a 4fJ-liorse 
power engine, requiring two boilers. The number of hands employed varies necessarily with the amount of orders the 
firm may have in hand, all of the work being done on order ; this number has ranged from 2.5 to 200. In the perfect- 
ing of tlie work four Departments are made use of: 1st, Machine, 2nd, Forging, ;id. Fitting, 4th, Rivetting. The pro- 
dui;tions all being made to order, in con.sequence the amount of stock carried and annual business must fluctuate con- 
sidi-raldy according to circumstanci's. The present stock is valued at about §10,000. Last year's business amounted to 
$50,000, but some years has reached S200,000. The trade of the Iron City Bridge Works is not local only, but extends 
both Fast and West. The specialties are Iron Bridges, Iron Buildings and Prison Work. 

Mr. C. J. Sehultz, the proprietor, was born in the city of Luebec, Germany, in 182:$. He came to New York in 
1S49, started business in Cincinnati in 1854, from whence he removed his business to Pittsburgh in 18.50. Mr. Sehultz 
began his business carrier alone, and with but small capital. His energy and prudence have built him his jiresent 
fortune. That he is a man of character, far above the ordinary, is evidenced by the many positions of trust and 
honor held by him, select City Councilman, Director of Banks, President of Rail Road Company, Manager of Alle- 
gheny County Work House and Insurance Ojmpanies, Board of Education, and many others indicative of worth and 
uprightness. The Iron City Bridge Works do not fear to contrast their productions with those of any like enterpri.ses 
East or West. What they build is graceful in design and outline, complete in finish and detail, and has the rare qual- 
ity of durability combined with strength. 

T. MEHIN 'WAJuK.'ER.-Marble and Granite Worker, 161 Lacock St., Allegheny. 

Mr. Walker is a thorough practical Marble and Granite Worker, and learned his trade in Allegheny City. He 
commenced business in his own name in Oct. 1878, with a capital of SIOOO. He has three men employed, and his pro.s- 
pects are remarkably favorable. His business has steadily increased since he began, and bids fair to rival that of many 
older houses. He manufactuies every description of Marble and Granite Monuments and Head Stones, White and 
Colored Marble, Mantles in a variety of elegant designs, and deals in Marble, Plaster of Paris, Lime and Cement. 
(Jrave work is the specialty of Mr. Walker, and he has turned out some very elegant specimens of this description of 
work. Mr. Walker was born in Washington Co., Pa., in 18.57, and has been a resident of Allegheny since 1869. His 
trade extends through Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Eastern Ohio. 

JAMES 'LlTT'EJu'L,- Wholesale Wines and Liquors, 287 Liberty St. 

For more than a quarter of a century the name of Mr. .lames Littell has been identified with the business interests 
and material prosperity of the Smoky City. The extensive business house of which he is at present .sole proprietor 
was established seventeen years ago as Littell & Mechlin, and continued by them until 187.5, when Mr. Mechlin with- 
drew from the firm. This is generally recognized as the most extensive as well as the most reliable and important 
establishment of its kind in the city. Mr. Littell imports largely of the liner qualities of pure Wines, Brandies and 
Liijuors, and deals extensively in the best grades of American Whiskies, &c. The specialty of this hou.se is the well 
known brand of "Old M Whisky," which, for purity and excellence, is unequalled. Mr. Littell occupies the old 
stand, which, for seventeen years, has been the headquarters of the trade, and is a large and commodious three-story 
brick structure, 22x200 feet, at No. 2^7 Liberty St., and his annual sales amount to not less than 8250,000. Mr. R. S. 
Ogden is the accomplished and reliable bookkeeper of this house, and J. C. Bruff, as traveling agent, represents its 
interests on the road. The business is in the two cities, the oil regions and the neighboring towns of Pennsylvania, 
Oiiio and West Virginia. Mr. Littell was born in Ohio in 1824, but has resided in Pittsburgh for the past 40 years. He 
is a member of the city council from the 21st ward, and is at present chairman of the finance committee. He was for 
some time city gauger, and, in every position which he has been called upon to fill, has done credit to himself and 
secured the confidence and esteem of his constituents and associates. 

KAY, Mcknight & CO -Machinery and Supplies, No. 80 Water St. 

The business now conducted by the above named firm wa.s established in 1868 by George H. Stover & Co., Mr. 
Kay being then in their employ. In 1875 they were succeeded by the present proprietors, who have added largely to 
the business of the old house. They occupy the .spacious four story ware-house at No. 80 Water St., extending through 
to First Ave., and transact an annual business of aVjout 8125,000. They manufacture the Lewis Patent Hydraulic 
.Tack, and deal extensivelv in Machinery and Mechanical .Supplies of every description. Steam Pumjiing Machinery, 
Iron and Wood Working Tools, Belting,' Hose, Cordage, Oakum, &c., and are agents for the following well known and 
popular articles; the Blake Steam Pump, Bulkley Patent Condenser, Camden Pipe Cutting Machine, Chapman Open 
Way Valve, N. Y. Belting A Packing Co.'s RubV/er Goods, Cotton, Linen and Rubber Hose, Iron and Wood Working 
Machinery, Portable and Stationary Engines and Boilers, American and English Wire Ftope, Cordage and Oakum of 
all grades. Best Oak-tanned Leather Belting, Emery, Emery Wheels and Machines, Spun Oitton, Waste, and Supplies 
of all kinds for Manufacturers, Steam Boats and Oil Wells. Their trade is located in Pittsburgh and vicinity, and in 
the States of Ohio and West Virginia. Mr. W. MCKnight and Mr. J. C. Kay are the present members of the firm, and 
were both born in I'ittsburgh in 1850. Although young men they have made for themselves an honorable record in 
the mercantile community, and built up a business which will compare favorably with that of any similar eslmblish- 
mcnt in the United States. 
43 



140 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

WM. ROW'BOTTO'Bl^-Pracfical Plumber & Gas Fitter, 260 Beaver Ave. , Allegheny. 

As early as 1850 the firm of Bartley & Rowbottom was established in that portion of the city, then known as Man- 
chester. In 1871 Mr. Rowbottom purchased the interest of Mr. Bartley, and has since conducted tiie business in liis 
own name. He occupies the first floor of the spacious three story brick edifice, 20x100, at No. 260 Beaver Avenue, car- 
rying on the business of Plumber, Gas and Steam Fitter, and dealer in Gas Fi.-ctures, Steam Fittings, Sheet Lead, 
Lead Pipes, Sewer Pipes, Hose, &c. His business is conducted in tliree separate departments, the front twenty feet of 
the premises being used as sales room and oflice, the next forty-five feet as the working department, and the remainder 
of the room for storage. Mr. Rowbottom is a practical mechanic, and gives his personal attention to the business. He 
employs six hands, with a weekly pay-roll averaging about S50. His stock, which is full and complete in all its de- 
partments, is valued at about $4000, and his annual business reaches from Sl2,000 to Sl.o,000, which is largely of a local 
character. Mr. Rowbottom was born in Philadelphia, in 1829, but has for many years resided in Allegheny, taking an 
active interest in municipal affairs. He is at present member of City Council from his ward, and has held that position 
for sevei'al terms, greatly to his own credit, and to the satisfaction of liis constituents. He is a public spirited citizen, 
and an energetic and thoroughly reliable business man, possessing the entire confidence and respect of the community 
in which he resides. 

ALLEGHENY COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE -5^ 5focy^fo«/7;. 

Rev. Thos. C. Strong, D. D., is the president and founder of this institution, which comprises in its curriculum 
the regular college course, requiring the usual Freshman, Sopliomore, Junior and Senior terms of attendance — a thor- 
ough preliminary examination being of course requisite for admission to the Freshman class. The faculty comprises 
seven teachers, and the Institute itself (which was opened in September, 1878) is located at No. 30 Stockton Avenue, 
Allegheny City, and fronts on one of the many parks which beautify that city. The attendance, at present, is prin- 
cipally from Allegheny City, hut the College will be prepared, at the opening of the next collegiate year, to supply 
boarding and receive pupils from a distance. Dr. Strong, the president, was born at Flatbush, L. I., May 23, 1824, and 
is an alumnus of Union College, N. Y., being a member of the class of 1841. He is also a graduate of Rutgers Theo- 
logical Seminary, class of 1845, and was ordained a minister November 12th of that year, when he at once assumed the 
pastorate of the Reformed Churches at Rosendale and Bloomingdale, Ulster County, N. Y. He settled at Newtown, 
L. I., Dec. 12, 1849, where he was called to the pulpit of the Bleecker-street Reformed Dutch Church, at New York 
city, where he remained until May, 18G6. He then removed to Ithaca, N. Y., and from that place went to Aurora, 
Cayuga Co., N. Y., Dec. 13, 1871. He accepted the presidency of Wells College, and thence removed to this city in 
August, 1875. Dr. Strong, besides being the president of the Collegiate Institute, is also pastor of the Central Presby- 
terian Church, Smithfleld street, Pittsburgh. 

WM. KLEMM,-P/ww6^r, Gas and Steam Fitter -3208 PennAv. 

The most extensive and complete Plumbing establishment in this part of the city is that of Wm. Klemm, at No. 
3208 Penn Avenue. His establishment is fitted with engine and boiler, and machinery of different kinds of the newest 
and most approved styles. Every kind of Plumbing appliances. Pipes, Fixtures, etc., etc , are to be found here, and 
all kinds of Plumbing work is done in the Tuost promi)t and reliable manner. Particular attention is given to fitting 
houses with gas and water. Mr. Klemm began the Plumbing business, near his present place, in 1865, in partnership 
with a Mr. Dietrich. In 1870 Mr. Dietrich reth'ed from the firm. Mr. Klemm continued the business, gradually en- 
larging his works. In 1878 Mr. Klemni's entire establishment was burned out conjpletely, since when he built his 
present convenient, handsome and well arranged establishment. He was born in Germany, in 1839, came to the U. S. 
with his parents in 1840, and four years later to this city on a raft down the Allegheny River. Early in life he learned 
the Locksmith trade, then he learned the trade of Glass Mould Making, after wliich he learned his third trade, the 
Plumbing trade, and started in his present successful business in 1865. Mr. Klemm is a gentleman of high character. 
He has been a member of the School Board of his ward, possessing the esteem of all. 

WEYMAN & "BRO.-Tobacco. 

A"«. 81 SmUhfield St. 

Factory — Nos. 5 <fc 7 Union Si. a?idll2 Liberty St. 

Employing thousands of operatives and producing an anntial 
revenue to this city of not less than S;3,000,000 — half a million of 
which is probably disbursed for labor, the Tobacco bu.siness is 
justly regarded as an interest of the utmost importance, and con- 
ducive in no small degree to the industrial and commercial thrift 
of this community. Among those houses that have been greatly 
instrumental in promoting the interests of this branch of trade, 
the Weymans — father and sons — have been conspicuous. More 
than half a century has elapsed since Mr. George Weyman estab- 
lished the business now conducted by his son, Mr. B. F. Weyman, 
on behalf of the estate. Beginning in a very small way, the 
founder of the liouse, contending with many difficulties, gi'adu- 
ally increased his financial resources, extended liis operations, 
and eventually acquired a position in this community that few 
men have been so happy as to attain, and perhaps fewer still so 
richly merited. A man of comprehensive views, large capabili- 
ties, "marked benevolence and probity, Mr. George Weyman was 
universally esteemed and respected. Conducted under the title 
assumed at the demise of its originator, the business has continued 
to jirosper, and stands now among the largest producers in the 
State. They manufacture all kinds of Chewing and Smoking Tobacco, and SnufF — the article made by this firm being 
considered by the trade and consumers as superior to any other brand. The actual amount of production cannot be 
obtained. The wholesale part of the business is transacted from the factory, which is located at 112 Liberty St., and 
Nos. 5 and 7 Union St. The building is a 4-story brick, 40x110 feet, containing all the necessary machinery and appli- 
ances for the successful prosecution of the trade; 31 hands are employed here, and the products find a ready sale 
through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, and other States. The store at No. 81 Smithfleld St. is 
devoted exclusively to the retail trade, and does an extensive business in all grades of Tobacco, making a specialty of 
Imported and Domestic Cigars. Mr. B. F. Weyman — who, as before remarked, conducts all the operations of the con- 
cern — is a native of this city, born in 1842, and has always resided here. His career, both in civil and military life, has 
been an honorable one. Those having relations with this house may depend upon receiving all the advantages that 
result from a long experience, large facilities, and undoubted reliability. 

44 




CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



141 



STOUGHTON & TLAJB— House and Sign Painters. 45 Fourth Avenue. 

The members of the above named firm are W. R. Stoughton and L. E. Haid. These gentlemen ai-e both practical 
workmen, and were formerly engaged in business individually, but in January 187S associated themselves as partners. 
This firm occupy two floors and basement in the three story brick building "at No. 45 Fourth Ave., 20x45 feet, and 
give employment to from fifteen to twenty experienced painters, with a weekly pay-roll averaging about $150. They 
enjoy a prosperous trade in the city and surrounding districts, and do only the very best work. Mr. Stoughton is a 
Pennsylvanian by birth, having been born in 1848, and Mr. Haid is a native of Gerniany, born in 1845. Both gentle- 
men stand high and enjoy the confidence of the community. 

R. BE ATT Y, SON & CO -Wholesale Commission Merchants and Flour Dealers. 

No. 193 Liberty St. 

The large and spacious edifice at No. 193 Liberty St., 22x120, with four stories and capacious basement, is occupied 
by the firm of R. Beatty, Son <!t Co., successors to H. Riddle, Son & Co., Wholesale Commission Merchants for the sale 
of Country Produce, and extensive dealers in Flour. This house was founded in IS.'iO, and has been in possession of 
the present proprietors for five years. The members of tlie firm are R. Beatty, R. W. Beatty and J. Beatty, and six 
assistants are employed. The annual business of the house is about $75,000. $250,000 has been reached when prices 
were liigh. They receive consignments from all the Western States, and their trade extends all over the two cities 
and adjacent territory. To consigners from any section this house afford unsurpassed facilities. Its senior member is 
well and favorably known in business circles for more than 30 years. Their established connections with shippers in 
the various large cities of the East secures them advantages that enable them to dispose of all consignments with 
satisfactory results. 

W. H. BAKEWELL,— i4ze;w//7^5 and Awning Frames, No. 2 Isabella St., Allegheny. 

Mr. Bakewell is a thorough, practical Sail, Awning and Tent manufacturer, having carried on one of, thp leading 
establishments of New York previous to coming here. He has been at his present location since May, 1877, and ha.s 
built up a large and flourishing trade in llie two cities and among the river men. He manufactures all kinds of house 
and store Awnings and Awning Frames, Canvas Hor.se Covers and Feed Bags, Wagon and Express Covers, Tents of every 
description and size, and attends tOLSail-maUing in all its branches, and tlieCanvasing of steamboat decks. His specialty 
is in the manufacture of fine and ornamental Window Awnings. Mr. Bakewell was born in New York city, Feb. 16, 
1826, and has resided in Allegheny for the past two years. 

S. W. HARE & CO.-Practical Plumbers and Gas Fitters, 1825GarsonSt.,S.S. 

This well-known establishment owes its origin to Mr. S. W. Hare, who commenced here in 1865. His business has 
been more than usually successful, and as convincing evidence of its growth and extent, we find the amount of stock 
held by the firm to be'almost $1,000. This, though large, is demanded by the volume of business, which yearly runs 
up to $9,000. This speaks well for the quality of the work done at this establishment. Two buildings are occupied by 
the firm— one of 18 feet front and 30 feet deep ; the other being the workshop, having dimensions of 12 feet by 60 feet. 
Chandeliers for gas and oil, Lead and Sewer Pipe, Lamps, &c., are constantly in stock, and oflered at the lowest ruling 
rates. As the firm consists of practical mechanics, the work intrusted to them is always executed in a substantial 
manner, and rarely fails to afford the fullest satisfaction. Mr. Hare was born in St. Louis in 1845, and came to this 
city in 1847. He enjoys the respect, in a high degree, of his fellow citizens. 



EAST EXD HOTEL,— P^ww Avenue, East End. James Ives, Proprietor. 

In the East End are to be found some of the 
most elegant residences and beautiful grounds to 
be found in any city — two of tlie main thorough- 
fares leading through this attractive portion of 
Pittsburgh. The suburbs are laid with wooden 
pavements, and near their junction is situated the 
East End Hotel (formerly Eastern Exchange). It 
is an excellent hotel, affording a delightful home 
for families and others who desire gooa boarding 
and the conveniences of a tirst-class house, com- 
bined with the attractions of the suburbs, and free 
from the smoke and dust of the city. The house 
occupies a commanding position, surrounded by 
ample grounds, with a beautiful lawn in front, pro- 
vided with conveniences for tlie comfort and pleas- 
ure of guests on summer evenings. The hotel build- 
ing is commodious and furnished with all the mod- 
ern conveniences. It is four stories in height, has 
100 chamb;rs, and accommodations for 300 guests. 
Its halls, dining rooms, parlors and sitting rooms 
are large, well lighted and ventilated, and thor- 
oughly fitted up and furnished. It is a desirable 
place for private families, business men, persons of 
leisure anl others, and has the attractions of a 
home, whilst at the same time each one can enjoy retirement and pii\acy. The convenience of the hou„c to the Penn- 
sylvania Riilroad, and the frequent passing of trains to and from the Union Depot, the large amount of business trans- 
acted at the stock yards in the vicinity, give the house also a large transient custom. The rates, both for temporary 
guests and permanent boarders, are exceedingly moderate. The gas used in this establishment is manufactured on 
the premises. Over 30 assistants are employcd'in the house, making expense for help about $450 per month. The 
proprietor, Mr. James Ives, has had charge of the, house since 1873, and personally superintends its management, giv- 
ing the most thorough attention to all the detiiils, neglecting nothing which can add to the pleasure or comfort of 
guests. He is a native of England, having been born in Hertfordshire in 1846. Previously to coming to Pittsburgh, 
he was for a number of years connected with prominent hotels in New York city, and is thorouglily experienced in 
liotel management. Mr". S. F. Haverstick, clerk, and Mr. S. Goldin, room clerk, are also gentlemen of hotel experi- 
ence, as well as attentive and courteous to all. 




142 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

SCHOMAKER & CO, -Commission Merchants, 198 and 200 Ohio St., Allegheny. 

Since April, 1ST7, tlie firm of Schomaker & Co. has been located at Nos. 19S and 200 Ohio St., Allegheny. Previous 
to that time, Mr. Win. Schomaker had been for 17 years in business in Pittsburgh. The firm now occupies the hirge 
double wareliouse at the numbers named above, and transacts a general Commission Business, as well as dealing in Flour, 
Grain and Feed, at wholesale only. They carry an average stock of about $10,000, and tlieir annual sales reacli the round 
sum of 5120,000. One bookkeeper and live other assistants are employed in the establishment, and the trade of tliis 
house e.Ktends through Pittsburgh, Allegheny, and many of the adjoining counties. Mr. William Schomaker was liorn 
in (ienuany in 1829, and came to tliis city in 18-12. Mr. F. D. Schomaker was born in Allegheny City in 1854, and has 
since resided there. 

DOBBS & RISIN'GER,-5^/7/ Wood Work, Smallman St., near 25th. 

The firm or Dobbs & Risinger was founded in June, 1874. Mr. Dobbs had formerly been engaged in business at 
New Brighton, Penn. December 1, 1875, the factory was removed to Wheeling, West Virginia, where it is still 
located. In February, 1878, they opened tlieir office and warerooms at the present location, where they carry a com- 
plete line of Bent Wood Work, and Carriage and Wagon Materials, witli home and foreign trade, and" they employ 
latest improved machinery. The members of tlie firm are Bev. George Dobbs and Mr. Smith Risinger. Rev. Mr. 
Dobbs was born in Washington County, Penn., in 1814. He was left an orpliau at the age of five years, and owes his 
success to his own energy. He was raised on a farm, and at an early age learned the trade of chair framer. He was 
sul)sequently engaged in the coal and lumber business. He started in the Bent Wood business at New Brighton, 
where he laid the foundation of the ])resent prosperous house. Mr. Risinger is a native Pennsylvanian, and is a car- 
penter by trade, and followed that business until engaging in the present line. He has the management of the factory 
at Wheeling, and thoroughly understands the business. The "Industries of Pittsburgh" spreads to the world 
information of many fine establishments that are known to but a few even of its citizens. The firm of Dobbs & 
Risinger is composed of gentlemen of high character and ability. 

H. CKBTCER— Sewing Machine Bazar, Corner Fifth Ave. and Market St. 

At his "Bazar" all the leading Sewing Machines in use are sold, bought and exchanged, and a variety of all 
makes of machines and attachments are to be found in stock, including manufacturing as well as family machines. 
It is not an agency confined to one machine, but a general Sewing Machine Bazar, where all kinds can be compared 
and tested, and exchanges made. A repair department is also attached. In addition to the sewing machines all sorts 
of appliances, attachments and requisites for machines are kept, such as hemmers, fellers, braiders, needles, oil, thread, 
etc. Machines are sold on weekly and monthly payments, as well as for cash, and a good assortment always on hand 
to select from. Mr. Carter was born in England, in 1847, and has been in Pittsburgh 17 \"ears. His present business 
has been established some two years, previous to which he was business manager for ditterent sewing machine com- 
panies, and has an experience in the sewing machine business of 14 years in this city. 

WM. COOPER & CO, -Wholesale Grocers, 215 Liberty St. 

The business was founded in 1837, under the firm name of Cooper & Young, who continued as partners till 1846. 
Mr. Young withdrew, succeeded by Wm. Cooper, Esq., (the present senior partner,) who. with his brother James, 
under the title of Cooper ct Bro., conducted the business till 1849, when William went to California, where lie engaged 
in mercantile occupations fortliree years. Returning about 1852 lie again entered the firm, which became known from 
that time as Wm. Cooper i Co. In 1857, through the death of James Cooper, A. S. Getty and John Cooper were ad- 
mitted, no change; however, being made in its style. John Cooper dying in 1876, the surviving partners continued 
tlie business. William Cooper, Esq., was born in Ireland, and came to this country when quite young. His experi- 
ence in business affairs is remarkably comprehensive. Mr. Getty is a native of.Pennsylvania. He has been honorably 
connected with many public enterprises. This business occupies a large three story building, 20x90 feet, with ample 
cellars, all of which is engrossed by the firm, whose regular trade will average $150, (500 per annum. The specialties of 
this house are Wholesale Groceries, dealing largely in Fish and Feathers. 

ADAM RODRIAN,-5oo/5 and Shoes, 119 Rebecca St., Allegheny. 

As a manufacturer of fine Boots and Shoes, Mr. Rodriau has established an enviable reputation and enjoys the 
patronage of many of the leading families of Allegheny City. As he devotes his attention almost exclusively to cus- 
tom work, his stock on hand is not necessarily very large, but does a good annual business, and steadily increasing. 
He employs experienced workmen, besides giving his personal attention to the business. His particular specialty is 
tine Custom Work and Repairing, and no job is allowed to leave his shop or store unless it is thoroughly and carefully 
finished in the best and most workmanlilce manner. Mr. Rodrian is a native of Germany, but has long resided in 
the country, and his establishment, at No. 119 Rebecca St., Allegheny, is well and favorably known. 

ST. JAMES 'H.OT'Blu,- Liberty St., opp. Union Depot; J. K. Lanahan, Proprietor. 

Conducted both on the American and European plan, this favorite Hotel is an institution so well known and 
appreciated in Pittsburgh as to demand consideration in a work seeking to properly display in detail the resources of 
the city. The St. James is a monument to the enterprise and public spirit of its projector and proprietor, Mr. James 
K. Lanahan, by whom it was built, furnished and formally opened in 1867, and since that period has been universally 
regarded not only as the most pleasant and convenient resort for all classes of the traveling public, but as one of the 
most home-like and comfortable public houses in Pittsburgh. Being conducted on the foreign as well as American 
plan, the choice of eitlier is at the option of every gue.st, and the St. James is the only hotel in the city that atlbrds 
these facilities. Located immediately opposite the Union Depot, on Liberty St., the site is most advantageous for 
travelers and otliers; and the general accommodations, attendance, furnishing, ventilation, bar and menu are all that 
can be desired, the charges at the same time being extremely moderate. The dimensions of the premises are 60x100 
feet — the edifice being four stories in height and supplied with every facility for escape in case of fire or other acci- 
dents; all of which, however, are carefully provided against. Mr. Lanahan is one of the most widely known and 
esteemed citizens of this community. Originally from Ireland, he came to this country in 1845, and for nearly a third 
of a century has been closely identified with Pittsburgh in the development of her various commercial and pro- 
ductive interests, and as a member of city councils has invariably exerted an active influence for good upon the legis- 
lative government of the city and its public measures and improvements. As proprietor of the St. James, he is a con- 
siderate and genial host, never neglecting the well-being of his guests, and always promoting their ease and enjoy- 
ment, retaining their esteem, to which he is richly entitled. 

46 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 143 



SUYDAM, LAWRENCE & CO. -Pittsburgh White Lead and Oil Works, 

Office, 450 Itebvcca St., Allcf/hcn^-. 

As an interest of great importance to the indiistriaj thrift of the community, the manufacture of White Lead has 
Ions held a prominent place. Of those largely engaged in this branch of manufacture, the house of Snydum, Lawrence 
& Co., who are the present successors to the oldest Wliite Lead works in this section of country, established as it was 
in 1832, are entitled to particular mention, not alone from the extent of their operations in this direction, but also on 
account of their conjoining, with the corroding of lead, the manufacture of Linseed Oil. This department of the busi- 
ness had been carried on successfully for a series of years by Mr. M. B. Suydam, befoie the existence of the present 
(inn (which was established in 1877), united both industries under one management, tlie advantages of wliich to those 
familiar with either branch of trade are obvious. The plant of the tirm is siuiated on Kebecca St., in Allegheny City, 
and consists of two large three-story brick buildings, one of which is devoted to the manufacture of Lead, the other to 
tlie production of Linseed Oil. The former, in its machinery and general appointments and aparatus, is perhaps one 
of the most complete establishments of the kind in the United States, and in all its departments, from the corroding 
beds to tlie packing room, in vats, mills and pumps, is about as perfect as ingenuity and capital can make it. In White 
and Red Lead Colors and Putty the product is a large one. The capacity for manufacturing White Lead alone is 1,000 
tons annually, while 200,000 gallons of Linseed Oil are expressed yearly in the building devoted to this purpose. Three 
powerful steam engines are required to operate the machinery of the works, and 30 men are constantly employed in 
the various departments. The goods prepared by this firm are marked and highly esteemed for their purity arid'excel- 
lence of color ; they find a ready market through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Micliigan, Indiana and New York — the demand 
increasing at a very satisfactory ratio. As a firm, Messrs. Suydam, Lawrence & Co. stand among the most prominent 
of their cotemporaries, and are heartily commended in every respect as being honorable and reliable people with whom 
to establish the most gratifying relations. 

M. FIRE & "BRO.-Dry Goods, Trimmings, dc, 100 & 102 Federal St., Allegheny. 

One of the leading houses engaged in the Dry Goods and Trimming business, in the two cities, is that of M. Fire 
&, Bro., whose warerooms are located at Nos. 100 and 102 Federal St., Allegheny. They occupy the double three-story 
building at the numbers given above, with a frontage of 35 feet on Federal St., and" extending back 60 feet. Each 
floor is filled with an admirably selected assortment of Drj' Goods, Trimmings, itc, selected expressly for this market 
by one of the most judicious buyers in the city, and is estimated at not less than 530,000 to §40,000. They transact a 
wholesale and retail business, their trade being principally in the two cities and within a radius of 50 miles; their 
annual sales reaching SoO, 000. Within the past few months the increase in their business has compelled them to 
enlarge their quarters, and they have now greater facilities tlian ever for the display of their fine stock and for waiting 
upon their customers. The members of the firm are Mathias and Charles Fire, both of whom are natives of Germany, 
but for more than a score of years residents of Allegheny City and identified with the Dry Goods trade, in which they 
now rank among the leading houses. 

THE SINGER MFG. CO.Sewing Machines, No. 10 6th St. 

For nearly a third of a century the branch office of the Singer Manufacturing Company has been established 
in Pittsburgh, during which period it has been so intimately connected with every interest of the community, and so 
promotive of the general benefit as to demand special mention in this work. It is perhaps safe to assert that no Sewing 
Machine ever attained such a popularity, or deserved its phenominal success more richly than the Singer Sewing 
Machine. The local branch of this company has always been regarded as an important one, not only from the extent 
of the community immediately surrounding it, but from the large district it controls, having established sub-agencies 
throughout West Pennsylvania and contiguous States, embracing such points as Wheeling, Parkersburg, Keyser, Graf- 
ton, Huntington, Charleston, Lewisburg in ^Vest Virginia, and Johnstown, Greensburg, Indiana, Uniontown, Butler, 
McKeesport, St. Petersburg, New Brighton, Washington, Allegheny City, Brookville, Clearfield, and tne South Side and 
East End of this city in West Pennsylvania, Marietta, Steubenville, and Gallipolis in Ohio, requiring in all the services 
of over three hundred men to transact the business, which amounted in 1873 to over S300,000. Their enormous re- 
turns, it should be remembered, are, in spite of the fact that the expiration of the Singer patents has led to the com- 
petition of numerous upstarts, who endeavor (in vain, however, it seems) to divert the public from its appreciation of 
the exquisite workmansliip, durability and finish that has always characterized the products of the Singer manufac- 
tory, and it is therefore highly gratifying to observe that the business of the concern is rapidly on the increa.se, exhib- 
iting an active vitality, resulting as much from the intrinsic merits of the machine as the ability displayed in manag- 
ing so vast a trade. Mr. R. W. Steadman has for many years represented the cf)mpany at this poinl. He is distin- 
guished for his thorough comprehension of all the details of the business, and other" valuable characteristics, which 
have no small influence in conducing to the prosperity of the concern which be rejjresents. 

J. H. TRUXELL,-r/w Type Rooms, Cor. 5th Ave. and Market St. 

The entire third story of the large building, 16x100, at the corner of Market St. and 5th Ave., has been occupied as 
a Photograph or tin type gallery for the past twenty-five years under various proprietors, one of the last owners being 
the late Mr. W. W. Charles, one of Pittburgh's most accomplished and gifted artists. The rooms were fitted up ex- 
clusively for this bu.siness with all the latest and most modern appliances and conveniences, and are admirably lighted 
and arranged. In Sept., 1877, Mr. Truxel became owner and proprietor, and under the name of the Boston Tin Type 
Rooms has built up a large and flourisliing business, making tin types a .specialty, for which style of pictures he has 
acquired an enviable reputation in tlie two cities and surrounding towns. His pictures are true to life, and in an 
artistic point of view superior to many of the photographs taken by other liouses, and much cheaper and more satis- 
factory. Mr. Truxell was born in West Virginia, in 1852, and learned his trade in AVheeling some ten yvrars ago, .since 
which" time he has given his exclusive attention to the business. Persons desiring fine pictures at moderate prices 
should give him a call. 

BOYD BROS.— f/w^ Confections, No. 27 Federal St., Allegheny. 

The Confectionery and Bakery of Boyd Bros., located at No. 27 Federal St., Allegheny, near the Suspension Bridge, 
was established in November, 1878, by Messrs. W. W. and J. D. Boyd, and the regular increase in their business since 
that time is evidence of the popularity of the articles manufactured and sold by them. They occupy the spacious 
store rooms, 22x120 feet, in the four story brick-Structure at the location named, employing five assistants, and carry- 
ing a stock of about S3000 in value, embracing every variety of choice confections of their own manufacture, and 
Foreign Fruits, Nuts, &c. Bnth members of the firm are natives of Allegheny, and well and favorably known in the 
city of their birth, and throughout the surrounding towns. Their location is admirably adapted for the line of busi- 
ness in which they are engaged, being central and on the main thoroughfare connecting the two cities, and near the 
Allegheny depots. Their stock is always fresh and desirable, and their prices corresponding to the times. 

47 



144 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

E. B. MERCER,- r^fl^ d Groceries, No. 80 Federal Street, Allegheny. 

Tliis old and reliable Grocery House was established in 1842 by Mercer and Robinson, who were succeeded by Mer- 
cer and Son, under which style tlie business was conducted until 1878, when Mr. E. IJ Mercer became sole owner and 
proprietor. He occupies the spacious thiee-story brick wareliouse, 2:5x80, at No SO Fi'deral St.. directly opposite the 
I'ittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago R. R. iJepot. Carrying an extensive stock of fine Teas, Choice Family Groceries, 
Pure Spices, Sugars, Colfees, Roasted and Green, Canned Goods, Salt, Nails, White Wine and Cider Vinegar, and all 
articles usually found in a first class metropolitan establishment of this description. Fish in great variety is the partic- 
ular specialty for whicli this house is noted. Mr Mercer's stock is valued at from 5f4,OUO to $5,000, and his annual sales 
reach f;il,000, which are principally to parlies in Allegheny, Beaver and Butler counties. He has a large and flourish- 
ing trade, along the lines of Pittsburgli, Fort Wayne and Chicago, and the West Pennsylvania R. Rs. Mr. Mercer is a 
native and life-long resident of Allegheny City, where he was born in 1852. and is the worthy representative of a family 
name, which has for nearly forty years been indeutified with the Grocery trade of Allegheny county. 

L. H. SM-ITH^— Brooms, Brushes and Grocers' Sundries, 41 Wood St. 

People not thoroughly familiar with the business avenues of Pittsburgh often surmise that we have here one grand 
workshop of Iron and Steel productions, overlooking entirely the less extensive, but equally important manufactures 
of commercial requisites, and imagine that the branches of trade usual to other cities are here neglected. One stroll 
througli our busy thoroughfares will dispel the latter idea, and a stop at L. H. Smith's manufactory and store room 
will prove that in the line of Brooms and Brushes our city can compete with the best Eastern and other Western houses, 
both as to quality, style, finish and price. Established in 1874, as L. H. Smith & Co., Mr. Smith became sole proprietor 
after a short duration of co-partnersliip, and has conducted the business with such success as to reach, in sales of 
Brooms, Brushes, Paper, Paper Sacks, VVooden Ware, Suiple Groceries and Grocers' Sundries, an aggregation of $85,000 
annually, with an increasing trade through Western Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, and other more remote 
sections, employing, in various capacities, 24 hands at the factory, store and upon the road. A native of this State, 
born in 1847, Mr. L. H. Smith has been, since the attainment of his twentieth year, a citizen of Pittsburgh, and in- 
terested in mercantile industries, in which he has shown a marked proficiency, a strict integrity, and acquired a well 
deserved trade and reputation. 

AGNE W & CO. -Flint Glass, Vials & Bottles, Office, 153 Isi Ave. Works, South Side. 

Among the industries for which Pittsburgh is particularly noted, the manufacture of Glass occupies the second 
position only in importance and as a source of commercial and industrial thrift. Occupying no inconspicuous place 
among its coteinporaries, the house of Agnew & Co. are well deserving of special mention in a work designed to dis- 
close in detail the resources and advantages of this city, as a producing and mercantile center. The plant of the firm 
is located on the South Side of the Monongahela River, and consists in part of one main building, 40x60 feet, and 
numerous smaller structures, covering in all an area of about one-third of an acre. The furnace is built upon an im- 
proved plan. It contains six large double mouth patent pots, and in capacity may be classed with an ordinary 8 pot 
furnace. Here 55 operatives are engaged, for 10 months, in the manufacturing of every variety of Flint Glass, Vials, 
and Bottles, of staple sizes or to order, the product of this concern being remarkable for its perfection, enjoying a rep- 
utation for excellence over the entire United States. For the item of labor alone a weekly disbursement is necessary 
of $425. The average annual sales of the house are at present about $40,000, and rapidly increasing. Mr. John Agnew, 
who supervises the operative part of the business, is regai'ded as a pioneer in the Glass trade of Pittsburgh, and is per- 
haps the oldest practical Glass manufacturer in this community, having completed his apprenticeship to Wm. McCully 
in 1837, and ever since that period be?n intimately concerned in promoting the advancement and prosperity of this 
industry. The trade of the house e.^tenils over various States besides our own, including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa. 
Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, California, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennesee, Texas, West Virginia, Wisconsin, 
Michigan and the Canadas. Though there may be larger firms in the business than that of Agnew & Co., none pro- 
duce better goods, occupy a higher position, or are more reliable and deservedly popular. 

JOHN M. IRWIN & SON, -Manufacturers of Furniture. 97 Smithfield St. 

This is one of the old reliable business houses of Pittsburgh, having been established in 1842, as John M. Irwin & 
Co., under which style it continued until 1877, when it became as above. They are extensive dealers in Furniture of 
every description, and manufacture most of the Furniture themselves Their factory is located at Nos. 13. 15 and 17 
Old Avenue, and is 30x120, four stories high. Here they employ 38 experienced workmen, and their weekly pay-roll 
amounts to about $400. Their sales-rooms are located at No. 97 Smithfield St. (Howard Block), and are 20x60 feet on 
the first floor, and 40x00 on the second, third and fourth. In addition to the business carried on here, they manufac- 
ture largely for the retail trade. Tliey carry an average stock of about $35,000, and their sales are correspondingly 
large. Mr. John M. Irwin was born in Pittsburgh in 1816, and is a life-long resident of the city. He is one of the old- 
est business men in the city. Mr. James S. Irwin, his son and partner, is a native of Pittshurgh, and was born in 1847. 

GRAHAM & COJJRTNIl'Y -Salt Mf'rs, 254 d 256 Beaver Av., Allegheny. 

Adding materially to the industrial thrift of the community, and by actual production increasing the wealth and 
resources of tliecity, the firm of Graham & Courtney sliould receive more than pas.sing mention in a publication dis- 
playing in a detailed way the advantages, facilities and possibilities of Pittsburgh and its environs. More than 20 years 
ago the present plant of the firm was establislied by Mr M. B. Ross, who began in a very small way, the business 
being suggested by the accidental discovery of an inexhaustible salt well on the premises. In !■';'"■' Messrs. Graham 
& Courtney succeeded to the concern, and at once began a series of improvements, and the application of new meth- 
ods, that placed the works upon a par with any of a similar character in the country. As now enlarged, the establish- 
ment consists of one large brick and frame two-story building, located on the corner of Beaver Ave. and Juniata St., 
covering an area of half an acre, and devoted entirely to the manufacture of Salt, the warehouse being at the corner 
of Market and Juniata Sts., a one-story building, 48x1000 feet, where a stock is usually carripd of from $8,000 to $10,000. 
The appliances and machinery of the works proper consist partly in one engine, 12 horse power, and one boiler, 8)^ 
feet wide by 100 feet long, and 4 feet deep, requiring, to operate, 400 bushels of coal per diem. There are, besides, 5 
]\rj^e evaporating tanks, 9 feet wide by from 20 inches to 4 feet deep, traversed from end to end by copper steam-pipes. 
Ten employees are engaged in the works besides the ijroprietors, making a disbursement necessary of about $6,000 
annually. The character of tlie product for purity and whiteness finds it a ready market in Pennsylvania and adjoin- 
ing States, tlie sales amounting to $2.^,()0I) per annum, and increasing. Both partners actively participate in business. 
Mr. James Graham is originally from Ireland, coming to this city with his parents at a very early iige. Mr. J. M. 
Courtney is a native of this country, in the government of which he has held several ofticial positions. As a firm, 
identified with and promoting the best interests of the city, the house of Graham & Courtney are regarded with the 
highest esteem as indispensable members of the producing community. 

48 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 145 



JOSEPH HORN£ & CO— Dry Goods, Notions, Straw Goods & Millinery. 

Ko. 17 & 79 Market St. & 197, 199 & HOI fenn. Ave.. 

In recording any adequate account of the industries of Pittsburgh, and the progress made during the last quarter 
of a century in commercial and manufacturing importance, it would be impossible to omit mention of the house of 
Joseph Home and Co. Establislied by the present Senior partner in 1848, the resources and trade of this concern 
have more than kept equal pace with the general prosperity of the Iron City. Founded with but a limited capital, 
but conducted with every advantage to be derived from a stainless business policy, the success of the house increased 
with each succeedini? year, until at the present time it stands at the head of all similar establishments in Western 
Pennsylvania. With the rapid enlargement of its operations, it became necessary to add to the executive force of the 
house, and with this end at various times, some of those who were most prominently connected with its prosperity, 
were admitted to the firm, which assumed the above title, and the business was divided into two destinct depart- 
ments, occupying separate buildings, each with its special purpose. The wliolesale house remained at the old location. 
No. 77 and 79 Market St., appropriating the entire original premises, three stories 32x120, and a purposely constructed 
annex. The tirm in this division are Jos. Home, C. B. Shea, J. F. Johnson and A. P. Burchfield, all of whom exercise 
an active personal supervision of affairs. Tlie retail department was removed to Nos. 197, 199 and 201 Penn Ave., upon 
the completion of Young Men's Mercantile Library building. The premises here occupied embrace 3 stores, with a 
frontage of 60 feet on Penn Ave., 180 feet in depth. It is one of the most complete and spacious edifices in the city, 
securing the bulk of the first floor, arranging and fitting it in such way, as to make it the most sumptuous sales rooni 
in the city. This department is under the special control and supervision of IMr. Joseph Home, aided by competent 
and experienced assistants. Ooing a business that has reached an average of 51, .500, 000 annually, with a staff of 140 
employees, this house affords facilities for buyers unequaled in the West, both from the advantages derived from its 
great resources, and its enterprise in importing and enlarged connections. Conducing in so high a degi'ee to the sub- 
stantial benefit of the communit)', and indentified so closely with the growth and commercial well being of this city, 
the house of J. Home i<: Co. occupies a place in the general consideration, that redounds no little to the establishment 
of a reputation for Pittsburgh in keeping with its real merits. 

DR. JAMES ORH -Dentist, No. 77 Smithfield St. 

The dental parlors of Dr. Orr, at No. 77 Smithfield street, are centrally and desirably located and are fitted up in 
an elegant and attractive manner. Dr. Orr commenced his studies with Dr. S. P. Hullihen of Wheeling, West Vir- 
ginia, in 1852, and practiced in that city from 1857 to 18G1, wheu he removed to this city and opened an office. He lias 
bei-n eminently successful here and enjovs a large and lucrative practice. He is a thoroughly competent and skillful 
operator, and devotes his attention exclusively to the profession in which he is engaged. He has the finest and most 
complete variety of instruments and apparatus for carrying on the business in all its departments, and in the manu- 
facture of artificial teeth lie has no superior in this country. In the use of ansestheties Dr. Orr is proficient, and has 
met with unvarying success in all cases where he has administered them. As an evidence of the estimation in ■which 
he is held by his brother professionals it may be stated, that Dr. Orr held the position of President of the Pittsburgh 
Dental Association from 1861 to 1862. In every description of fine work pertaining to Dental Surgery he particularly 
excels, having for many years made it his special study. His reputation is not confined to the limits ot the two cities, 
as his practice extends through the adjoining counties, and even into Ohio and Western Virginia. Dr. Orr is a native 
of Washington Co., Pennsylvania, and was born iu 1823. He has resided in Pittsburgh since 1861. 

KIRKPATRICK, BEAL£ & CO -Sheet Iron and Terne Plate, 

Office, 143 I at Ave. Works, Leechburg, Pa. 

Among those industries that it becomes the special province of this work to display, the firm of Messrs. Kirk- 
patrick. Beale & Co. occupy no inconspicuous position, and from the character and magnitude of their operations are 
entitled to more than brief mention. Connected in 1863 with the Siberian Iron Works, carried on by Messrs. Rogers & 
Burchfield, they succeeded the latter firm in 1877, and have since continued to prosecute the business with resolution 
and signal success, the sales averaging $215,000 annually. The plant of the firm is located at Leechburg, Pa., a short 
distance from this city, and consists of numerous buildings, all admirably adapted, and built especially for the pur- 
poses to which they are applied ; covering an area of over six acres, and containing, together with other improved 
machinery, two trains of Bolls, five Puddling Furnaces, six Noolling Fires, several engines with an aggregate power of 
200 horses, producing the finest brands of Sheet Iron and Terne Plate of all grades. The general office and ware rooms 
are located at No. 143 1st A venue. The dimensions of these premises are 25x90 feet, and three stories high. Their 
trade, which is all ordered work, consists mainly of Shovel Iron, I^ock Iron, Tea Tray Iron, Trunk Iron. Stove Body 
Iron, Stamping Iron, all grades. Cold Rolled Iron, all grades, special sizes being made or cut to order, and Terne Plate. 
For these specialties the tirm have acquired a reputation that is unsurpassed, and justly arises from the excellent 
character of the.se products. — Mr. Kirkpatrick and Mr. Beale are both natives of Pennsylvania, and have always been 
identified willi the industrial interests of the community, as promoted through the Iron trade. Mr. J. C. Wallace, 
the Company, is originally from Ireland, but has been closely connected with the manufacturing development of our 
resources for nearly thirty years. No firm occui)ies a higher or more enviable position than Messrs. Kirkpatrick, Beale 
& Co., and none can more easily maintain and perpetuate the esteem in which they are held by their cotemporaries 
and the public at large. 

W. H. HAMILTON & CO -Glass Manufacturers, Office, No. 26 Wcod St. 

Identified with one of those great special industries, for which Pittsburgh has established a wide celebrity, the 
house of W. H. Hamilton <i Co. is one of the widest and most favorably known houses in Pittsburgh in this line of 
business. Founded in 1863 by the same firm, composed of W. H., J. T. & J. S. Hamilton, to each of whom was as- 
cribed a different department in the work, the house has become favorably known, and with an annually increasing 
trade has fixed itself firmly among its cotemporaries with enlarged facilities, not only ample, but perhaps unexcelled. 
The warehouse and counting rooms occupied by the firm, are at No 20 VVood St., the whole of one large building 
being used for these purposes. The factories are located on 20th & 21st it Railroad Sts., and consist ol five buildings, 
covering an area of about one acre, thoroughly adapted by prolonged experience and constant improvement to the 
business. Here are employed one hundred and seventy-five men and boys, skilled in the special manufactures of this 
concern, requiring a disbursement to this source alone of $84,000 per annum. Every appliance in the way of steam 
power and labor-saving apparatus is brought into application, to secure the rapid execution and perfect finish of the 
product, which con.sists exclusively of every grade, kind and description of Flint Glass, Vials and Bottles. Particular 
attention being directed to the manufacture of druggist's prescription ware, for the excellence of which the firm have 
attained a very wide celebrity in the trade. With an extended influence, always e.xerted in behalf of the industries 
of Pittsburgh, and continuously directed in aid of every movement that will conduce more greatly to that end, the 
house of W. H. Hamilton & Co', occupy a position that is equally honorable to itself and the comniunity from which 
it originated. 

49 d"') 



146 ESTDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

PERRY M. Glj'EJ.'M.,— Druggist, dc, Rebecca St. & Allegheny Ave., Allegheny. 

The neat and attractive Pharmacy at the corner of Rebecca St. and Allegheny Ave. was established in 1873 by Mr. 
Gleiiu, the present proprietor, with a moderate capital, which, during the past six j-ears, has considerably increased. 
His store, wiiich is located in a two-story frame building, 18x4.5, is stocked with a full and complete line of Drugs and 
Medicines of the purest and best quality, Perfumeries, Brushes, Soaps, Toilet Articles and Fancy Goods, valued at 
about |2,500. Mr. Gleim, being a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and having had 12 years' prac- 
tical experience in the Drug business, makes a specialty of preparing and compounding physicians' prescriptions in an 
accurate and careful manner, having in his employ competent assistance, and enjoys the confidence of the leading 
physicians in the city. His trade is of a local character, and will compare favorably with that of any similar estab- 
lishment in the two cities. Mr. Gleim was born in Harrisburg, Pa., in 1851, but has resided in Allegheny for a num- 
ber of years. 

LEVIS & "BlCKJllL-Solicitors of Patents, 131 Fifth Avenue. 

These gentlemen have both had considerable experience and extended practice as Counselors at Patent Law and 
Solicitors of Patents, although their present partnership and association dates back only to 1878. They occupy offices 
at No. 131 Fifth Ave., a few doors above Smithiield St., and their business extends throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and many of the other S^tates, thus enabling them to successfully prosecute all claims and secure information directly 
from headquarters. They attend carefully to aU business before the Patent Office and Patent causes in the courts, 
prosecute all classes of Government claims, &c., and furnish applicants with all information relative to procuring Pat- 
ents, the modus operandi, &c., &c. Both gentlemen are highly recommended, and enjoy the confidence and respect of 
all with whom they have liad occasion to transact business. Mr. O. D. Levis was born in Zelienople, Butler County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1835, and came to Pittsburgh in 1857. Mr. 0. K. Bickel was born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1853, and 
located in Pittsburgh in 1875. 

C. WATTLE Y & CO.- Embroideries, Laces, dc, 109 Federal St., Allegheny. 

The elegant and extensive establishment of C. Wattley & Co., located at 109 Federal St., Allegheny City, is the 
recognized headquarters for the latest, most fashionable and novel designs in fine Embroideries, Laces, Trimmings 
and Furnishing Goods. This house was established in 18G7 by the present proprietors. Their stock is now full and 
complete, comprising every variety of fine Embroideries, Laces, Trimmings, and Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods 
of foreign and domestic manufacture. They occupy a spacious three-story brick structure, 231^x110 feet. Their trade 
is located in the city and neighboring towns, and is increasing so rapidly that the firm have been compelled to seek more 
commodious quarters, and have now in process of construction a new and elegant business house at No. 109 Federal 
St., which will be ready for occupancy about October 1, 1879. The firm of C. Wattley & Co. consists of Chas. Wattley 
and Juo. Thompson ; the latter is of the firm of Thompson & Lyons, linseed oil manufacturers. 

KELLY & JONES,— (Sfeflw Warming and Ventilating Apparatus, 141 First Ave. 

This house, which was established in 1875, succeeded the Angell and Blake manufacturing company of New York 
City in this section. They occupy four floors, each 25x80, at No. 141 First Avenue, carrying a stock of from S5,000 to 
$10,000 exclusive of machinery, and transacting an annual business of from $80,000 to $100,000, which extends all over 
the country, and is principally connected with public works and with ttie trade everywhere. They manufacture 
Steam Warming and Ventilating Apparatus for either low or high pressure laundry machinery, steam pumps, steam 
boiling kettles, boilers for power etc., employing from fifteen to twenty hands with a weekly paj' roll amounting 1o 
about $200. They have now before the Patent office two new inventions in Radiators and Heating Boilers, upon which 
they will obtain patents, in addition to two others already secured bj' letters patent. They are making improvements 
all the time, many of which are of a very important character. Their specialty in manufacturing is in Steam Heating 
Apparatus, which they supply largely to public buildings, and to the trade all over the United States and Canada. 
Mr. J. T. Kelly was born in Allegheny City in 1850, and was engaged in business in Youngstown, Ohio, for four years 
previous to comiug here. Mr. George M. Jones was born in Lancaster, Pa., in 1851, but has resided in Pittsburgh since 
1872. He received his business education in New York Citv, where he became familiar with the Steam Heating business. 
The capital invested b/ this firm is $15,000. 

J. SMITH & SON,-Steam Dyers and Scourers, 52 Fourth Ave. 

The Steam Dying and Scouring establishment of J. Smith and Son was started in 1865 in a comparatively small 
way, but by strict attention to business, and the excellence of their work, their trade has steadily increased until they 
now occupy the three-story brick building, 24x29, at No. 52 Fourth Av., and do a business that will compare favorably 
with that of any similar house in the city. They have one large steam boiler, and the work is attended to by Mr. 
Smith and his four sons, who are all practical and experienced workmen in their line. They have added a branch house, 
located at No. 1511 Carson Street, South Side, under the charge of Joseph Smith, one of the Sons referred to above. 
This branch of the establishment is in operation since April 1879, but was previously conducted by Henry Helman 
since 1867 under Joseph's supervision. This house is doing a satisfactory business. To the residents of South Side we 
can cordially recommend this establishment. They will find Dyeing and Scouring of all kinds for ladies and gentlemen 
done with promptness, and in the most satisfactory manner. Mr. Smith, Sr., was born in England in 1817, and learned 
his trade there ; H.W. and Joseph, his two eldest sons, were also born in England. Samuel and Chas. are both natives 
of Allegheny City. The firm does every description of Dyeing and Scouring, making a specialty of Dyeing and Cleaning 
red gloves and plumes. 

L. T. M'GRATH,-^roc^r, 1918 Carson St., Pittsburgh, S. S. 

This well-known gentleman occupies the premises above mentioned ; it was previously conducted as a grocery by 
Chas. Hook, who was succeeded by Peter Schlegel. He, in turn, was succeeded by Mr. M'Grath, the present owner. 
Like a great majority of business men, he commenced with very limited capital. By close attention to business he 
has greatly enlarged and extended the moderate trade of Mr. Schlegel. Mr. M'Grath's present stock of Groceries is 
worth at least $2,000, and his annual sales do not fall short of $11,000. His very convenient and well arranged store is a 
three-story brick, 20 feet front and 38 feet deep. An active lad assists M'Grath in his store, and the amount of business 
done is such as to afford them little idleness. The trade is chiefly local, and keeps pace with the improvement in the 
times. Mr. M'Grath was born iu Ohio, in 1843 but has resided since infancy in this city, and is a highly respected 
citizen. 

60 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 147 



JOHN WILSON & SON -Wholesale Grocers, No. 297 Liberty St. 

Tho statement has frequently been made that in her devotion to manufactures Pittsburgh has neglected her mer- 
cantile or commercial opportunities. Whether this is true of other branches of trade or not, the remark is certainly 
Dot applicable to her Wholesale Grocery establishments, as may be seen by reference to the notices of her leading rep- 
resentative houses, and the statistics furnished relative to their importance and extensive trade in other portions of 
this work. Possessing ahnost unexampled facilities in her geographical position and modes of transportation, as well 
as in the enterprise and high standing of her leading merchants in this line, Pittsburgh can to-day furnish the staple 
articles of Groceries at prices which will compete successfully with Eastern dealers, and effect a great saving in freight 
to retailers throughout Westei'n Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, West Virginia and the towns and cities along the banks 
of the Ohio River, and on the lines of the various Railroads centering here. Prominent among the houses engaged in 
the Wholesale Grocery trade may appropriately be mentioned that of John Wilson & Son, whose ware-rooms iire lo- 
cated in the spacious'and elegant four-story iron front building, 22x110, at No. 297 Liberty Street. This house was 
founded about thirty-three years ago by Mr. John Wilson, the present senior member of the iirm, and Mr. John Watt, 
under whose management and administration the business was successfully conducted until 1869, when the present 
firm was established with Mr. George W Wilson as junior partner. Their present quarters have been fitted up ex- 
pressly for the convenience of the firm, and are supplied with an engine and boiler for hoisting purposes, and for 
heating the building during the winter season. They employ seven or eight assistants at a weekly expense of about 
SlOO, and carry a full and complete line of choice groceries, comprising every article pertaining to this line, averaging 
in value about S60,000. Their trade is principally in Middle and Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio, and their 
annual sales will reach ^300,000. This house has never employed traveling salesmen, and is opposed to this system of 
drumming up business. They depend solely on the well established reputation of their house for public patronage. 
It is undoubtedly the only safe and legitimate method of transacting business. — Mr. John Wilson is a native of Ire- 
land, but he has resided in Pittsburgh since 1842, and during all that time been actively engaged in business and 
identified with the Wholesale Grocery trade of the Smoky City. Mr. George W. Wilson was born in Pittsburgh in 
1846, and is a thorough, practical and wide awake business man. 

MITCHELL & CO— Stove Manufacturers, 14th and Etna Sts. 

Ko city in the Union has achieved such a deservedly wide-spread reputation as an industrial center as Pittsburgh. 
It stands to-day the foremost manufacturing city in the Union, aud Iron in its manifold forms and varieties of manu- 
facture is the principal and prime factor of her immense wealth and importance. The hou.se of Mitchell & Co., manu- 
facturers of every de.scription of Stoves and Ranges, is the oldest establishment in the city engaged in that line of 
business with one solitary exception, and that house antedates it only one year. It was founded in 1828 by Thomas 
Mitchell, Thomas Sweeney and Mr. Campbell. After various changes in the firm name and style, it became Mitchell, 
Stephenson & Co., and by them the business was successfully conducted until 1878j when it became as at present, 
Mitchell & Co. Fifty years ago, when originally started, the business was conducted in a small way, but, owing to the 
superior quality of articles manufactured by this house, it steadily increased, until, at one time, it reached as high as 
§1.50,000 per annum. Owing to the decrease in jsrice of manufactured articles and the general depression of business in 
all branches, the present trade will hardly reach that amount, although it is one of the largest and best known houses 
in the city. Their warehouse and foundry buildings are located on the corner of Fourteenth and Etna Sts., and com- 
prise one four-story brick structure with a frontage of 204 feet 6 inches on Etna St., with a depth of 30 feet, and a one- 
story brick foundry building, 175x100. The works have a capacity of 1,500 tons of finished work, and will compare 
favorably for size, capacity and general completeness of appointments, with any in the Western States. One 8.5-l)orse 
power engine furnishes the motive power for their extensive machinery, and 70 hands are constantly employed, with 
a monthly pay-roll averaging about 83,500. They manufacture every variety of Stoves and Grates of the latest designs 
and most elaborate patterns, and their gDods are noted for superioritj^of material and finish. Mr. Mitchell is a native 
of Pittsburgh, and has for many years been identified with her iron interests and manufactories. 

J. B. JONES & B.'SiO -Wholesale Iron, Metal & Steel, 73 & 74 River Ave., Allegheny. 

The iron interests of Pittsburgh are of course the most prominent and best known of all others. Among the fore- 
most dealers in manufactured Iron, Metals, etc., is the firm of J. B. Jones & Bro., which was inaugurated in 1872 by 
J. B. Jones alone, and in 1874 assumed its present name by the admission of James Jones. This firm keep in stock an 
assortment of Metals, including Copper, Brass, Lead and Zinc, valued at $2,500, and transact a business of S35,000 to 
?50,000 annually. Their establishment, including the metal yard, is 80 by 100 feet, and the power for the .scrap mill is 
furnished by an engine and boiler of approved make; from 6 to 7 men being employed, running daily three pair of 
shears, cutting from a rail down to sheet iron. They make a specialty of cut No. 1 Scrap for crucibles for steel works. 
Both partners are native Alleghenians, J. B. Jones having been born in 1847, and James in 1853 ; and this fact, taken 
in connection with their prices being always put down to the lowest possible figure, has secured them a reputation 
and trade extending not only throughout this, but all the adjoining counties and Eastern Ohio. 

MAX SCHNEIDER,- Dyeing, Scouring and Rejinishing Works, 253 Penn Ave. 

This gentleman has been established in business at the above location for the past seven years, during which time 
his trade has largely increased, amounting to between $3,000 and $4,000 per annum. Mr. Schneider occupies a brick 
building, 16x95, has one boiler, and employs three hands. He makes a specialty of Cleaning Lace Curtains and Blan- 
kets in a superior and highly satisfactory manner ; also Cleans and Dyes all kinds of Fabrics for ladies' and gentlemen's 
wear. He makes a specialty of Dyeing and Cleaning Kid Gloves and Feathers, attending to all orders promptly. Mr. 
Schneider's trade is located in the city and surrounding country. He is a practical Dyer, having followed the business 
for 11 years, and understands all its details thoroughly, and never fails to give complete satisfaction. 

JOHN FROEHLICH,-iy/m and Liquors, No. 464 Penn Ave. 

Mr. Froehlich commenced business for himself in 1868 in a comparatively small way and with moderate means. 
Since that time his trade has steadily increased and his capital augmented to a considerable extent. Between three 
and four years ago he erected the elegant brick building (three stories, with Mansard roof) which he now occupies. It 
has a frontage of 16)^ feet on Penn St., extending back 100 feet, and is one of the finest and most imposing structures 
on the avenue. Mr. Froehlich carries a full line of-ehoice foreign and domestic Wines, Brandies, Gins, &c., making a 
specialty of pure old Monongahela Rye Whiskies of superior quality and perfect puritv. His average stock will amount 
in value to about $5,000, and his annual sales will exceed $15,000. He has established an enviable reputation for keep- 
ing only the purest and best articles, free from adulterations, and his trade is steadily increasing throughout the city 
and adjoining towns. Mr. Froehlich was born in Germany, but has resided in Pittsburgh since 1855, where he has 
accumulated a handsome property and b\iilt up a flourishing and lucrative business. 

51 



148 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

J. H£XD£RSON & 'BB.OS-Wholesale Druggists, No. 50 7fh Ave. 

One of the most prominent firms engaged in the Wholesale Drug trade in this city is that of J. Henderson &. Bros., 
which, established in 1841 by W. Henderson, Esq., has always maintained a high position, acquiring from year to year 
a laraer trade, and more available facilities. In 1859, at the retirement of its founder, the present firm assumed con- 
trol of the business, wliich has been conducted in a manner so entirely successful that the average sales are now about 
8100,000 annually, employing the labors of ton assistants, under the active supervision of J. and A. C. Henderson, the 
respective members of tlie firm. The premises occupied and owned by the house are located as above, and consist of 
one substantial brick edifice, having five floors, 24.-^90 feet, all of which is required in the transaction of the business, 
a large proportion of whicli is in the manufacture and sale of proprietary remedies, owned exclusively, and prepared 
by this firm— Henderson's Carminative, Cough Syrup, Cottage Worm Candy, and Essenceof Jamaica (xinger, all of, which 
are widely celebrated as being among the most eli'ective and eflTicacious medicines ever used. The Henderson brothers 
are both natives of Westmoreland Co., this State, and were born respectively in 1822 and 1826, coming to Pittsburgh 
at a very early age, and devoting themselves to the Drug business as a life occupation. The ample measure of success 
attendant upon the eflbrts of this house has been largely due to the enterprising, honorable and liberal policy that has 
always characterized its operations, and it is just to say, that no firm in this city has achieved a higher reputation for 
these qualitie.i than that of Messrs. J. Henderson and Bros. 

CHARLES A. ^COTT -Book and Job Printer, 132 Fifth Avenue. 

Not every person who has learned the trade is capable of " setting up " or designing a truly artistic specimen of 
job printing. To the mechanical portion of the business should be added the careful, critical eye of an arti.st, compe- 
tent to " lay out" a job in a tasteful and elegant manner, and to execute it in such a style as to please the fancy and 
attract the attention. Among the many persons engaged in the Job Printing business in the Iron City, we believe 
there is no one who turns out more elegant and truly artistic work than Mr Charles A. Scott, whose office is to he 
found in the Methodist Recorder Building, No. 132 Fifth Avenue. Mr. Scott was born in the city of Allegheny in 
1851, and e.'itablishcd himself in the Printing business in Pittsburgh in 1872, doing every de.scription of fine Book and 
Job work, Newspaper work, &.C., giving const^ant employment to eight hands, and at some sea.ions of the year requir- 
ing even additional force. Although the greater portion of his business is of a local character, he numbers customers 
in almost every State in the Union. A thorough practical printer himself, Mr. Scott employs only first-class work- 
men, and his business is steadily increasing from year to year. Mr. Scott is agent for Allegheny Co. for Cott's Im- 
proved Reversible Tablet Blotter, which has many advantages over any other now in use ; first, because it allows the 
use of both sides of the blotting sheet, or its removal entirely and substitution of a new onej second, it prevents the 
hinge of the blotter from becoming limber when a part of the block of paper is used ; third, the date lines of bill 
heads and statements are always covered by the blotter. These points make it the most handy and complete blotter 
on the market. 

CR£A, GRAHAM & CO.Stoves, Ranges, &c., 316 Beaver Ave., Allegheny. 

Warerooms, 'JG'-i Liberty St , I'ittshuri/h. 

The above named firm commenced business in 1877. under rather discouraging circumstances at first, their build- 
ings being entirely destroyed by fire before they were completed. Nothing daunted, however, by their misfortunes, 
they immediately commenced to rebuild, and erected works even larger than originally contemplated. The grounds 
occupied by this firm have a frontage of 100 feet on Beaver Avenue, extending back 130 ieet to an alley, on which are 
erected three conveniently arranged buildings, the first being 20x70, and used as the fitting and pattern department, 
the second, 18x25, as the Enameling department, and the third, SOxfiO, as Foundry. Ten hands are employed in the 
various departments, at an average monthly expense of $350. One twelve-horse power engine and one twenty-horse 
power boiler furnish the motive power for their machinery. This firm has recently opened a salesroom at No. 2(52 
Liberty St., Pittsburgh, where a fine line of Stoves, Ranges, Grates, Fronts, Fenders, etc., are on exhibition, all of 
their own special designs and manufacture, reflecting great credit upon the young and enterprising house. Mr. John 
Crea and Mr. Wm. Graham are both natives of Ireland, and came to this country in their early youth. Mr. Jame.s 
E. Crea, who has charge of the books and office department, is a native of Allegheny City, where he has always re- 
sided. 

JOHN KLINZING & CO -Boots, Shoes and Gaiters, 1817 Carson St., S. S. 

Mr. Klin zing succeeded G. Conley, and has not been long in the business. He has, however, every reason to con- 
tinue it, and finds the demand for his work and liis goods equal to his expectations His present stock is worth $2000, 
and this stock is constantly replenishing with work done in his own shop. Mr. Klinzing occupies a two-story brick 
building, with a front of 20 feet, and a depth of 60 feet. His prices are very reasonable, and his custom work, of which 
he has a consideralile share, is of the best quality. Repairing is neatly and promptly done by. Mr. Klinzing. His in- 
dustry and attention to business will be certain to insure success. Mr. Klinzing was born in this city in 1857, and is 
well known and respected by his townsmen. 

H. A. 30Tll'E& -Carpet Weaver, Fifth Ave. and Liberty St. 

Mr. Jones commenced business in his present line, about 12 years ago, in a small way, doing all his own work. 
He now employs four hands and four looms, and turns out annually about 5,000 vai-ds of Carpet. He occupies the 
basement floor at the corner of Fifth Ave. and Liberty St., 30x30 feet, and has also a factory in the 16th ward. He 
manufactures Carpets to order and carries a stock of List and Rag Carpets, <f his own make, of a superior quality, 
which he ofl'ers at very low prices. Mr. Jones is a native of Scotland, and learned his trade in that country. He 
was one of the first men engaged in the oil business in this State, and to him much credit is due for the develop- 
ment of the oil regious ol the present day. 

A. HILLERj—T/w, Copper and Sheet Iron Ware, Stoves, House Furnishing Goods, &c., 

1815 Carson St., S S. 
Mr. Hiller succeeded Geo. L. Fischer in the business he now carries on so successfully. His stock is estimated at 
81 ,•'500, and liis business yearly reaches the handsome amount of 85,500. The buildings occupied by the works of Mr. 
Hiller are a three-story brick structure, 24 feet front and 45 feet deep, and a workshop in the rear of 16 feet bv 35 feet. 
The premises include store, workshop and wareroom. Two hands are employed besides the proprietor," and the 
monthly wages paid out will amount to 8150. The trade is chiefly local, and the work done bv Mr. Hiller being sub- 
stantial and thorough, gives very general satisfaction. The demand for all his manufactures" is such as to promise a 
gratifying increase at no distant day. Mr. Hiller was born in Germany in 1847, and came to this city in 1856. He is a 
quiet, respectable and worthy citizen. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



149 



N. Y. & CLEVELAND GAS COAL CO -Gen. Office, 89 Wood St. 

The past and present importance of the coal trade with reference to the Industries of Pittsburgh, as well as the de- 
velopment of the resources of the whole country, can hardly be over-estimated. It has attracted a vast amount of 
capital fruiu other States and cities, and numerous companies have been organized for the purpose of develojiing this 
proinineiit branch of the industries of this community Among the most noteworthy of such institutions is tiie New 
York and Cleveland Gas Coal Co., a joint stock company, with a capital of SOUO.OOO, chartered some years since under 
the milling and manufacturing laws of Pennsylvania, and officered as follows : Wm. A. Mcintosh, Esq., President; A. 
Carnegie, Esq., Vice President ; Wm. P. DeArmit, Esq , Treasurer, and T. Axworthy, Agent at Cleveland, Oliio. 

As miners and shippers of Youghiogheny Coal the operations of this company are extended and comprehensive, 
and while about two-thirds of their product is consumed by Pittsburgh, the balance tinds a market in many of the 
Western cities for the purposes of gas companies, for which it is peculiarly available. Two of the mines of this corpo- 
ration are located at Turtle Creek, 15 miles east of (his city on the P. R. R. — three on the A. V. R. R., situated re- 
spectively eight and eighteen miles east. The total operations of the company engage the labor of 700 men, two 
locomotives working on the tracks of the company, between the headings of the mines and the railroad, a distance of 
five miles, and 250 rail road cars, machinery and modern mining appliances. 

Tlie product of the company will reacli half a million tons of coal annually — worth from 8800,000 to 1,000,000, ac- 
cording to the condition of markets and the rate paid for mining. As one of the largest institutions of the kind 
engaged in this vast industry so promotive of the general advantage, the New York & Cleveland Gas Coal Co. deserves 
special mention, as well for the extent ot its operations as the liberal and conservative policy with which they are 
conducted. 

ARTISANS INSURANCE COMPANY,-^or. Wood St. and 3d Ave. 

It is a fact worthy of the marked attention, both of capitalists and the public, that throughout the great commer- 
cial depression, beginning in 1873, and occasioning the most unparalleled losses by the failure of corporations and 
private lirms and individuals, the underwriting compawies of this city, though perhaps curtailed in the extent of their 
business, have presented a solid front of solvency to the storm, which has not so far been broken in one single case. 
Among those well known corporations in this department that are capable of sustaining almost any pressure, the 
Artisans Insurance Co. is conspicuouslv prominent. Incorporated under the Insurance laws of Pennsylvania, in 18G6, 
with a capital stock paid up of SIUO.OOO, the company commenced and luis since continued its career under the most 
favorable circumstances and judicious management. Tlie officers and directors are well known as being largely and 
successfully engaged in other branches of business, and as men possessed of ample resources. The President, Mr. Wm. 
H. Smith, is also chief executive officer of tlie Artisans Deposit Bank. Mr. John Moorhead, Vice Pres't, is engro.ssed' 
in tlie iron commission business and other enterprises. Among the directors are names bearing great significance in 
connection with some important industry. Abraham Garrison, of the firm of A. Garrison & Co., one of the oldest 
and most responsible firms in the city, is also President of the Diamond National Bank ; Mr. James P. Barr is editor 
and proprietor of the Daily and Weekly Post; Malcolm Hay, Esq., is widely recognized as one of the first Attorneys 
at the Pennsylvania bar ; .John Dunlap, manufacturer of Tin Ware, has the largest establishment of its kind in Pitts- 
burgh ; Wm. Haslage aiid Sullivan Johnson are successful Grocers; Madison Baily, Coal merchant and Vice Pros' t 
of tlie Central Bank ; Frank M. Hutchinson, Sect'y of the P., F. W. & C. R. R. ; John Birmingham, of Birmingham, 
Watson iS. Co., Anchor Cotton Mills; and D. McKee, of McKee & Co., Glass manufacturers. The Secretary of the 
company, Mr. A. J. Barr, is well known among the fraternity of underwriters in this city as having unusual capacity 
for the conduct of the busines.s. T. M. Reger, No. 3o4 Walnut St., Philadelphia, is the i^ent of the company in that 
city. Cautious in the assumption of risks, and prompt in the payment of losses, the Artisans Insurance Company is 
a favorite with all classes, and entirely merits the success attending its operations. 

HAMILTON, LEMMON, ARNOLD & CO.-Excelsior Coffins & Caskets. 

Warerooms, 356 ferin Av., 
Factory, MMlberry St., Alirt/heny. 

In this special line of 
industrial manufactur- 
ing enterprise there is 
perhaps no house in the 
United States better 
known, or one more en- 
titled to extended notice 
in a work devoted ex- 
clusively to a display of 
the resources in detail of 
the Iron Citv. 

Established in 1864, 
the firm is composed at 
present of the following 
members, each of whom 
takes an active personal 
interest and supervision 
in some department of 
the work. Wm. Hamil- 
ton, Brice Lemmon, Jas. 

T. Arnold, J. W. Carnahan, John H. Mower and Adam Ammon, all practical men, either in the operative or busine.ss 
Bubdivisions of the concern. The plant is located on Mulberry street, in the lower part of Allegheny City, on the 
banks of the Ohio river and contiguou.s to the freight offices of the Pittsburgh and Cleveland Railroad Co. It consists 
of four exten.sive buildings, one, two, four and five stories high, the two first mentioned liaving dimensions of 40x120 
feet each, and the last respectively 120x86 feet and 40x160 feet, covering in all an area of nearly three acres. Here are 
employed 132 skilled mechanics, 2 engines and 3 boilers of 80-horse power each, and 2 pumping engines. All the ma- 
chinery being of the most perfect character, much of it designed and applied originally for the special uses to which it 
is adapted. The manufactures of the firm consist of Burial Cases, Caskets and CofBns of Fine Rosewood, Walnut, 
Imitation Rosewood, Gloss White, Ebonized and numerous other styles and materials, for the elegance of which a 
reputation has been established all over the country, promoting a trade that comprehends in extent the entire United 
States. The firm are large manufacturers of Handles, Plates, Screws, Linings, Robes, etc., resulting in an annual 
trade equal in amount to the capital stock — 82.50, OOO^and steadily increasing. 

With so useful a place among the general industries, and a trade so large and productive of such a satisfactory 
revenue, the house of Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold & Co. exert no small influence upon the general prosperity, and 
are justly classed in their specialty among the first bouses in the United States. 

63 




150 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



CHAS. H. ARMSTRONG & SON, -Pure Youghiogheny & GonnellsvHIeCoal. 

Offices and Yards, Iiil»erty & 29th Sts., & foot of Ross St. & 2d Av. , near Moorhead's Mill. 

This I'iniiicnt lumsi', wliusc rcpulM(i(in is cd-cxteiisivo witli the United .States, deserves more space at our hands 
than we usually lieslow upon siiuihii- establisliiueiits. Its liistory will he found entertaining and instructive. Mr. 
Annslron',% the senior nieniherol' th(- (irni, wMs horn in Ireland aiid oniijirated to this country in 183S. Upon his ar- 
rival in tlu' United Stales, he ennaj^ed iu a^;rii'ulture in the East, and after some time happily spent in this honoralde 
cnlliuf,', laiue to l'ittsUurt;h. Uc're he- took for a season employment in lead works, but directed by a hearty and nat- 
ural pn'ferene<' of the country, he procured a farm and entered with characteristic energy upon the business of a 
dairy. But this pursuit he did not follow long. We find him next engaged in the grocery business, at the corner of 
Kulton street and Centre avenue. But, as before, the restless energy of his character prompted change, and although 
his iulcgritv and capacitv must have comnumded success, he also (luitted this business, and, in 1856, found a proiier 
field f(M- the exercise of h'is talents and enterprise in the Coal and Coki' business. With this vast and growing busi- 
ness his name has been identified for almost a quarter of a century. We shall now say a few words about the extent 
and iuiportanic of the Coal and Coke business of Chas. II. .Vrmstrong and Son. The coal mines of this firm are situ- 
«t(Ml on the Youghiogheny river, and are considered among the most extensive in that famous region. Miners to the 
number of 'idlt liiid constant and remunerative en\ployuient at these works, and coal to the amount of 300 ton.s 
is dailv brought forth from the dark cuverns of the earth'. From this coal coke of the best quality is produced, and 
such is its reputation that it now has the undisputed control of the market as being almost indispensable in the 
smelting of steel and general operations of tlie foundry. This kind of coke is technically known as slaked coke. Its 
manufacture is made a spci'iall v bv this establishment, the coke being entirely free from suliihur and other noxious 
impurities. .\s mav be inferred from the extent and capacity of this firm, many of the largest iron houses of the city 
are supplied bv it with coal and coke ami a large and increasing demand comes from private families. A store, ad- 
mirable in all its urrangenu^uts, is kept at the inines for the accommodation of the workmen. This great and thriving 
establishment has been built up and sustained by the industry and energy of Mr. Armstrong. Seldom has such suc- 
cess been better deserved or more modestly enjo'ycd. The native character of the man, fi-ank, social, upright and 
genial, is untouched by the scltislmess wiiich .som(>tim(\s accompanies the accumulation of riches and a successful 
career. Tlie sterling qualities of the man are rendered more cons|)icuous and serviceable by his success in life, but 
would have adorned his character under the aiost adverse circumstances. AVe may add that Mr. Armstrong repre- 
sented the citizens of the Twelfth Ward nuiuy years in our city councils. He was a most popular and efficient mem- 
ber. Mr. Armstrong was also the origiiuitor of the "Consolidated Gas Company," and its first president. Its success 
was largely due to Ins judicious .services and enlightened supervision. 

C. it. Armstrong, .Jr., the younger member of the firm, was born in Pittsburgh in the year 1854, and growing up in 
the business of his father has thoroughly mastered it in all its n\ultiplicity of det^iils and ramifications, being specially 
conversant in every department of the establishment. He possesses great and varied attainments and is a very popu- 
lar young gentleman. 

JOS. S. FINCH & CO -Distillers of the Golden Wedding Rye Whiskey. 

Second and CheMnitt Hfs., South Side. 

Among the various extensive manufacturing establishments, which have given the city of Pittsburgh a world-wide 
reputation as a great industrial centre, we doubt if any single one has contributed more to that end, than the mam- 
moth distilleries of .Joseph S. Uineh it Co., whose celebrated brand of Golden Wedding Rye Whiskey may now be 
found in almost every portion of the globe, and in every clime where a first class, strictly pure and unadulterated 
article is appreciated. This hou.se was founded by the present proprietors in 18()3, with moclerate means and in acom- 
I)arativcly small way, but at. its very inception it acquired, and has since maintained a very high reputation for the 
general excellence and uniform reliability of the goods manufactured, and its business has increased with rapid strides, 
until it to-day ranks among the foremost establishments of its kind in the United States. Messrs. Finch & Co. have 
now a stock in boni'.ed warehouse valued at not less than StiOO, 000, and their annual sales will exceed half a million 
dollars, witli a constantly increasing demand from all sections of the country. Six spacious and commodious struct- 
ures are acquired to carry on this extensive business, which are located on becond and Chestnut streets. South Side, 
aiui are of the following dintensious respectively, one 00x150, one 110x110, one 50x81, one 40x80, one 75x110 with one 
building used for otliees i!3x73. All the machinery used is of the latest and most approved construction. AVe may 
especially u\cnlion the powerful sixty-horse iiower engine, four double-flue boilers 28 feet long by 48 inches in diame- 
ter, and live of McKuigitt ife Co's. i)ericetcd steam pumps. Twenty experienced workmen are constantly employed in 
the various ilepanments at a monthly expense of $1,200. Mr. Finch is the inventor of a peculiar process of removing 
deleterious substances and peculiar flavor of new whiskey, retaining all its healthful and nutritious qualities, and the 
late inoduct of the still treated iu this manner, has all smoothness and other properties ordinarily acquired only by 
age, and becon\es at once palatable, exhilarating and beneficial to the consumer. This is an important desideratum, as 
the finer grades oi Whiskey can be atVorded at lower prices than when they are subjected to the risks, expenses and 
outlay of ca|)ital required in the ordinary jirocess of acquiring these properties. The individual members of the firm 
are Messrs. .loseph S. Finch and John W. Painter, both gentlemen well and favorably known in the mercantile com- 
munity, and highly respected in the various relations of life It is to the enterprise, "abilitv and energy of such houses 
as this, that the Smoky City is indebted for the proud position she holds among the cities of the Unioii, 

W.J. MILLIGAN,- Groceries & Provisions, Bidwell & Pennsylvania Ave. , Allegheny. 

Mr. Milligan became proprietor of the old established and well known grocery store, corner Bidwell and Pennsvl- 
vania avoi\ues, in March, 1878. This houst^ has been in existence for manv vears, and has alwavs enjoved a liberal 
patronage. Mr. Milligan carries a well selected stock of Fine Teas and Choice'Familv Groceries of everv'description, 
and fresh vegetables in season. His stock is valued at about S2.~)00, and his annual sales will reach $20,000. He occu- 
pies a spacious three-story brick building, 20x60, employing two hands at a monthly expense of S150. He has a large 
loi-al trade iu the immediate vicinity of his establishment, and also transacts considerable business with the residents 
of the rural districts adjacent, especially among the farmers and gardeners of Alleghenv county. Mr. Milligan was 
born in .Vllegheny in 1850, and has always resided in the city, where he has a large circle of acquaintances, and has 
established a prosperous and nourishing business. 



M. P. S'M.TT'H. -Saddles, Harness and Trunks, No. 37 West Diamond St., Allegheny. 

This business was established in 1871 by Mr. Smith in a small wav, and with limited capital. Bv strict attention 
to business and the uniform excellence and superior q\utlitv of all his work, his trade has steadily increased, until it 
now will compare lavorably with any similar establishment in the citv. He occupies the entire building, two-story 
brick, 20x.)0, at No. 37 West l>iamond street, carrying a full and complete stock of Saddles, Harness, Collars, Bridles, 
\V hips. Trunks, etc., valued at not less than S!,000, and transacting an annual business amounting to more than 
510,000. He gives constant employment to five experienced workmen, at a weekly expense of about $00. His trade 
IS lo«.-ated principally in Allegheny and in a circuit of fifty miles. Mr. Smith is a native of Allentown, Pa., and was 
born in 1848. He learned his trade in Pittsburgh, and is a careful, conscientious and competent workman. 

54 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 151 



CUIiMER SPRING CO -Spiral Springs, Office & Works, Cor. 26th & Liberty St. 

The special branch of manufacturing industry pcrsuod by the Culnier Spring; Co., is one of such iiu|)ovtatico, and 
witliul so conducive to tlie industrial advantages of the community, as to lie deserving of particular mention in this 
work. The present organization was founded in 187;i, and in 1874 they purchased and added to their already largo 
and growing business, the entire tiusiness, good will, sloclc and plant of tlic Keystone Spiral Spring Worlds, wliich 
were organized in 1868, thus adding to tlieir own growing business the extended trade of that concern. Mr. Henry A. 
Breed being President and Treasurer, and Messrs. Geo. W. Morris and Thos. C. Carson special Traveling Agents of tlie 
cimcern. The plant of the company is located as above, and consists of one large l)uildlng, tlioroughly adapted for tlie 
purposes required, in size and general appointment, being 100 ft. square and supplied with the most powerful machine- 
ry for the manufacture, test and compression of Springs. The material employed by tiie company is invariably of 
the hest (juality of Pittsburgh Crucible Cast Spring Steel made, selected and kept in stock by the manufacturer 
especially for this concern, vi-hose treatment of the metal by furnaces of its own design, and processes resulting from 
wide experience and metallurgical knowledge, is calculated to retain in its highest perfection the elastic qualities of 
the steel, and eliminate such imperfections as may have followed the first processes of its iiianufacluie. liefoie being 
applied to any given object, each Spring is subjected to the most rigid and systematic tests, thus insuring thorough 
reliability in every case. The main product of the company is in Rail Way Car Springs, for V)road and narrovr gauge 
roads. Freight B(dster and Equalizing Bar Springs, Coil Draft Springs, Street Car Springs, Brake Release, Switch, 
Valve and Macliinery Springs of every description, and it is not an exaggeration to say, that no colemporaneous con- 
cern in the country produces more satisfactory results, if equals the quality of the goods turned out l)y the Culnier 
Spring Co. They make a specialty of Spiral Springs. A very general knowledge of this fact on the pari of Rail Way 
authorities at home and abroad, has led to a demand for the.se Springs, that engages the constant activity of the works 
and insures a large and increasing revenue. 

Mr. Breed, who as President and Treasurer takes charge of the general i)usiness as well as the finances of the Co., 
is a native of this city, and a son of the late George Breed, Eq., one of the old merchants of the regime, whom Pilis- 
burghers are i)roud to remember. Since 1860, when but IH years of age, Mr. Breed has been immersed in liusiness, ad- 
ding to the industrial well Ijeing of the community, and promoting within the range of his influence the niamifactiir- 
ing interests of the Iron City. Possessed of numerous valuable patents, unrivalled facilities and adroitly managed, 
the Culmer Spring Co. is fully entitled to the high position it occupies, and the signal prosperity that attends its 
operations. 



k^^ 



Glass, China, Queensware, &c., 184 Wood St. 

-^ 1^ The house of Greer & Laughlin, of which W. P. Greer is successor, was opened 
; ^ X*May 31, 1877, with a small but very carefully selected stock of China and Glass- 
»y^^ 1 ware. Mr. Greer had no previous experience in the business, but fortunately 
he had acquired thorough business habits, which long continued practice had so rooted into his life that they seemed 
a part of his character. Combined with these he also possessed rare good taste, which experience had cultivated 
and refined. The house of Greer & Laughlin was successful from the outset, and .soon attracted the attention of the 
better classes, especially those interested in tlie Keramic art. Here they found the rarest novelties and oddities, 
the quaintest designs, and the most curious specimens that French, Dutch, English, Irish and Am(!rican potters 
and artists ever contributed to the Keramics of the world. Early in 1878 Mr. Laughlin withdrew from the house, 
aud since that time Mr. (ireer has continued the business alone. His trade has steadily improved, and he has been 
compelled to increase his stock fourfold in order to meet this growing demand. Three large floors, eacli 22x60 feet, 
cellar and attic are packed witli tine French china from the celebrated Havilands, creamy-looking English wares from 
the famous potteries of John I^dwards, beautiful Chamber Sets of the most popular manufacturers, and Glass and Stone 
Ware from all quarters of the globe. Mr. (ireer's business is exclusively retail. He employs from four to six men 
constantly, and carries a stock varying in value from 81.5,000 to S20.000. Mr. Greer is somewhat eccentric in his no- 
tions and'ideas, scrupulously correct in his dealings, and very prompt in meeting all his engagements. He. went to 
work for himself when but fifteen years of age, and when quite young was admitted to a partnership by J. W. Car- 
nahan, a shoe merchant of Market street. On retiring from this firm he entered the service of the Excelsior Coffin 
Company, and for some years traveled nearly all over the Union in its employ. He owns considerable real estate in 
Pittsburgh, ane now owns and lives in the house in which he was born. 

PENNSYLVANIA INSURANCE CO.-Germania Bank Buildings, 

Cor. H'oofi find Diamond Sta. 

As a representative home Insurance Company that has been the outgrowth from the utilization of the surplus 
capital of our community, the Pennsylvania Insurance Co. demands special attention in a work devoted to a detailed 
review of our city's business and institutions. The original charter, granted in 1^52, gave the company power to in- 
sure live stock only. In 1854 more extensive franchises were .secured, and the cornpany, under these, changed its busi- 
ness to that of Fire and Marine Insurance, and later dropped the Marine and b(^came Fire Insurance exclusively, 
including in its liberal business policy the insurance against loss of damage by lightning, an indemnity afforded by 
very few companies. Since its incorporation its management has been such as to show the most .satisfactory results, 
and guarantee to the public and policyholders the most positive proof of its elements of growth and solidity. 

This is what is known to the insurance fraternity as an " Agency Company," and has established agencies in Phil- 
adelphia, Lancaster, McKeesport, Belle Vernon, Washington, D. C, St. Louis and at other points through which 
sections of the country the company has become recognized with public favor, in a very deservedly eminent degree. 
With a paid up capital of Sll.'5,800, and assets Jan. 1, 1879, of $179, 122. .'il, the management is such as to make the stock 
of this company a safe and lucrative investment, and to be a source of great .satisfaction to the insured, as being a posi- 
tive source of renumeration in case of disaster. The officers of the company are among our most substantial and care- 
ful business men and ablest underwriters to wit : ('. Yeager, Pres't. C. C. Boyle, Vice-Pres't, Thomas D. Keller, Secre- 
tary, with a board of Directors, composed of equally prominent and reliable citizens. 

JAMES HAY", -Practical Plumber, Steam & Gas Fitter. No. 12 Ohio St., Allegheny. 

Mr. Hay is a practical plumber and mechanic of twenty-three years' experience and has been engaged in business 
for himself for the past nine years. He was for six years located in the Allegheny Diamond, but for the past three 
years has occupied the two-story brick building, 20x60, at No. 12 Ohio Street, where he may now be found. He carries 
on the general business of Pluniber, Gas and Steam Fitter and House Drainer. Among the specialties of his business 
are Sheet Lead work of every description. Tanks and Agitators lined and either wiped or burned with hydrogen 
blow-pipe. Country residences supplied with water by Hydraulic Rams, Cellars Cemented or Concreted, and all kinds 
of repairing attended to. He is also sole manufacturer of McKissock's Patent Automatic Water Closet Cistern, a val- 
uable invention, which is being widely introdiiced. He carries a stock of about S*f,000, and his annual business 
amounts to SI 1,000. He employs six competent and experienced workmen, whose weekly pay amounts to 37."). His 
business is principally in the city and on the better class of country residences. Mr. Hay was born in Scotland in 
184.3, and came to the'United States in 1869. 



152 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



BECKERT & "BROS— Florists and Seedsmen, No. 53 Federal St., Allegheny. 

One of the most attractive floral displays to be seen in the two cities, is at the establishment of J. Beckert and 
Bros., 5:? Kedcral St., AlleKheii v. This old well known house was founde<l about 50 years aRO by Christian Beckert, 8V., 
father of tlie present proprietor's, who have been engaged in the l)usiness about twenty-iive years. The increase in 
tlieir trade has l)een large and encouraging, they now carry a stock of about $20,000, comprising every article required 
in a first-class Seed and Floral establishment, their warerooms, 22x100, three floors, are tilled to rei)letion with a beau- 
tiful assortment ot cl)oice Plants, Flower and Vegetable Seeds, Flowers, Shrubs and BuIIjs, together with fancy Bas- 
kets, Aquaria, Ferneries, Brackets, plain and ornamental Flower Fots. etc. The tirm occupies eleven greenhouses, situ- 
ated on Troy Hill, filled to repletion with ornamental and bedding Plants, besides .300 to 400 cold and warm frames 
for the growing of the hardier varieties of Flowers and Vegetable Plants. Tlieir large and e.\tensive nursery con- 
tain.s all the necessarv convenience and buildings reiiuisite for the successful propagation of Flowers and Fruits, and 
the prosecution ot tlie business in which they are engaged. They have twenty-two acres of ground in a high stale 
of cultivation, emploving a large force of practical hands. The members of the firm have had a life long experience 
in the business, and are'thorouglily practical in all the details of the business. The cut-flower department is 
made a distinct feature of their business. Having a number of greenhouses specially arranged for the promo- 
tion of Blooms, they can supply at all' times an abundance of fi-esh and clioice flowers for weddings, funerals or 
otlier decorative purposses ; special attention is also devoted to the decoration of churclies, halls and parlors. In 
this branch of industry, this old and reliable establishment stands specially prominent, if not at the head. In 
beautiful and artistic floral decorations, in variety and quality of productions, this house stands second to none in 
this section of country. 

P. KEIL Sl son— Commission Merchants, No. 331 Liberty St. 

This old and reliable house was first founded by Siebert, Thorn p.son and Keil. The firm name and style has un- 
dergone many changes, among which we notice "Siebert, Keil and Ritchart", "Peter Iveil", "Rea and Keil." In 1S77 
Mr. J. T. Keil a son was admitted, and the present firm name was established. It will be noticed through all the 
changes, the present name Keil has been prominently associated with this house for more than twenty years. This 
establishment has occupied a high position among the representative business houses of the smoky city. Receive con- 
signments from all sections of the country, and their commission tranactions are very extensive. They al.so deal 
largely in Grain, purchasing exclusively for cash, thus enabling them to offer extraordinary inducements to purchas- 
ers. Barley and Malt are the specialties of this house, of which articles they handle immense quantities in the course 
of the year. They occupy the commodious four-story brick w.arebouse, 22}-^xll0, at No. 331 Liberty St., employing 
two assistants and transacting an annual business of about $12S,000. From'the nature ot their business, it is unneces- 
sary to carry a large stock on hand, as they are constantly receiving and shipping goods pertaining to their line of 
business. Their trade is largely local, although it extends to a greater or less extent all over the Union. Mr. P. Keil 
is a native of Germany, but came to this country when a child. He has for many years been identified with the busi- 
ness interests of Pittsburgh. 

F. MALSCH -f/>5i^ Ward Meat Market, No. 260 Rebecca St., Allegheny. 

Mr. Malsch, the enterprising proprietor of the First Ward Meat Market at No. 260 Rebecca St., Allegheny City, is 
a native of Germany, but came to this country when twelve years of age. He has followed the butchering' busines,s 
since a young man, and for the past eighteen years in hisown'name. His present location has been occupied by him 
for ten years, and he has built up a flourishing and lucrative business, killing about one hundred and fifty beeves, 
averaging 1,400 pounds each, and a large number of calves, sheep and hogs annually. He furnishes customers with 
the very best fresli meat in the market, and cures a considerable quantity, besides manufacturing Sausage for his own 
trade. He owns the building occupied by him as residence and market, which is an elegant two-story brick 64x100, 
with gotliic roof and furnished in the best manner. His slaughter and ice houses are on tlio same premises, making it 
one of the most convenient establishments of its branch in Allegheny City. In au architectural point of view the 
edifice is a credit to himself and that portion of the city in which he resides. 

M. VEIOCK.-Boots, Shoes and Gaiters, No. 137 Federal St., Allegheny. 

An experience of over thirty years as a practical Boot and Shoe Maker gives Mr. Veiock advantages which are 
possessed by few. The present business was established by Blr. Veiock in 1S47 upon a comparatively small scale, but 
as his trade increased, he has from time to time enlarged his store and added new improvements and facilities. He 
now occupies the two-story brick building, 13x90, at No. 137 Federal street, Allegheny, and employs on an average 
four or five experienced workmen. AU work turned out by him is made from the best French and Domestic Calf, 
and is superior, both as to quality, comfort and stylo. Mr. "Veiock enjoys the patronage of many of the first families 
in the ('ity and surrounding towns and is a thoroughly reliable gentleman to deal with. He has been a resident of 
Allegheny City since 1840. 



E. J. SMnH.,-Harness, Saddles. Trunks, dc, No. 31 South Diamond St., Allegheny. 

Mr. Smith started in business eight years ago with his brother, and for five vears thev continued together and 
did a flourishing business. In 1876 the firm dissolved and Mr. E. J. Smith opened at his present location, No. 37 
South Diamond street, next door to the Bepler Hotel, where he occupies the large two-storv brick building, 20x160, 
employing four experienced hands in the manufacture of Harness, Saddles, Whips and Trunks, and carries a stock of 
about §4,000, transacting a business of from S10,00() to §12,000 annually. His trade, which is derived from the citv 
and adjacent towns, is steadily increasing. Mr. Smith was born in Berks countv, Pa., and has been a resident of 
Allegheny since lS(i2. 

W. TJS.O'M. A.S,-Merchant Tailor, No. 301 Beaver Av. , Allegheny. 

The residents of that portion of Allegheny City formerly known as Manchester are familiar with the name of Mr. 
Thomas, who ha.s been established in the Merchant Tailoring busines in that localitv for the past ten years. His 
salesroom is situated at No. 301 Beaver Avenue, and is a'capacious and convenientlv arranged apartme'nt, 20x140, 
stocked with a line assortment of foreign and domestic piece goods of the most desirable fabrics, from which he is pre- 
pared to make to order fine fitting and stylish suits at prices ranging from SlJi to $40. Mr Thomas is a practical tailor 
and cutter and employs six experienced workmen. Doing his own cutting, and being at a comparativelv small ex- 
pense, he can otter better inducements than those who are compelled to pav exorliitaiit rents in the city proper. Mr. 
Thiiiiias is a native of Fngland and came here fifteen vears at;o. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH, 153 



J. C. RISHER & CO,-Coal, Office, No. 1/6 Water St. 

As tho center of the coal trade of Western Pennsylvania, and the source ol supplies upon which the West and 
South mainly depend for fuel, both for domestic and manufacturing purposes. Pit tsluirgh is the basis for enormous 
operations in^this product, conducted by numerous corporate and individual enterprises, requiring in the aggrogiite 
almost unlimited resources and tho labor of tliousands of men in the various depaniiuMits. Among those firms wiiose 
transactions have assumed the greatest magnitude may be properly classed that of J. C. Rislier & Co., which, esial)- 
lished in 1861 by the senior partner and Mr. Stephen S. Crump, has continued from that time, and under the same 
title and management, the successful prosecution of the trade, which is divided into three distinct departments, viz: 
producing, shipping and selling. As producers, the firm have unrivalled advantages in the possession of 350 acres of 
coal land, situated on the second pool of the Monongaliela river, about half a mile above McKeesport, at Drarosbiirg. 
From the mines upon this property are extracted 2,000,000 bushels of coal annually, and here are employed 200 mini'is 
and others necessary to tlie success of the work. The shipping department includes a saw-mill and l)oat-yard on the 
property at Drarosburg for making and repairing the boats, barges and flats of the company, and in this part of the 
labor 25 men are engaged. Tlie firm own and run a regular line of 100 barges between tho mines and Southern mar- 
kets and 40 coal boats. Numerous hands are employed in the transportation department, entailing an expense upon 
the Company of $1,600 per month, the total cost of labor annually being about $75,000. In addition to the assets ;il- 
ready mentioned, tlie list might be extended almost indefinitely by enumerating the buildings for dwellings imd 
other purposes on the property, mules, cars, tracks, shoots, screens, steam engines, and all the various appliances and 
improvements naturally appertaining to so considerable a scheme. 

In disposing of its products the firm avoids the local market entirely and divides it about equally between Cin- 
cinnati, Louisville and New Orleans, in wliich places are regular agencies for its disposal to the retailers. 

After a prosperous and successful career of nearly twenty years, the firm of J. C. Risher & Co. are pretty gener- 
ally recognized as being among tlie very first in the trade, having acquired a reputation in that period that refiects 
the highest credit upon those characteristics of promptness, reliability and enterprise for which the house is known. 
Promoting the industrial interests of the community and conducing in no small degree to its general welfare, the firm 
of J. C. Risher & Co. is certainly deserving of the estimation in wliich it is held and the results attending its elfbrt 
and enterprise. 

W. N. KRATZ£R, Jr, -Mattresses, Bedding d Curtain Goods, 37 Ohio St. Allegheny. 

The Mattress and Bedding warehouse at No. .37 Ohio street, nine doors from the Diamond, west of Federal street, 
was established in 1872 and bus been conducted by different owners, by whom a large business was done, until, in 
1878, Mr. Kratzer became owner and proprietor, and under his management the business has steadily increased to the 
present day. Mr. Kratzer occupies the brick building, 18x60, at the number named, employing nine hands at a 
weekly expense exceeding $50, and carrying a stock valued at about $2,000. His yearly sales will apiiroximate $'8,000. 
He manufactures Mattresses and Bedding of every description and keeps a fine assortment of Curtain Goods. The 
spc^cialty of this house is in renovating feathers, for whicli purpose steam is u.sed, and the most approved processes are 
ado])ted. Mr. Kratzer has the sole and exclusive right to manufacture the celebrated Palace Bed Lounge, which is 
noted for its perfect simplicity of construction, being so contrived as to be easily taken to pieces and cleaned in a few 
moments, offering no liarbor for those pests of the household, bed-bugs. It possesses all the essential qualities of a 
first-cla.ss bed for ease and comfort, and is not only economical but ornamental. Mr. Kratzer is a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and was born in 1856. He is an energetic aud thoroughly reliable young business man. 

S. p. ARMSTRONG & CO,-Wh' sale & Retail Grocers, 41 S. Diamond, Allegheny. 

The well-known Wholesale and Retail Grocery House at No. 41 South Diamond, Alleghenj', was founded by Kirk 
& Allen, who erected the building now occupied by S. P. Armstrong & Co. twenty-tlireo years ago. They were suc- 
ceeded by Home & Riddle, who cai-ricd on the business for five years, when the firm became Home & Hadley, who 
continued for two years, or until 1868, when the present proprietors came in possession. Tliey carry an average stock 
of about $8,000, comprising a general assortment of Fine Family Groceries, Choice Teas, Flour, Sugar, Colfee, Salt, 
Fish, Bacon and Country IProduce, employing four as,sislants and transacting an annual business of over 550,000. In 
more prosperous times their sales have reached $100,000 per year. Their trade is principally in the two cities and 
throughout Allegheny, Beaver, Butler and Lawrence counties and along the lines of the P., Ft. W. <t C. and the West 
Penn. R. R's. In the season this firm are extensive buyers of Wool and Seeds, and are well and favorably known 
throughout the country districts as honorable, fair dealing gentlemen in whom every confidence may be placed. Mr. 
Armstrong is a native of Alleglieny City and has been actively engaged in the gi-ocery business since he was a young 
man. 

W. H. CO'L'E:BK1JG'H.,-Photographer, No. 19 Federal Street, Allegheny. 

While it must bo admitted that the sun cannot fail to reproduce whatever object is ])laced before the camera, it is 
still a fact that the success of a photographic likeness must depend largely upon the artistic skill of tlie operalf.r in 
selecting the proper position and light, and in finishing the picture in a proper manner, after the sun has completed 
his portion of the t;isk. An artist who understands the various details and minor requisites tocomjilete a satisfactory 
photograpli is entitled to high rank in his profession, and such a one we can recommend in the person of W. H. Colo- 
baugh, at No. 19 federal street, Allegheny. This art gallery was established liy Mr. Langfitt several years ago. He 
was succeeded by Mr. Chas. A. Trapp, and in the Autumn of 1877 by the present proprietor. His rooms are admir- 
ably lighted and arranged, and the pictures taken by liim will compare favorably witli those from any metrnpdiitan 
establishment. He makes a specialty of copying and painting, and preserves all negatives for one year. Mr. Cole- 
baugh is a native Pennsylvanian and wa.s born in 1827. He is an artist who tlioroughly understands "his business and 
always gives satisfaction to his patrons. 



A. SCHAUB,-^^o/ Tobacco, 317 Liberty St. 



Contingent upon the Tobacco trade and its numerous connecting industries, depends much of the prosperity of 
Pittsburgh, entitling those engaged in this branch of business to no small drgree of consideration in tliis volume. At 
present a wholesale dealer in Leaf Tobacco, Mr. Schaub commenced business for himself 20 years ago on Tenth St. witli 
a limited capital, aside from his industry and native aptitude for the able management of affairs. On the first of J:in. 
1879 he moved into the premises located as above, sufficiently ample in dimensions, being ISV^xllO, to afford scojie for 
the enlargement of a rapidly growing trade. Here will be found a choice lot of selected Leaf, to suit the various grades 
of manufacture, always at the lowest market rates, and even discounting these at times. The stock varies in value 
from 810,000 to $20,000, and the business will probably average $2.'),ono to $40,000 per annum. Mr. Schaub is originally 
from Germany, but having been a resident of this city for 21 years, is thoroughly identified with its general interests, 
to promote which he has labored very effectively. Enterprising, honest and energetic, Mr. Schaub is highly respected 
and cordially commended to the tradein Pennsylvania and adjoining States. 

67 



154 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



JAMES B. YOUNG <& CO. -Phmix Roll Works, 41st d 42d Sis., on A. V. R. R. 

Anions tliose special braiu'lics of inaniifacturiiis industry, for which Pittsburgh is peculiarly noted, the Phcenix 
Roll Works liave attained a prumiuencc that deserves more than passing mention in a work devoted to a detailed ('X- 
hibit of the resources possessed l)y the " Iron Citv " of the United States. These works were established in 18(il by 
J. B. Young and remained soim,' years, and sold out to Messrs. Baijaley and Ballman in 1H71, who successfully con- 
ductecl the enterprise for some yea"rs, the firm changing to IJai^alcy, Young & Co., and linally to its present title and 
membership in l,S7;f. Originally a general foundry, it was di.scovereil that the material employed for diverse purposes 
should be in structure ami qiuilitv of ditl'erent grades for particular ends, and that for the perfect casting of Kolls and 
Pinions, a uniformity in metal aiid process should be adliered to, incompatable with a miscellaneous business. In the 
manufacture of these specialties, therefore, the lirm became exclusively engrossed, and the results achieved have 
been in the most marked degree signally successful. The present plant of the house is situated as above, occupying 
in all an area of over an acre, 40 liiinds being employed, at an average monthly expense of $2,000. The trade, which 
extends over the entire Union, amounts to about 180,000 annually, and is gradually increasing. The works are divided 
into two main departments, viz., founding and turning, the machinery and mechanical appliances and apparatus, 
throughout, being as perfect as inventive genius can devise or capital procure. Some idea of the capacity of this es- 
tablishment may be gained from the fact that, with many other tine pieces of constructive mechanism, will be found 
7 cranes, U rolllatlies, 1 polisher, 1 planer, 1 machine lathe, 1 drill press, and a complete pattern shop, the motive 
power being supiilied by a 18x:!0 engine. Tlie individual members of the firm are Messrs. James B. Young, J. S. 
Seaman and Robert Sleeth, the last two being practical mechanics, Mr. Seaman directing the turning and finishing 
departments, and Mr. Sleeth having charge and supervision of the foundry, the business and financial operations of 
the concern demanding tlie attention of Mr. Young. The specialties for which the house is celebrated are the Semi- 
Steel Mixtures for Rolls and Pinions, patented by the firm, also Double Spiral Pinions, Iron Chill and Sand Rolls, and 
Seaman's Rounding, Straightening and Finishing Machine, the latter having l)een invented by Mr. J. S. Seaman. All 
the members of this concern are widely known and closely identified with the industrial progress of the city. INIr. 
Young being a native of this place, born in 1827, a member of select councils from tlie 17th and also one of the first 
directors of the ward chamber of commerce, and always interested in promoting those measures best conducive to the 
well-being of the community. Mr. Seaman was liorn in 1839 at Harmony, Pa., and for a quarter of a century has re- 
sided in Pittsburgh, while Mr. Sleeth, tliough originally from Ireland, born in ]828, has been respected as a citizen of 
this city for about 34 years. In the particular branch of business pursued, the firm oi .Tames B. Young & Co. have 
no cotemporaries who produce the same class, grade or character of work, and but few who can otter advantages at 
all comparable to those guaranteed by this concern, a statement well attested by the experience of among the large 
number of works, the Edgar Thouisoii Steel Works, Black Diamond Steel Works and Union Iron Mills of this city to 
which reference is made, all tliese eslalilisbiuents having in use the rolls manufactured by this firm. There are no 
other establishments in the world titat make an exclusive specialty, and devote so large a space to the manufacture of 
Rolls and Pinions, and the large success attained speak volumes for the foresight and enterprise of the firm. 



THOMAS BUOWN, -Plumber, Gas & Steam Pipe Fitter, 55 Federal St., Allegheny. 

For more than thirty years this house has been in successful operation under various administrations. It was 
founded by Maflit, Olden and Baliff, and continued by them until 18(10, when the firm was dissolved, and Balitf and 
Brown succeeded to the business. In 180.5 Mr. Carson was admitted under the firm name of Balitl', Brown and Carson. 
In 1870 the firm agaiit became Balitf and Brown, and in 187.=) iMr. Brown became sole proprietor. He is at present the 
oldest plumber in Allegheny engaged in this business, and probably the best known of any one in the two cities. He 
learned his trade in rittsluirgh with the well known house of Sheritt'and Tate nearly a quarter of a century ago, and 
is a thorough practical worknuiii in all liranches of the business. He now occupies the commodious warerooms No. 5.5 
Federal St., employing ten liaiuls at a weekly expense of ^140. He carries a stock of about Sii, 000, and transacts an 
annual business of not less than f iri,000 iu the two cities and surrounding towns, doing every description of PlumbiHg, 
Steam and Gas Fitting, etc. Mr. John R. Watson, the popular book-keeper of this house, has been with it through all 
its various changes. Mr. Thomas Brown is a native of Allegheny City and has for many years been identified with 
the business and material prosperity. He has been in the council for over twelve years, and is at present a member 
from the third Ward. He is a gentleman highly esteemed in the community, and as a successful business man may be 
ranked among her foremost citizens. 

HALPIN & H.TJM.'BIl'RT, -Plumbers. Gas & Steam Fitters, 30 d 35 4th Ave. 

This is one of the best known houses in the Smoky City engaged in this line of trade. It was founded twenty-two 
years ago by W. and S. Jarvis with a small capital and limited facilities. The business was conducted by them for 
seven years, when the firm name became ,Tarv is, flalpin & Co., who conducted the business successfully for fourteen 
years. On the first of February 1878 the present firm name was established under the judicious management of Halpin 
it Humbert. The trade of this house has largely increased, from caretul investigations it is apparent this establishment 
does a business largely in excess of any other house devoted exclusively to the same line of business, while its patrons 
are largely composed of the leading business and wealthy classes William Halpin, the Sr. member, was born in Ire- 
land in 18:!0, came to this country in 1847. Mr. Chas. H. Humbert is a native of Pittsburgh, and was born in 18.53. He 
is a practical Plumber and a gentleman of long experience in that line. They occupy the spacious three-story brick 
edifice 22x60 at the numbers mentioned above, giving employment to fifteen experienced workmen, with a weekly pay 
roll averaging $150. They keep a full line of Gas Fixtures, Iron, Stone and Lead Pipe and Water Fixtures in general. 
They are also sole agents for the Backus Water Motor and the Globe Ventilator and Chimney Cap, and make a specialty 
of refiuishing Gas Fixtures of every description. They have in use a hand screw cutting machine, that is noted for its 
perfect and rapid work. Their trade, which is steadily on the increase, is principally derived from the city and sur- 
rounding towns. 

MANUFACTURERS & MERCHANTS INS. CO.-87 Wood St. 

Capital, $250,000. Asse/s Januanj 1st, 1879, 5341,405.39. 

Pittsburgh, to its size and population, affords the most ample protection against the firy element of any city in 
the Union. It is not chimerical, but of a solid character. Since the great fire of 184.5 no failures in Fire Insuiance 
Companies of any note have occurred, all the local companies prior to the disastrous fire were suddenly bankrupted at 
I hal time, and never able to proceed in doing business as Insurance companies. Much had been learned fiom that dis- 
asiious occurrence, however, and the Insurance business was established at a more substantial basis. Such is the 
character of the company tliat heads this article. It has through its career paid many losses, and stands unscathed and 
staunch as any of its competitors, with assets of nearly $342,000, and shows a surplus over all liabilities of $.56,898.53. 
We herewitli )iresent the names of the officers and members of the board of directors for the yearlS79: James I. 
Beunet, Presiilent, John W. Chalfant, Vice President, J. M. Kenney, Secretary, A. Amuuin. General Asxent. Direc- 
tors : James 1. Bennett.John W. Chalfant, A. B. W. Painter, Robert L6a, I. C". Pershing, Wm. Walker,'^M. W. Wat- 
son, Joseiih Walton, John Wilson, S. F. von Bonnhorst, C. W. Bachelor, W. G. Park. The names here presented are 
so well known that no eulogy is necessary to convince the public of the claims of the Manufacturers and Merchants 
Insurance Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., for public patronage. 

58 



CITY OP PITTSBURGH. 155 



N£LLIS, SHRIVCR & CO,-Agnculfural Steels & Irons, Rebecca St , Allegheny. 

Among the most prominent manufacturing ("oncerns in Pitlsburgli or its surroundings the firm of Nellis, Shriver 
&, Co. occuijy a position that entitles it to consideration in this work. The plant of this house is located or bounded 
by Rebecca "and Sturgeon Sts. and South and Allegheny Aves., Allegheny City, and was established in 1871 by A. J. 
Nellis, the senior partner of the present firm. The gi'ounds upon wliich the works are situated, are 300x300 feet, and 
the buildings cover an area of nearly an acre, being divided into six operative departments, employing 100 liands, 
most of whom are skilled mechanics. A sixty-horse i)ower engine is used to move the machinery, much of wliich is 
of the finest character, adapted and designed for special purposes, and a battery of three boilers, aggregating 7.5-liorse 
power, furnishes the necessary steam. The products of this extensive establishment consist mainly in Nellis' Origi- 
nal Harpoon Horse Hay Fork, Steel or Wrought and Malleable Iron Fencings and Castings, Nellis' (Jrajjple and Pul- 
leys and Steels for Plows, and other agricultural implements ; also Nellis' Patent Cast Tool Steel Castings, which seem 
to'be almost indestructible, and may be so tempered as to be exactly adapted to any variety or conformation of soil. 
The demand for these appliances, owing to superior merit, recognized by high awards and medals at the Centennial 
Exposition, has led to a rapidly Increasing trade, and its exten.sion over the entire United States and Canadian prov- 
inces. Of the individual members of the firm, the senior partner is a native of New York State, and has been a resi- 
dent of Pittsburgh since 1870. The enterprise with which he is identified was founded under the style of A. J. Nellis 
& Co., Mr. John Crawford being his partner, after whose demise Messrs. S. P. Shriver and J. H. Stokes became part- 
ners, forming the basis of the existing firm. Both these gentlemen are natives of Pennsylvania, the former settling 
in Pittsburgh as early as 1835, and the latter in 1860. Both from the extent of its operations, the character of its 
products, aiid the impetus given to the industries of the community, this house has achieved a conspicuous place among 
others in a cotemporaneous line of business. The vast improvements made by Mr. Nellis in Gist, Cast Steel for Plow 
Shares, Harpoon Hay Forks and other appliances, and the monopoly in them, possessed by the firm, is alone sufficient 
to entitle it to more than ordinary attention. Besides these, however, numerous other articles are manufactured, all 
of which are of the finest make, and material such as to insure the greatest degree of durability and power. With 
these undoubted advantages and facilities Messrs. Nellis, Sehriver & Co. ofl'er inducements to the trade that can not 
be surpassed, and which buyers will find largely to their interest to favorably consider. 

£. W. GROSS,— f/>^ Insurance Agency, Sixth Ave., cor. of Liberty St. 

At this day no prudent business man or owner of property fails to provide against possible disaster and loss from 
fire, and consequently there is no industry or business associated with the interests of Pittsburgh more deserving of 
special attention. The agency of Mr. E. W. Gross was first opened in this city in 1870, and in consequence of the 
popularity and reliable character of the companies he represents, and his eminent qualifications for the position he 
fills, he has met with remarkable success, notwithstanding the stringency of the times. The companies he represents 
are : The Germania Fire Insurance Company of New York, which has a cash capital of 1.500,000, a net surplus, Jan. 1, 
1879, of $754,423.72, and available assets of $1,078,828.80 ; main olEce, 175 Broadway, N. Y. The United Fireman's Insur- 
ance Company of Philadelphia, established in 1860, one of the safest companies in the country. This company bus a 
capital of $200,000, and assets, March 1st, 187'J, of over $654,000. Home oflice, 408 Walnut street, Philadelphia. The 
German Insurance Company of Pittsburgh is also one of the companies he represents. It is rapidly growing in pf)j>u- 
lar favor and confidence. Mr. Gross is one of the best posted men upon Insurance in the State, and these companies 
are fortunate in securing such able management for the city of Pittsburgh. He is prepared to take risks upon dwelling", 
manufacturing establishments, merchandise and household furniture at the lowest current rates, and, as is eminently 
proper, great care is exercised in the selection of risks. Six solicitors are employed with the business of this agency, 
chierty confined to Pittsburgh, Allegheny and vicinity. Those interested in Insurance will do well to call and con- 
sult with Mr. E. W. Gross, No. 5 Sixth Ave., corner of Liberty St. 

McHCNRY & "ROOJi,— Commission & Wholesale Dealers in Grain, Seeds. &c. 

Cor. Liberty anil Smithfield Sts. 

For many years the firm of Messrs. McHenry and Hood have occupied a prominent and highly responsible jjositiori 
among the Commission Merchants and Grain Dealers of this city. The house was originally established in 1866 by S. 
L. McHenry, the present Sr. partner, and by the admission of Mr. John Hood six months later, became as at present 
with the existing title. The business of the firm as heretofore indicated is mainly in Grain, giving special attention 
to Wheat, both as independent Dealers and upon a Commission basis, the transactions annually amounting to SlOO.dOO, 
with a capital of fiom $15,000 to $20,000, the trade not only being largely local, but e.xtending to the great (irain mar- 
kets West and East. To those, who are engaged in business in Pittsburgh, any commendation of this house would be 
altogether superfluous ; for those readers of this work, who reside beyond the local reports of our prominent firms, it 
may be well to say, that the references of Messrs. McHenry and Hood are, Hitchcock, McCreery & Co., Marshall, Ken- 
nedys & Co , Citizens National Bank, all of Pittsburgh, and Rumsey, Bro. & Co. of Chicago, and George M. Hord & Co , 
Cincinnati. Both members of the firm are natives of Pennsylvania, and each for many years identified with the 
commercial interests of this community, which they have done no little to promote. As a desirable firm, with which 
to establish pleasant and profitable relations, McHenry and Hood are not only highly esteemed, but fully entitled to 
the prosperity that has attended an honorable career 

LOUIS STEITZ— Druggist and Apothecary, No. 157 Pennsylvania Av., Allegheny. 

Mr. Steitz, who is an accomplished pharmaceutist and chemist, commenced business at his present location eleven 
years ago. He has built up a flourishing business, keeping a full and complete stock of pure drugs, chemicals, fancy 
soaps, perfumery, toilet articles, and all goods pertaining to his line, valued at between $4,000 and $5:000, and his 
annual businessamounts to not less than $10,000. He occupies the four-story brick structure, 20x60, at No. 157 Penn- 
sylvania Avenue, and employs two competent and reliable assistants, himself giving special attention to filling and 
compounding with accuracy physicians' prescription. Mr. Steitz was born in Germany, and has resided in this city 
since 1864. He is a thorough practical chemist. 

W. L. KANN & CO.-Leather, Oils, Findings, dc, No. 213 Liberty St. 

The house of W. L. Kann & Co., was founded in 1865 by Gustav Kann, who for 12 years continued the business. In 
1877 he was succeeded by the present proprietors, under the firm name of W. L. Kann & Co. Both of these gentlemen 
are natives of Pennsylvania. They occupy three floors of the extensive warehouse, 30x150, at No. 213 Liberty St. 
They keep a large stock of manufactured leaflier of every description, oils, findings, etc. They are the manufacturers 
of the reliable brand of calf skin known as " Imperials, " which is making a reputation on account of its many superior 
qualities, comparing in all respects to the best imported French calf. The firm have also a large currying shop in 
Allegheny City, where they make a sp(!cialty of furnishing harness leather, &c. Their trade extends through Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, Ohio and many of the Western States. 



]56 mDUSTEIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



SPENCER, McKA Y & CO— Maltsters & Brewers of Ale, Porter & Lager Beer. 

S4th and Smallman Sts. 

Tho superiority of the Ale and Porter manufactured by the above well known firm has for many years been 
Bcknowledi;ed by dealers and consumers throughout this section of the country, and the products of their extensive 
establishment have always met with a ready sale. Within the past year the firm has made extensive iraprovementa 
and additions to their brewery, and introduced a new feature whicli promises to meet with universal approval. At an 
immonsu outlay they have perfected arrangements for manufacturing a superior quality of Lager Beer, the first brew- 
ing of whicli was placed upon the market May 3d of the present year, and has been pronounced by connoisseurs to be 
superior to any of tluj foreign brands wliich, owing more to the importunities of agents than to their intrinsic merits, 
have been introduced and sold in this city to a considerable extent. For years past Pittsburgh has been sending mil- 
lions of dollars to other cities fur beer. It is to be hoped that the movement so successfully inaugurated by this firm 
will soon establish the fact that our city, so long and widely noted for its superior ale and porter, can also produce beer 
of unsurpassed q\iality, and thereby secure the le^'itimate benefits of home production for ample facilities, and all the 
essential requisites for producing a first-class quality of Lager Beer. This brewery stands second to none East or 
West. Its present capacity is 200 barrels per day. The Phoenix Brewery was established in 1802 by Mr. Joseph 
Spencer and Mr. .James McKay, and since tliat time the capital invested has been increased at least 300 per cent., their 
extensive buildings, three in number, on 24th and Smallman streets, cover over 2>^ acres of ground, and are fitted with 
all tlie machinerv and appurtenances requisite for conducting their immense business. One large boiler and three 
engines, of 40, 12 and lO-horse power respectively, are in constant use, and all their arrangements are first-class in every 
particular. Their vaults for tho storage of Ale," Beer and Porter are probably the finest in the city, and the entire es- 
tablishment, in all its departments, will compare favorably with any in the West. The average valuation of their 
stock is about $200,000, and their trade, which extends through middle and Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland, will reach $100,000 per annum. Seventy men are regularly employed at 
this establishment, with a weekl v pay-roll aggregating S842. Mr. Wm. Lock hart is principal bookkeeper and cashier with 
two assistants in the office and clerical department, and three salesmen devote their attention to the interests of the 
house in the citv and suburban towns. R. N. Bay, who has represented the interests of the firm for 13 years through 
the South and other sections of tho country, is now the general agent for this city. He is undoubtedly the right man 
in the right place. The individual members of tho firm, as at present organized, are Joseph Spencer, James McKay, 
Robert Watson and Robert Liddell. Mr. Spencer is a native of England, and has resided in Pittpburgh since 1843. 
Mr. McKay was born in Ireland, and came to this city in 1S50. Mr. Watson is also a native of Ireland, and has been 
a resident of the Iron City for the past 35 years. Mr. Liddell was born in England, and came to Pittsburgh in 18-50, 
since which time he has been prominently identified with her business interests and material welfare and prosperity. 
At the last municipal election, held in 1877, he was elected Mayor of the city by a flattering majority, and since bis 
induction to olfice luis filled that responsible position with great credit to himself and to the universal satisfaction of 
the citizens of all classes and political views. 

G. WEISSER, Asent,— Watchmaker and Jeweler. No 601 PennAv. 

Mr. Weisser commenced business in 1854 with a small capital of $500. In 1809 he was enabled to erect the elegant 
and spacious three-story brick building now occupied by him as store and residence. This building has a frontage of 
21 feet on Penn Avenue and ex lends back 100 feet. The first floor of wliicli is occupied as sales room and work room. 
He carries a stock at present valued at about $11,000 and his yearly sales will reach over $5,000. He also keeps a full 
line of Foreign and American watches, an elegant assortment of solid silver and plated ware, jewelry, clocks and all 
articles pertaining to this line. His two sons are both practical watchmakers and jewelers and assist him in the busi- 
ness. Mr. Weissor was born in Germany, in 1818, and learned his trade in that country. He came to the United 
States in 1852. The failure of a bank sometime since caused him heavy loss, but he immediately set to work to repair 
his losses and is once more on the high road to success. 

J. KOENIG & "BSiO— Watchmakers and Jewelers. No. 579 Penn Av. 

One of the most noticeable establishments along Penn Avenue is the tastefully arranged and elegantly stocked 
jewelry store of J. Kocnig & Bro., located in the three-story brick building I7V.2X0O, and No. 579. This house was 
founded in 1835 by Mr. J. Koeuig, with a capital of only $1,000. In 1875 Jilr. August Krenig was admitted. Both 
gentlemen are practical and experienced watchmakers. Their average slock is valued at about $30,000, comjjrising a 
full line of Foreign and American watches, solid and plated silverware of the latest designs, French, German and 
American clocks, rings, brooches, chains and fine jewelry of every description. Their annual sales amount to $8,000 
to $10,000, and their business is steadily increasing. Fine watch repairing is the specialty for which this house is 
particularly celebrated. Both members of the firm are natives of Prussia, but have for many years resided in Pitts- 
burgh. 

JAMES McTHRRON— Groceries and Produce, No. 290 Beaver Av., Allegheny. 

Mr. James McFerron is located on Beaver Avenue, where he started his business four years ago. He now occu- 
piers the three-story brick building, 20x50 at No. 290 Beaver Avenue, corner of Washington Avenue, with a stock 
valued at not loss than $2,000, and transacts an annual business of over $15,000. He carries a full line of choice groce- 
ries, teas, flour, provisions and produce. Mr. McFerron was born ia Ireland, in 1842, and has been a resident of Alle- 
gheny since 1864. Ho enjoys tho patronage and confidence of many of the leading families in that portion of the city 
formerly designated as Manchester. 

GEORGE CURRY -f/ow^ Grain. Hay & Feed, 995 Penn Av. 

In 1854 George Curry opened the first Feed store in the Eastern district of Pittsburgh in his present location, doing 
a good business. Mr. Curry was born in Ireland in 18:U near tho city of Belfast. He was engaged in the wliolesale and 
T'-ixW gn.cery business in the house of his brother in England, but canio to the United States in '851 and was employed 
in the construction of the Pennsylvania R. R. Mr. Ourry has been very successful by his energy and industry, and 
though ho has a competence, he still persues his vocation. 

MRS. C. HETTSNER,-^roc^W5 and Produce, No. 133 Pennsylvania Av., Allegh'y. 

This well-known grocery house was established in 1858 with small capital, but gradually increased until it will 
now compare favorably with any similar establishment in this section of the city. Mrs. Heusner occupies as store and 
dwelling the spacious three-story brick building 24x05, at No. 133 Pennsylvania Avenue, carrying a full and general 
a'lsortment of choice family groceries, teas, coffees, sugars, spices, fruits, canned goods, produce, Ac, valued at about 
$1,500. Her trade ia principally local and her annual sales will reach fully $15 000. 

60 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 



157 



WEST POINT BOILER WORKS,-/? Mmroe, No. 13 Wafer St. 

The importance of all industrial enterprises contingent upon tlic iron trade of Pittsburgh can hardly bo ovor- 
estimatcd, and among these, occupying a prominent position, the West Point Euilcr Works of li. Munroo arc de- 
serving of more than brief mention in a work devoted to a proper detailed exhibit of the resoureti of this city. la 
1835, or nearly half a century ago, tlicse works were established by Air. James Leiteh, one of the pioneer mechani- 
cians of tliis community. Tweuty-four years later they passed into the possession of tlie firm of Watson &. Munroe, 
■who carried on the business till lS7o, when, by the withdrawal of the senior partner, Cel. Muuroe assumed sole 
ownership and has since pursued alone the successful operation of trade. 

The plant is located as above, at No. 13 Water street, upon what is known as the "Point," from which the name is 
derived. It consists of four buildings, of various dimensions, and covers an area of nearly two acres. Here the manu- 
facture of Steam Boilers, Still Tanks, and Slicet Iron Work generally is carried on upon an extensive scale, every 
possible advantage being secured in the use of the best machinery and improved appliances, including automatic 
punching machines and rolls, one set of which are 13 feet in length, tlio motive force being supplied by a 40-horse 
power steam engine. From 40 to 60 skilled mechanics ars engaged upon tlie work, involving an average outlay of 
$10J.OO per week, the resultant business amaunting to between $6J,003 and $7J,0UJ annually, and extending all over 
the United States. 

Many improvements have been made in the construction of boilers by this house since its establishment. The 
location of a man-hole plate immediately beneath the tubes in tubuhir boilers is an original design with Col. Munroe, 
and is moi'e perfectly conducive to the thorough cleansing of the boiler than by any other arrangement. The work 
turned out by this establi.=;hment is celebrated for excellent and careful workmanship as well as great durability and 
streugth, theexperience of more than twenty years enabling Col. Munroe to select not only the best materials adapted 
to the construction of the work, but to direct the mechanical operations personally, in such away as to secure the 
very best results. In his special line of manufacture Col. Munroe is not surpassed by any of his cotemporaries, and 
for promptness and undoubted reliability has achiovod a position that entitles him to no small degree of consideration 
among those who have fostered and promoted the best interests of Pittsburgh. 

PATTERSON "BROS-Livery Stables, dc, 28 Ninth St. andFranksfownAv. 

There are two livery stables owned by this firm, one at No. 2S Ninth Street and the other on Frankstown Avenue, 
between Penn and Station streets. East End, both of which are supplied with new and elegant buggies, carriages, etc. 
Their horses are noted for their speed and good appearance, while their charges are as reasonable as those of any simi- 
lar establishment in the city. They attend promptly and etnciently to undertaking in all its branches, and furnish 
carriages for weddings, concerts and parties on the most moderate terms. The stable at No. 28 Ninth Street is 30xG0 
feet, and tlie one in the East End measures 40 feet in width by 75 in depth, giving arai)le accommodations for the 
boarding of horses by the day or week. Messrs. Patter.son may certainly claim to be tlioroughly conversant with their 
business, they having in ]S7o succeeded their father, who h.ad been engaged in the same occupation since 1839. They 
began business with a capital of about S2,500, and now value their stock at $5,000, while the yearly business aggregates 
about the same amount. Benton Patterson was born in 1842; Edward is two years younger, and both have resided in 
this city all their lives. 

A. P. DAVIS & CO.— General Insurance Agents, 67 Fourth Av. 

The Fire Insurance Agency of Major A. P. Davis, doing business under firm name of A. P. Davis and Co , was estab- 
lished in 1872 with the representation of the National Fire Insurance Co. of New York, the Virginia Firo and Marine of 
Richmond, Va., and the llunie Insurance Co. of Columbus, O. A native of New England, Major Davis was educated to 
the Insurance business in the East before making Pittsburgh his home ^having had an experience from his early youth 
up), and came to this city with a thorough knowledge of underwritingin all its details. During the tiiue intervening 
since 1872, various additions and changes have been made in the companies represented and he now heads his list witl; 
the "Old ConiKcticut Fire Insurance Co." of Hartford, with assets of one and a half million ; also the Northern of !Sew 
York and other lirst-class companies enjoying the implicit confidence of the resi)ective managers. Those availing them- 
selves of these advantages can rest assured in having safe and reliable policies in the hands of an upright and reliable 
business mau, who will consult the true interest of policy holders, and that losses will be promptly and justly paid. 

THOMAS RO WS WELL,-Z/z;^0' and Sale Stables, 979 and 981 Penn Av. 

Few men in this part of the city are more widely or favorably known than Thomas Rowswell. Mr. Rowswell wns 
born in Perth Amboy, N. J., in 1834. In 1839 his father, now deceased, removed to Pittsburgli, bringing his family 
with him. Young Thomas learned the trade of a glass blower, at which trade he worked until 1875, (30 years), prin- 
cipally in the emjiloy of-Wm. McCuUy & Co. In 1875 he started in the livery business, the original firm being Rows- 
well & GrifiSth. In 1877 Mr. Griffith retired. He does a large livery and undertaking business, to the latter he gives 
special attention. Mr. Rowswell has always been popular amongst the people of liis neighborhood. He represented 
his ward in the City Council for several years, and was a uiember of the School Board almost ever since he reache<l his 
majority. Good rigs are kept, good horses and reasonable charges. 

ACKER &L CA.'RR— Stoves, Ranges, etc.. No. 5 Frankstown Av., East End. 

Edward Acker began this business in 1871, in 1875 Henry Carr wns admitted to partnership. They now do a 
business of S8,000. Deal in stoves, ranges and gi-ate fronts, and manufacture all descrijitions of tin, copper -and sheet 
iron ware. They alss keep on hand oil. Lamps, lanterns and house furnishing goods generally. Their speciality is tin- 
roofing and spouting ; both are practical workmen. Mr. Acker was born in Phillipsburg, Beaver county. Pa., June 4, 
1841, and came to Ohio in 1857. Mr. Carr is a native of Ireland, and was born in 1845, loming to this city in 1846. Both 
learned their trade in the city, and possess the confidence of the residents of their locality. Their stock is valued at 
$4,000, and they euii)loy two workmen whose salaries aggregate S80 monthly. The capital upon which this business 
was originally started, has increased by well-merited success from Sl.GCO to $4,000. 

W. H. 'Wl'LLlA.'SlSi— Commission Merchant, Highland and Penn Av., East End. 

Mr. Williams commenced business for himself at the corner of Thirtieth Street and Penn Ave., in 1877. In 
March 1878, he removed to his present location, which is 20x60 foot in dimensions, where he transacts a general com- 
mission business and deals in fiour, grain, seeds, millfeed, etc. His original capital w.as $600, he now carries a stcck of 
about $1,500 and his annual sales now amount to $12,000. Mr. AVilliams was born at the E.ost End, July 22, 1852, and 
was formerly teller of the United States Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He is a gentleman of energy and business 
tact and stands liigh in the community in which lie resides. 

61 



158 



INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



JOHN F. O'lHA'LL'Y, -Attorney at Law, 91 Grant St. 

This gentleman, like many others who have reflected honor upon the land of their birth, as well as that of their 
adoption, was born in Ireland'in 1853, and emigrated to this country in 1867. With that insatiable thirst for knowl- 
ed^'e that marks the children of genius, Mr. O'Mally at once entered college in this city, and prosecuted his studies 
with so much ardor and industry that, after two years, he left the institution with the reputation of large attainments 
and sound schohirship. Mr. O'Mally experienced the usual vicissitudes of life at this early period of his career, and 
while the bright future was yei distant and shadowy, chance or fortune determined Mr. O'Mally to artistic pursuits, 
and lie learned the art of lithographic engraving, but of this uncongenial employment lie soon grew weary, and now his 
growing ambition suggested the bar as his proper sphere. He accordingly entered the office of Hon. M. Joseph Gazzam 
and ex"Con;n-essman Hon. A. G. Cochran as a law student. Under the al)le tuition of tliese distinguished practitioners, 
Mr. O'Mally made rapid progress in his legal studies, and grasped the fundamental principles of legal j iirisprudence in a 
remarkably short time. After a most creditable examination by an able committee that showed him no favor, and he 
asked none, he was admitted to the practice in the courts of Allegheny County in 1874. Possessing a fine voice and person, 
aready and manly eloquence, a graceful elocution and undaunted courage, ]Mr. O'Mally came to the bar with many per- 
sonal advantages,"besides tho,se that flow directly from the highest culture and unwearied application. He at once took 
a prominent place at a bar unsurpassed if equalled in our State, and has held that place ever since his admission, un- 
di ' " " '--^ ._..,. .-_.-x.-_ ..._.._. u- „.,..= ._, ^ ^=j 

service : 

that ma_. - , 

at the first trumpet call of his party, to buckle on his armor, and do heroic battle in the cause of his beloved democracy. 
Mr. O'MaKy has a large and lucrative practice in the various ciuirts of t!ie countyj as well as in the Supreme Court of 
the State, and in the United States Courts. Few at his age have attained such eminence in his profession, and he is 
yet far, as we venture to liope, from the zenith of his fame. 

LOGAN, GREGG & CO.- Wholesale Hardware, No. 52 Wood St. 

The extensive Hardware establishment of Logan, Gregg and Co. is located at No. 52 Wood St., sign of the mammoth 
padlock. This house was founded in 1831 by Logan and Kennedy. The firm afterwards became Logan, Wilson and 
Co., then Logan and Gregg, aud in 1867 Logan, Gregg and Co. as at present. They occupy the spacious four-story ware 
house at the number above given, and carry a large stock of general Hardware and Cutlery, transacting an annual business 
ranging from S150,000 to $17.5,000, and employing ten clerks and salesmen. Their trade is located principally in Eastern 
Ohio and Western Pennsylvania, although they have customers in the far West, shipping to Michigan, Utah, Colorado 
and Nevada. Their specialties are Belting, Mill Supplies and Building Hardware, of which they carry complete lines in 
great variety. The members of the firm are Mr. Geo. B. Logan, who was born in Allegheny City in 1845, Mr. Edward 
Gregg, al.so a native of Allegheny Co., where he was born in 1816, and Mr. T. A. Parke, who was born in West Virginia, 
but has resided in Pittsburgh since 1863. The business ot the house will compare favorably with that of any similar 
establishmeQt in the West. 



WILSON RUNETTE & SO'NS,-Dry Goods, Cor. 42d and Butler Sts. 

It will doubtless astonish many of our "down town" readers, who are not familiar with this section of the city, to 
learn that the largest and finest Dry Goods salesroom in the city is that of Messrs. Wilson Runette & Sons, located at 
the corner of 42d and Butler Sts.; but that such is an undeniable fact may be verified by a visit to this extensive em- 
porium. The house was established in 1871 by Wilson Runette, Esq., the present Sr. member of the firm, on a 
comparatively moderate scale. Two sons, A. K. Runette and Jno., were afterwards admitted, when the firm pro- 
ceeded to erect their present large establishment. Mr. Runette Sr. was born in Ireland in 1819, and came to this coun- 
try in 1864, embarking in the Dry Goods business three years later in his own name. He possesses all the character- 
istic enterprise and energy for which the sons of Erin's Isle are noted, and may justly be classed among the enterprising 
business men of the Smoky City. The two Jr. members of the firm have enjoyed the advantages of a long experience 
in tlie business, and are well qualified by nature and education to conduct the business. 

J. W. MOORE & CO, -Coach and Wagon Builders, 857 & 859 Liberty St. 

Tlie firm of J. W. Moore & Co. was founded in 1867 by the present members, who carried on the business until 
1876 at the corner of Washington and Bedford streets, when they purchased the present location of Mr. J. G. Klages, 
who had been engaged in the same line of business for a number of years. They occupy a three story building 40x100 
feet with a yard of the same dimensions, and manufacture wagons, coaches, buggies and every description of vehicles 
in a very superior style of workmanship. They carry an average stock of about SlO,000 and do a large and flourishing 
business and put up finest and most reliable work. Mr. J. W. Moore was born in Prussia in 1840, but came to this 
country with his parents when an infant ; he learned the trade of coach and carriage maker ; he served with credit 
and distinction for three years in the Union army during the war ot the rebellion as a member of the 4th Penn'a. Cav- 
alry; at the close of the war he returned to his trade and soon after embarked in business in his own name. Mr. C. 
M. Wise, his partner, was born in Butler county in 1841 and learned his trade there. Both members of the firm are 
wide awake, enterprising business men. They now employ eleven hands in their establishment and their trade is 
rapidly increa,sing. 

GEO. WITTMER & CO -Ice Dealers. 

The manufacture of large quantities of beer and other causes have stimulated this branch of business far beyond 
its former limits. These gentlemen started the business in Etna and now have over 18,000 tons, embracing three ice 
houses of large dimensions on Harris' Island, near the AV. P. Railroad. A patent elevator is used for handling the ice, 
operated by an engine and boiler of 16-horse power. During the ice harvest they employ 100 hands, in summer about 
eight. The firm consists of H. &. J. Wittmer, both born in Germany : the former in 1825, the latter in 1843. George 
Wiltmer has a farm of 6'2 acres in Salor township, which he works and where he resides. They also have a grocery in 
connection with the ice business and keep a general stock. 

DAVID IHJJ'STJl'R -Dealer in Cigars, Tobacco, &c., 851 Butler St. 

This establishment is located on Butler St. near Thirty-fifth, where Mr. Hunter commenced business in 1875, now 
having a good stock of Cigars, Tobacco, etc., and doing a good retail bu^ness. Mr. H. was born in Westmoreland this 
State in 1846, and came to Pittsburgh in 1868. He worked in the Sligo Iron Mills of Lyon, Shorb and Co. for many 
years, until starting in present business. Mr. H. served 13 months in the Union Army, participating in some severe 
struggles. 

62 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 159 



R££D & SMIT'H.-Seeds and Implements, 137 Liberty St. 

This eminotit house if the most prominent as it is the oldest establishment in that line of business in the city, and 
enjoj's a reputation for high character, of which ihe proprietors have a right to be proud. The house was established 
in 1866 by the lamented Rev. J. Knox, whose fame as the fruit king of America was as extended as the country. It 
was an outgrowth of bis great and noted establishment, 29 Fifth Avenue, where he began the seed business many years 
prior to that date, and the growth of the business requiring more room he opened the Liberty Street rooms. It. after- 
wards passed into the hands of his son, W. W. Knox, who after conducting it very successful for some time sold it to 
Messrs. Scobie, Eeed & Smith, the first two named having been connected with the establishment for some years pre- 
viously. In 1878 Mr. Scobie retired from the firm and the business passed into the bauds of the remaining 'members, 
Reed & Smith, who have been conducting it very successfully and with increased energy ever since. It is an establish- 
ment deserving more than a passing notice in a work devoted to the industrial and commercial pursuit of Pittsburgh. The 
business of this establishment is conducted on the highest principles of honor, with great energy and ability and to 
these facts, together with the genial, courteous manners of the accomplished head of the firm, Mr. J. A. Reed, is due the 
eminent success it has attained and the prominent position it occupies in the commercial atfairs of the city. The estab- 
lishment is metropolitan in all its features, and a large, varied and complete stock of the best and most popular makes of 
agricultural and horticultural implements, tools and machinery, of various styles, patterns, sizes, &e., is at all times to be 
found in their very extensive wareroo/HS. The building occupied being2'l feet front, 112 ft. deep and 5 stories high, and 
from top to bottom are stored stocks of reapers, mowers, plows, among the latter a large number of the famous South Bend 
chilled plows, which are rapidly supplanting every other make, and implements and tools in endless variety adapted to 
all classes of farming or gardening work. Their retail and wholesale seed department is also a special feature of the 
establishment, to which tlie closest attention is paid and which is in charge of a very competent, able and experienced 
seedsman. The reputation of " Kurs Seeds " is not surpassed by that of any other brand in the United States, and 
their seeds find a market, in every State in the Union. They also deal very extensively in artifiicial manures, hand- 
ling none but the highest grades and most celebrated brands. The farming interests of Western Pa., East Ohio and 
West Va.j are largely suppplied by tliis house with these manures as well as implements and seeds. The business 
reaches in the neighborhood of $75,000 per annum, and is continually widening and increasing. The house is 
well known and highly appreciated, not alone throughout this and adjoining States, but throughout the entire Union. 
Mr. John A. Reed, the able head of the firm, was born in Butler Co., Penn'a., in 1845. At a very early age he enlisted 
in the service of his country as a private in the gallant 101st Pa. Reg't., where by his gallantry he rose to the rank of 
lieutenant, although yet a boy. Shortly after the close of the war he entered the present establishment in the capa- 
city of a clerk for the Rev. J. Knox, from whence by his abilities and energy he has risen to the responsible position 
of the head of the large establishment, and which he has proven himself fully competent to succe.ssfully fill and of 
which he is every way worthy. lie is a young gentleman of high character, "great energy and extended popularity 
and ranks high among the business community. 

JOHN R. & A. 'SILJJ'R,'DOOH.,-Nurserymen, Florists, &c., 112 Smithjield St. 

There are few houses existing in the United States at this time, engaged in the pursuit of floriculture as a busi- 
ness, that are better or more widely known than that of John R. & A. Murdoch. Established in 1840 by Mr. Jolin 
Murdoch, Sr., father of the present proprietors, the business was conducted by him for a quarter of a century with 
marked ability and success, reverting to his sons in 1865, who have still enlarged the business, facilities and reputation 
of the concern. John R. & A. Murdoch are natives of this city, born respectively 1835 and 1840, having always been 
connected with their present vocation and identified with the industrial development of the community. The green- 
houses of the firm are located on Fifth Avenue, 14th Ward, at the East End, and are 17 in number and 65 feet in average 
length. The nurseries are in the 22nd Ward on Forbes Street, and occupy about one-half of a farm containing 100 
acres. The premises in the city are at 112 Smithfield St., opposite the post-office, and consist of one large three story 
brick building 20x60, with every convenience requisite in the business. The trade of the house is between S35,000 and 
$50,000 annually, the stock maintaining a value of from $30,000 to $40,000 ; 15 to 25 hands being employed in the various 
departments of the works. The speciality for which the firm is celebrated is " cut flower, " and in this line they are 
perhaps without a rival — having accumulated, regardless of trouble and expense, the rarest and most costly and beau- 
tiful, foreign and indigenous flowering plants, vines and shrubs, with a profusion of exotics and tropical growths In 
superb floral decorations and designs this firm has never been eclipsed by any western house, a reputation achieved 
during its extended history and justly merited and deserved through this city and Western Penn'a. John R. & A. 
Murdoch are well known as being entirely reliable, prompt, energetic and entitled to the confidence of the public in 
every respect. As pioneers in the vocation of the nurseryman, florist and seedsman, they have done no little to en- 
hance the usefulness of their business, and those at a distance with whom they may have relations can depend with 
safety upon the representations made or goods sold by John R. & A. Murdoch. 

WESTERN EXCHANGE HOTEL, Ely Wicoff, Proprietor, East Liberty. 

The Western Exchange Hotel at East Liberty, opposite depot, is a four-story building 32x40, conveniently arranged 
for the purpose, is prepared to accommodate a large number of guests, and stabling for about sixty horses. For Far- 
mers visiting the East End markets, the Western Exchange is general headquarters, and Mr. Ely Wicoff, the proprietor, 
is deservedly popular. The rooms are neatly and comfortably furnished, the table is first-class in every particular 
and the rates reduced to popular prices. Mr. AVicoft'is a native of New Jersey and was born in 1822. He came to this 
city in 1850. Twenty years of his life have been spent as a railroad contractor, but since 1865 he has been engaged in 
the hotel business. He was formerly proprietor of a hotel on the South Side, but in February 1874 he assumed the 
management of the Western Exchange, where he has built up a flourishing and satisfactory business, doing about 
$3,000 to $5,000 per year. 

M. 'DJJ'R'KJ.'N^- Dealer in Coal, Mellon' s Building, Station St., East End. 

Among the dealers in tltis line in the East End, Mr. Durkin is one of the most active. His office is located near the 
railroad station. Mr. \). has a Coal Mine leased at the head of Lincoln Ave. just beyond the city, and mines the coal 
he supplies to his customers. The coal is of the best quality and is delivered in good condition and without waste and 
accumulation of slack. He supplies the East End gas works and other establishments, besides having a large custom 
among private families of that portion of the city. Besides supplying bituminous Coal from his own mine, he fur- 
nishes anthracite Coal of all grades. Mr. Durkin was born in Ireland in 1842, came to this city in 1862, and has been 
in business on his own account since 1874. 

L. HARVEY,— 56i<7^5 and Stationery, 11 Frankstown Av., East End. 

Those desiring books or stationery should call at the establishment of L. Harvey, where the best varities of station- 
ery and a fine assortment of books are kept constantly on hand. The establishment was started by L. Harvey & Co., 
with only $200 capital in 1860, and became as now 4 years later. The capital now invested is about $3,000, with annual 
sales over $6,000. The building is 13x60 feet in size and is commodious and well arranged. Mr. Leonard Harvey is a 
native of Germany, bom in 1843, and has been in this city since 1850. He began business in East Liberty, previous to 
which he was engaged in steam boating. 
€3 



160 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. H. CLARK, M. "D,— Physician and Surgeon, Butler St.. near Penn Av. 

Tliorc is pcrliiips in no biisiiu'ss, or literary iivociitiori, nor indeed in any depiirfnient of life, n more devoted and 
fiiitlil'iil cl;iMM of men than ih found in tho lued'ical fruternity. It is a professional ealling for the highest qualilications 
of head and heart, llu; deepest research and most profound study. It earries with it tlie Iii^liest responsibilities that 
must lie home hy its followers. Constant care, laborious and ))atient Ktudy and earnest, enterprising research is ex- 
acted of those wlio have entered the ranks, if they would keep step witli tho rapid strides that are being made in all 
its varied and wonderful departments of science and ethics. No broader fields of research are to be found in life than it 
alibrds, no higlier studies are presented to the consideration of the finite mind, e.>:cept the study of tho infinite, no more 
intricate and dilfieult probiitms are presented to men than those daily coming to the attention and re(iuiring tlie thought 
of tlu! medical man. Human distress and suffering, in all tlieir nujst crusliing forms, are daily presented to their view, 
appealing to their deepest sympathies, and stimulating tluiir greatest energies. Amid the pestilence that " wiilketh 
by noonday" tliey are called to go, and many of the briglitest examples of courage and devotion have been recordect 
of th('ir faithful pVrfornumce of duty. The world indeed presents to view no class of men who so genornlly and faith- 
fully arc found at their posts of duty in times of danger and distress. Too often, too, are tho services of the earnest, 
patient Physician di'pceciated and undervalued by those who sliould feel and manifest the deepest gralitiule for ser- 
vices reiuleied. It is a profession that exacts tho practice of the highest principles of honor on the part of its devotees. 
I.,ife presents no more iKjnorable calling, and ailbrds no better (ield for developing the noblijst qualities of man. 

The subject of the i)resent sketch. Dr. H. H. Clark, in the years that he has devoted to his profession, has proven 
himsclt eminently worthy of the liigh calling, and has achieved a success and prominence in the profession that en- 
title him to nu>re than passing notice in a work setting forth a brief sketch of the men wlio figure in the history of the 
day. It is always a pleasure to record tho success of men who, unaided, and tlirough ditticulties and tiials during 
youth and early manhood, rise superior to all opposition, and surmount the many obstacles continually arising in their 
onward progres"s, and achieve a success and prominence in any department of life, and much more so in the walks call- 
ing for learning and superior knowledge. Dr. Clark was born in Ireland on ,Tuly 4, 1844, and the return of each anni- 
versary of American iiulepenilence comes with added pleasure to him. His parents, who wi^re very poor, emigrated 
to the United .States, with their family, when he was but 3 years of age, his recollections of the scenes of his nativity 
are therefore viM-y indistinct, while possessing many of the generous frank traits of the Irish character, he is thoroughly 
American in seniiment. His fathiM- dying wlien he was quite young, he was compelled to earnest effort and labor to 
ai(l iu the support of his widowed mother, but po.sscssing a noble ambition and desire for knowledge, his evenings were 
spent at night-school, where lie aecjuired by earnest, faithful aiiplication and study the fundamental principles of an 
education. The self-sacrifice and self-control manifested in such instances can scarcely be appreciated by many, except 
tho.w, who through the same trials have found their way to eminenctc, hut when it is considered that the bright, joy- 
ous hours of youth, hours of pleasure and play, tlie shouts of merry companions must go unheeded, and all be sacri- 
fteeii to the calls of the noble ambition and lofty aspiration that look beyond the present to the greater and more im- 
portant events of life, wlien tho sunny hours of youth arc passed, will aid the imagination in realizing the sti'ength of 
will required. The space allotted to a sketch of this kind will not permit of as extended a history of the early strug- 
gles and incidents of tho doctor, a.s it would be pleasant to give. 

He was employed as errand boy in a prominent business of the city for some time, constiintly att-ending his studies 
at night. He, aft-3r becoming older, secured a clerkship at a moderate salary in a dry goods house on 5tli ave., where 
he remained three years, still pursuing earnestly his studies. He at the end of that time went into the office of Dr. 
Duncan, and l)egan the study of medicine, but remained there but a short time, going back to his clerkship. 8ix 
Mjonths later we find him in the office of Dr. Walters, where he earnestly and with his usual energy again began the 
study of medicine. He remained niulcr tho tuition of Dr. W. for four years, and during that time by earnest, close, 
p(!rsistent study laid tho foundation for his future success. He afterwards attended the celebrated Bellevue Medical 
College, graduating from that institution with honor in February 1SG8. He shortly afterwards began practice in his 
present location, where he has continued ever since. From tho beginning the doctor has met with llattering success 
in his professional career, and in tho 12 years since has gained a very extensive and lucrative practice and accumulated 
a moderate fortune. The doctor, while being proficient in all depaitiucnts o." medical science, and giving attention to 
all branches of practice, yet naturally prefers tho higher and nobler de|)artment of surgery, to which he devotes much 
study and research, and in which he lias attained an eminence seldom acquired at so early an age. His time and tal- 
entsare largely employed in this branch of his practice, and he has successfully performed some of the most difficult 
operations that usually come under the skill of the surgeon. He holds the "responsible position of Surgeon to the 
Union Iron Mills, the Lucy Furnaces and the Keystone Bridge Works, and also the position of medical examiner for 
Travelers Accident Life Insurance Company, and is a leading member of tho Allegheny Co. Medical Society. Frank, 
generous and kind-hearted ho has won tlie atfections of all classes, and is respected and" honored not alone for his pro- 
fessional attainments, but for the high qiuilities of a gentleman and upright citizen. His office and residence is ou 
Butler St., near Perm ave., and the street cars pass his door every three minutes. 

WM. H. McNARY,-//a/j, Gaps, and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 3820 Butler St. 

With a fine stock of latest stylesof Hats, Caps and Gents' Furnishing Goods displavcd and arranged with thomost 
perfect neatness and greatest taste tliis enterprising and agreeable gentleman, Mr. Mci^ary, will be found ever ready 
to greet his many friends and patrons. The business at this point was started in 1875 and since that time has gradually 
increased. .John A. McNary, the son of the proprietor, who is a very agi-ecable young gentleman, gives his attention 
also to the business. Mr. McNary was born in Ohio, but has been living in Allegheny to. for 35 years. He has been 
engaged in farming for liO years in Snowdon township, and of course is well and favorably known in that section, as 
well as in the county at large. He has mingled in the political atfairs of the county, exercising a strong inlhieuce. 

WM, SMITH,-/?^j/ Estate & Insurance Agency, Cor. 47th and Butler Sts. 

W;n be found at corner 47th and Butler Sts., where he gives lii.s attention to insuring, renting and selling property, 
collecting rents, drawing legal documents, etc. Mr. Smith was born in Pittsburgh in 182:i, and haslivcd here ever since; 
at tho age of ■21 he married and engaged in grocery business in fjtiwrenceville, at a time when the 17th Ward was an en- 
tiro forest— now thickly poimlaled. He continued in that business 21 years; he was the first poslni:ustcr appointed in 
Lawrenceville, being also postmaster again when the office was discontinued. He has held various positions of trust 
iu the Borough, being one of the old settlers. 

R. S. M.A'RSI^A'N'D -Merchant Tailor, Penn & 27th Sts. 

For first class clothing call upon Mr. R. S. Marsland, Cor. Penn and 27th Sts. He Is a practicsil cutter, keeping a 
full line of piece goods of foreign and domestic manuf.acture, doing strictly a custom business, employing only first-class 
as;^istants and guaranteeing good fits. He is a native of New York City, but has resid-d in Pittsburgh since 1842, dur- 
ing which time he has been engaged at liis trade as a cutter. Eight years ago he started in business for himself aT^d has 
established a satisfactory trade. Mr. Marsland is a prominent member of the M. E. Church and stAiids very high in 
the community. 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH. 161 



CHARLES RUNETTE,-^/oM/w^, Hats, Caps,dc., 4304 & 4306 Butler St. 

Few establishments in the lower portion of the city, of a similar character, will surpass tliat of Mr. Runette, be- 
tween 43d and 44th Sts., on Butler. The business was founded in 187S by the present proprietor at No. 4o()l ; after si.K 
months e.xperience it was found necessary to increase his facilities and he secured the adjoining store at No. ISOG. He 
now occupies both rooms, and also the upper stories with a full and complete stock of fine clothinf;; of his own manu- 
facture, furnishing goods, hats, caps, Ac, employing about twenty hands and paying out a large amount of money 
weekly. The salesrooms aie each 22x62, and the value of his stock on hand is not less than $15,000. He also transacts 
a large merchant tailoring business. Mr. Runnette has been actively engaged in business since boyhood, having been 
educated to the dry goods business. His emporium of trade is an ornament and a credit to this portion of the city and 
will compare favorably with any similar establishment in the country. Mr. R. is a young gentleman of great energy, 
and very agreeable and popular manners, and his many customers visiting his establishment are treated in the most 
cordial manner. The higii natural business qualifications with which he is gifted have in the short period of time 
placed him in the very front rank of the leading bu.siness men of the city. 

The succes.sful prosecution of a business enterprise requires a high degree of ability and intelligence, when such is 
oomliined with a natural genius for business pursuits. The result will always be as it has been in the case of Mr. R. 
The knowing how, where and when to buy a stock of goods is an important element in any bu.siness. Mr. R. possess- 
ing this knowledge in an eminent degree enables him to give to his customers the benefit of bis abilities, and to furnish 
them goods at a greatly less price than other surrounding establishments, and this is one of the great reasons of his 
success. .Such men soon make for themselves a reputation worthy of record among the enterprising and successful 
men of the day. 

R. M. 'SUgCLiK'R.A.'N ,- Apothecary , Liberty Block, Penn Av., East End. 

The leading drug store of the Bast End is that of Dr. McClaran, located in Liberty Block on Penn Ave. It was 
established in 1865 by the present proprietor, and for fourteen years has sustained an enviable reputation for accuracy 
in compounding medicines and putting up jihysicians' prescriptions, and the purity and excellence of all articles dis- 
pensed. Commencing with a capital of ?1, 500, Dr. McClaran has now $5,000 invested in the business, a full line of 
pure Drugs and Chemicals, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Toilet Articles, Brushes and Fancy Cioods, etc., with the 
confidence of physicians and citizens of the East End. Dr. McClaran's annual sales will reach about $10,000. His 
store-room is 18x60 in size. Dr. McClaran was born in Blairsville, Indiana Co., Penn., in 1840, and came to this city 
about fifteen years ago. He finished his course of studies in 1859, and first engaged in business at the East End. He 
is a member of the city council from 19th ward. 

GEO. KENNGOTT,-7/w, Copper, Brass & Sheet Iron Ware, Hardware, &c. 

Brtwien SBth X: SGth Sin. 
Among the number of stores and successful businesses in this part of the city the Tin and Hardware of the upright 
gentleman, Geo. Kenngott, between 35th and 3fith sts., on Butler st., occupies a prominent position. Mr. Kenngott be- 
gan the business at his present place in 1862. He soon extended his business, and now carries a very large and varied 
stock of goods of all descriptions in his line, and he is able to supply his customers with any article called for at the 
most reasonable prices. The building, which is owned by Mr. K., is 21 feet front and 76 feet deep. This is one of the 
oldest establishments of the kind in this part of the city. During his 17 years of bu.siness life at this point he has 
succeeded in accumulating considerable means, and is liow the owner of a large amount of property. He was born in 
Wueriemberg, Germany, in 1836, and came to the United States in 1854. He learned and followed Tinning, working in 
different establishments until he embarked in business for himself, and in which he has been eminently successful. 



ROBERT M. JONES -/'o/Z^rw and Model Works. 882 to 888 Penn Av. 

The extensive Pattern and Model Works now located at 882 to 888 Penn Avenue, were established about twenty 
years ago by Mr. Jones; at first in a small way on Mechanic Street. From there he reniov(>d to the Atlas Works and 
from thence to liis present location in 1878, where be occupies two buildings, one 35x45 and one .30x30, filled with the 
best and most approved machinery for the manufacture of models of every description and patterns for castings, I'cc. 
He employs twelve skilled and experienced workmen, and supplies many of the large founderies, iron works and ma- 
chine shops of this city. Mr. Jones is a native of New York City, where he was born in 1821, but came to this city with 
bis parents when but two years of age. In 1836 his father died and since that time he has been the architect of his own 
fortune and may be cited as one of the self-made men of the Iron city. He originally worked at the trade of cabinet 
making but subsequently abandoned that Viusiness for his present occupation. He worked for a number of years as 
pattern maker at the Fort Pitt Works ; his present works reflect credit upon the business tact, ability and enter- 
prising spirit. 

AUG. SCFL'N'El'D'BB. -Boots, Shoes and Gaiters, Cor. 38th & Butler Sts. 

The store of Mr. Schneider fs located at the corner of 38th and Butler Sts., where he started in 1870. He now has 
a large and well stocked store and is doing a prosperous business, giving special attention to custom wi rk. Mr. 
Schneider was born in Bayonne, Europe, in 1845, came to the United States in 1865, having accumulated some capital 
engaged in his present business. 

G. B, 'BA.'RK.'ER -Grocer, Sharpsburg, Pa. 

This branch of business cannot be overlooked by any family. This is one of the leading houses of Sharpsburg. It 
is located at the corner of C^anal and Main Sts. Mr. G. B. Barker embarked in this trade here in 1869 with $3,000 capi- 
tal ; since then he has connected with it the news business, keeping all popular daily and weekly papers, periodicals 
and magazines, also a choice stock of groceries, provisions, &c., doing a business of about$4,000 per annum. He oc- 
cupies a two-story brick building 30x40 feet, known as the " Bee Hive. " He has been postmaster here for a number 
of years; born in England in 1825, came here in 1856. 

METZ & REIL,-/?rw^.s, Paints, Oils, etc., Etna, Pa. 

No house in Etna is more prominent in this business than thatof Messrs. Metz &. Reil, who a few years since started 
in business on their own account, investing about $1,500. Their store is in a one-story frame building 20x22, in which 
they carry a stock of al)0ut $2,000. F. M. Metz and J. .1. Reil are both young men, the former born in Wayne Co.. <)., 
in 18.54, aiid the latter in Sharpsl)urg, the same year. Taking no prominent part in politics they have industriously 
confined their energies lo building up their business with sure success. 

<!5 au 



162 INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



IRON CITY' T'LO'UR'M.IlJjS,-Whifmyre,Brungard(& Co., 38th St.&A. V.R.R. 

Tlie Iron City Flour Mills were established in 1S74 by the present proprietors, who removed to this city from 
Wooster, Ohio, where they had for four years previous been engaged in the same line of business. Their works at tlie 
corner of 3Sth st. and A. V. R. R. are fitted up with all tlie latest approved macliinery, and are as complete as any in 
the United States. Three large boilers and a 100-horse power engine furnish the motive power, and the mills have a 
capacity of 200 barrels per diem. The main building is 100x120 feet, and Vi hands are constantly employed, tlie monthly 
pay-roll averaging about S.")00. They manufacture a superior quality of Hour by a patent processs, and the reputation 
of 'their brands extends through AVestern Pennsylvania rmd Eastern Ohio, where their tiade is principally located. 
The linn carries a stock of about S(J0,000, and their anniuil sales reacli $150,000. Their flour is noted for its general ex- 
cellence, and meets with a ready sale. The members of the firm are gentlemen of experience in tlic business, and are 
active, energetic and thorouglily reliable business men. Their mills are a credit to the city, and deserve a prominent 
position among that class of manufactories in a review of the business interests of Pittsburgh. Mr. David Whitmyre 
was born in Lawrence Co., Pa., in 1830, from there went to Ohio, when a young man, being raised on a farm, on which 
he worked until about 25 years of age, wlicn he engaged in tlie milling business at Wooster, Oliio, afterwards removing 
to tliis citv. He is a gentleman of high character and i-espectability. He has charge of the mill as general manager. 
,Tno. Brungard, born in Ohio in 1S41, was also raised on a farm. He engaged in Mercantile business for six years at 
New ^^iddletown, Ohio, from there to Wooster in milling business, and from there to this city. He is the general 
buiiness financial manager of the mills. 

DR. JAMES RQ-BlSOm, -Butler St.. near 37th. 

The popularity, h'gh social position and exalted professional reputation of Dr. Robison has been won by years of 
devotion and close application to his professional duties, and patient attention to the suffering community. He was 
born near Morgantown, \V. Va., in 1811, received a literary education at Jetferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., being a 
class-mate of some of the eminent men of the day, as well as some who figured prominently in public life years ago. 
He graduated from Ohio Jledieal College in 1841, practiced medicine 3 vears in Fayette Co. this State, removing to 
Lawrenceville, a part of this city, in 1845, a few days prior to the great 'Pittsburgh fire, enthusiastically entering into 
the practice of his profession, to which he has continuously and laboriously devoted his closest attention to the present 
liiue, and still, though stricken with years and sutlering with disease yields to calls. He has been intimately asso- 
ciated with the growth and progress of the wards contiguous to the Allegheny Arsenal. He built his present hand.some 
residence on Butler st. in 1850. During the war lie was appointed Surgeon in the army, serving a number of months in 
the valley of Virginia. Was a volunteer Surgeon in the army of the Potomac after the battles of the seven days, and 
Malvern Hill rendering efficient service to the Government. For a period ot more than 10 years was acting assistant 
U. S. .Surgeon at Allegheny Arsenal, being relieved therefrom in 1876, at which time the office was discontinued. He 
was one the originators of the Metropolitan National Bank, and has served continuously in the directory of that insti- 
tution since its organization, and is a leading member of the Presbyterian Church. 

EAST END MARBLE WORKS -William B. Smith, 

JIi()hUind Av., iit-nr Penii Av . F^nst Iind. 

The East End Marble Works were established in March, 1879, by Mr. William B. Smith, the present proi>rietor, 
who is a thorough, practical marble cutter, having learned the trade with Mr. James B. Cooper of Perry Co., and 
mastered the business before starting for himself. He manufactures every description of Monuments, Tombs, Head- 
Stones, Furniture Tops, Tiles for Floors, Vestibules, &c. He makes a specialty of Mantle work and every description 
of Marble masonry. Mr. Smith was horn in Perry Co., Pa., Oct. 8, 1839, and came to Pittsburgh in 1871. His estab- 
lishment is located on Highland near Penn ave., offering strong inducements to those interested. 

WM. KING -Alderman and Police Magistrate. -Office. 4508 Butler St. 

Mr. King has served the city in his present capacity the four years past to the entire satisfaction of the people, 
who elected biiu to the position which he fills with honor. He was Deputy Mayor 2 years of this time, under the ad- 
ministraton of W.C. McCarthy, the predecessor loour present Mayor. Mr. King was "born in Carlisle, Pa., in 1839, com- 
ing to Pittsburgh in 1845, where he has resided eversiuce. He .served 3 years in the famous Hampton Battery, that 
went to the support of the government from this city during the war. He is a plasterer and stucco worker by trade, 
at which occupation he has continuously worked up to the time of his election to the position he now fills. He 
enjoys a high degree of popularity In his ward. 

H.'BIIATTIII -Groceries and Provisions, 43rd St., bet. 9th & Willow Sts. 

l\lr. Beattie's grocery store is located on 43rd st. between 9th and Willow sts., where he engaged in the business in 
1S78 ; having a good location and enjoying the patronage of the better class, he is doing a goodtrade. Mr. Beattie was 
born in Ireland, in 1828, came to the United States in iS44, and has worked continuously at his trade of iron moulding, 
working for the same establishment (Mitchell & Pennock, where he commenced), now" Mitchell, Stevenson A Co., all 
the time, until meeting with a serious accident, disabling him from fm'ther work, after which he engaged in his 
present business. 

J AS. P. GREGG, Jt -Fashionable Hatter, 135 Federal St., Allegheny. 

The well-known fashionable Hat House at No. 135 Federal street, Allegheny, was established about twenty-five 
years a,'o by Mr John Bogus, who was succeeded in ISfiO by the present proprietor, Mr. James P. Gregg, ,Tr. He "occu- 
pies the two-story brick building 12x80 feet, at the location above named with a fine stock of fashionable hats and caps, 
employing two assistants and transacting an annuul business ranging from $15,000 to $18,000. Mr. Gregg has enjoyed 
the reputation of being the leading hatter of Allegheny for nearly twentv vears. He was born in Allegheny iu )'843 
and has been a life-long resident of this city. He is at present a member"of" Council from the Second Ward. 



PETER 'H.U'BVCK-Butter and Eggs, 4312 Butler St. 

Located at 4312 Butler st., Mr. Hubuck keeps the best and freshest butter and eggs the marke